Khamul erwini Gates

Gates, M. W., 2008, Description of Khamul, gen. n. (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eurytomidae), with a hypothesis of its phylogenetic placement, Zootaxa 1898 (1), pp. 1-33: 27-29

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.1898.1.1


persistent identifier

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scientific name

Khamul erwini Gates

n. sp.

Khamul erwini Gates   , n. sp.

( Figs. 3, 6, 7 View FIGURES 2–9 , 13, 15 View FIGURES 10–17 , 19, 22, 23 View FIGURES 18–25 , 26, 33 View FIGURES 26–33 , 36–53 View FIGURES 36–43 View FIGURES 44–51 View FIGURES 52–59 , 69 View FIGURES 68–75 )

Etymology: erwini   (Latinized, noun) = genitive singular, masculine, named in honor of Terry Erwin for his groundbreaking canopy fogging efforts.

Diagnosis and identification: Tegula brownish, apical mandibular tooth as an equilateral triangular and curved, both characters are shared with other species of Khamul   except K. gothmogi   (black tegula) and K. lanceolatus   (linear mandibular tooth). Preorbital carina finely produced ventrally, not delimiting a reniform subocular fovea ( Fig. 43 View FIGURES 36–43 ); carina not produced as a triangular process between lateral ocellus and eye.

Description: Female holotype. Length 3.4 mm. Head, body, and coxae black. Scape black; pedicel black basally, dark brown apically; flagellum dark brown. Tegula pale brown. Pronotum brown on anterolateral panel. Legs and pretarsus brown, except extreme apices of femora, tibiae, and tarsomeres whitish. Wings lightly infuscate, darker anteriorly, wing veins brown.

Head. 1.4X as broad as high; 1.2X wider than pronotum; HTE:msp 2.07. POL 5.0X as long as OOL. Width of oral fossa 0.44X width of head. Preorbital carina of uniform width beneath eye, reniform subocular fovea absent, carina not produced as triangular tooth at vertex. Scape 3.33X as long as broad. Antennal segment relative measurements 35:7:1:30:23:20:20:21:19:30. Clava 2.31X as long as broad.

Mesosoma. Dorsal pronotum 1.84X as broad as long. Mesoscutal midlobe 1.27X as broad as long. Scutellum 0.72X as broad as long; broadly convex dorsally, scutellar boss present, subequal in dimensions to adjacent umbilicate puncta and surrounding border combined. Dorsellum disc composed of a central -shaped structure connected laterally to submedian carinae ( Fig. 46 View FIGURES 44–51 ). Propodeal median channel composed of transverse reniform punctae, channel bordered laterally by smaller punctae and irregular rugosity ( Fig. 46 View FIGURES 44–51 ). Relative measurements marginal:postmarginal:stigmal veins as 27:40:20; stigmal vein evenly arcuate ( Fig. 33 View FIGURES 26–33 ); infuscation not reaching disc margins.

Metasoma. Petiole 3.0X as broad as long in dorsal view; fine transverse carina anteriorly, protruberant laterally; bicarinate ventrally, defining triangular fovea, produced in lateral view ( Fig. 49 View FIGURES 44–51 ). Gastral terga measurements in dorsal view on median line as 16:20:38:34:20:6; syntergum not visible in dorsal view ( Fig. 42 View FIGURES 36–43 ).

Male. Similar to female except as follows: Funicle 5-segmented ( Figs. 50, 51 View FIGURES 44–51 ), inconspicuously pedicellate, each funicular with two whorls of setae and asymmetrically produced apically with circular carina, carina maximally produced lateroventrally ( Fig. 69 View FIGURES 68–75 ), thus each pedicel obscured; scape 2.92X as long as broad. Antennal segment relative measurements 35:6:1:33:31:29:28:23:47. Clava 4.27X as long as broad. Petiole reticulate dorsally, 1.53X as broad as long in dorsal view; carinate flange present anterodorsally; dorsal lateral carinae strong, incomplete anteriorly; dorsal median carina present in posterior 2/3; convex ventrally in lateral view ( Figs. 52, 53 View FIGURES 52–59 ). Gastral terga measurements in dorsal view on median line as 19:30:37:40:25:9, syntergum not visible in dorsal view.

Variation. Coloration on the femora of both sexes ranges from orange brown to brown to dark brownish black, with the apices grading from the predominant color basally through a brownish yellow to pale yellow or whitish. One male with median channel somewhat more well defined anteriorly, scutellum convex at boss, and stigmal vein straight.

Type material (19♀ 3♂; held in trust at USNM). Holotype ♀; ECUADOR: Orellana: Tiputini Biodiversity Station , 216m, 0037’55” S 76°08’39” W   , 8.ii.1999, Lot 2020, Trans. 3, T. Erwin et al. Canopy fogging bare leaves, some w/ bryophytic/lichenous coat; Restrictions Apply NMNH-DCB / EPN, Agreement 39   . Paratypes 18♀ 3♂ (all held in trust at USNM); same data as holotype, dates differing as follows   : 8.ii.1999, Lot 2028, Trans. 3 (2♀)   ; 8.ii.1999, Lot 2022, Trans. 3 (1♀)   ; 8.ii.1999, Lot 2021, Trans. 3 (2♀)   ; 8.ii.1999, Lot 2020, Trans. 3 (1♀ 1♂)   ; 8.ii.1999, Lot 2039, Trans. 4 (1♂)   ;, Lot 1820, Trans. 3 (1♀)   ; 5.ii.1999, Lot 2088, Trans. 9 (1♀ 1♂)   ; 5.ii.1999, Lot 2086, Trans. 9 (4♀)   ; 8.ii.1999, Lot 2024, Trans. 3 (1♀)   ; 5.ii.1999, Lot 2085, Trans. 3 (1♀)   ; 21.x.1998, Lot 1997, Trans. 10 (1♀)   ; 6.ii.1999, Lot 2066, Trans. 7 (1♀)   ; 5.ii.1999, Lot 2087, Trans. 9 (1♀)   ; 5.ii.1999, Lot 2088, Trans. 9 (1♀)   .

Discussion. The male included in the type series most closely matches the diagnostic characteristics of the females of the type series. Several additional specimens, of both sexes that are similar to K. erwini   are discussed below as variants and cannot be definitively placed at this time. These specimens sometimes originate from a different geographic area. The sample including the variant specimens may be insufficient to fully explore the morphological variation and to determine whether they are conspecific or represent distinct species. Additional material, especially reared, would provide the means to solve some of these issues.

Material examined. COSTA RICA: Puntarenas: R   . B. Carara, Est. Quebrada Bonita, 50m, iii.1994, R   . Guzmn, L_N_194500_469850, #2803; COSTA RICA INBIOCRI001752495 (1♀ INBio); Puntarenas: Res. Biol. Carara, Est. Carara , 200m, ii.1990, R   . Zuniga, L_N_195250_478700; COSTA RICA INBIOCRI000645008 (1♀ INBio); Puntarenas: Golfito, Sendero a Sirena , 100m, 05.v.2001, J. Azofiefa.Libre, L_S_276500_514200, #63265; INB0003333425 (♂), INB0003333429 (♂), INB0003333433 (♂), INB0003333427 (♀), (1♀ 3♂; INBio); Puntarenas: Est. Agujas , 300m, 9–25.ii.2001, J. Azofiefa.Libre, L_S_276750_526550, #62901; INB0003318596 (1♀ INBio); Heredia: La Selva Biol. Station , 3km S. Puerto Viejo, 10 26’N 84 01’W; 16.vii.1992, H. A. Hespenheide (1♀ USNM); Guanacaste: Arenales, W. side Volcán Cacao, 900m, xi–xii.1990 (1♀ MZCR); Puntarenas: Golfo Dulce, 24km W. Piedras Blancas, 200m, vi– viii.1989, P. Hanson (1♀ MZCR); Puntarenas: PN Corcovado, Est. Sirena, 50m, iv–viii.1989 (1♀ MZCR) GoogleMaps   .

The material from Costa Rica differs from nominate K. erwini   primarily by the presence of the humplike scutellum in lateral view. Other characters vary as in K. erwini   , namely the extent of the infuscation on the fore wing, coloration of the legs, and eye color ranging from pinkish to red. The specimen from Est. Carara has a disfigured metapleural/propodeal region with the left metapleuron stretched to the midline of the petiole, normally occupied by propodeum. The dorsellum is expanded posterolaterally, extended toward the petiole and contacting the expanded left metapleuron. The propodeum midline is offset by this and oriented at 45 toward the right metapleuron.

BRAZIL: Linhares, E. Santo, ix.72, ♂. Alvarenga (1♀ 2♂; labeled as Khamul   variant 1; CNCI). The female differs from K. erwini   by a brown flagellum (as in K. gothmogi   ), dense effaced reticulation on Gt1 (usually smooth in K. erwini   ), scutellum slightly convex in lateral view. The two males possess distinctly pedicellate funiculars (except F4) that lack the apicoventral angulate flanges subtending each pedicel apically (cf. Fig. 50 View FIGURES 44–51 ), the propodeum has a better developed median channel (cf. Fig. 54 View FIGURES 52–59 )   .

COLOMBIA: Amazonas: PNN Amacayacu, Matamata, 300m, San Martn, 323’01” N 70°06’01” W, 26.v–, A. Parente, #680 (1♂; labeled as Khamul   variant 2; USNM)   . Same as ♂, but 150m, 19–26.iii.2000, B. Amado, ♂.82 (1♀; labeled as Khamul   variant 2; IAVH)   . Same as for ♀, but 22–30.v.2000, B. Amado, #90 (1♀; labeled as Khamul   variant 2; IAVH)   . The male has a distinct median carina dorsally on the petiole and the claval segments are longer than in males of the type series. Females have the flagellum more brownish and the petiole is slightly longer than in the type material.

ECUADOR: Napo: Reserva Etnica Waorani, Transect Ent., 1km S. Okone Gare Camp, 0039’10” S 76°26’00” W, 220m, 2.vii.1995, T. Erwin et al. Canopy fogging, Lot # 1090, t6..10, terre firme forest; Restrictions Apply NMNH-DCB / EPN, Agreement 39 (1♂; labeled as Khamul   variant 3; held in trust at USNM). This male does not possess the apical asymmetrical expansion of the male paratype; further, its two claval segments are distinctly separated. The median channel of the propodeum is deep and well defined. The scutellum in lateral view is convex as opposed to flat. A second male is very similar to the variant 3 male but has the scutellar boss covering 2/3 the dorsal surface and the stigmal vein straight   .


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


Escuela Polytecnica Nacional


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


National Biodiversity Institute, Costa Rica


Museo de Zoologia


Canadian National Collection Insects


Instituto de Ivestigacion de los Recursos Biologicos Alexander von Humboldt