Ariadna Audouin, 1826,

Giroti, André Marsola & Brescovit, Antonio Domingos, 2018, The taxonomy of the American Ariadna Audouin (Araneae: Synspermiata: Segestriidae), Zootaxa 4400 (1), pp. 1-114: 12-13

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4400.1.1

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Ariadna Audouin, 1826


Genus Ariadna Audouin, 1826 

Ariadna Audouin, 1826: 109  . Type species by monotypy, Ariadna insidiatrix Audouin, 1826  .— World Spider Catalog (2018).

Pylarus Hentz, 1842: 225  . Type species, Pylarus bicolor Hentz, 1842  .— Beatty (1970: 458).— Emerton (1875: 20; 1876: 131, Syn.).

Macedonia Hogg, 1900: 85. Type species by monotypy, Macedonia burchelli Hogg, 1900.— Simon (1908: 380, Syn.).— Rainbow (1911: 136).

Segestriella Purcell, 1904: 165  . Type species by monotypy, Segestriella gryllotalpa Purcell, 1904  .— Beatty (1970: 454, Syn.).

Diagnosis. The American Ariadna  differ from the other Segestriidae  genera by the following characters: from Segestria  and Gippsicola  by the labium narrowed in its distal portion ( Fig. 3EView FIGURE 3), labrum well-developed, longer than the labium, and without dorsal median setae ( Figs 3FView FIGURE 3, 18BView FIGURE 18, 20BView FIGURE 20), presence of a lateral basal transverse ridge in the chelicerae ( Fig. 3CView FIGURE 3; Ramírez 2014: 40, fig. 18H) posterior eyes in a straight or slightly recurved line ( Figs 3A ‒BView FIGURE 3, 64CView FIGURE64), absence of tenent setae on the legs ( Figs 7View FIGURE 7, 12C ‒E, H ‒IView FIGURE 12), tarsus of the female palps with a group of five or more macrosetae ( Fig. 4FView FIGURE4), and posterior receptaculum with tubular invaginations ( Figs 10E ‒GView FIGURE 10, 11DView FIGURE 11); from Citharoceps  by the absence of the stridulatory apparatus ( Giroti and Brescovit 2015: 4, figs 1A ‒C, 2A ‒B), labiumsternum junction larger than the length of the endite-sternum junction ( Figs 3EView FIGURE 3, 18BView FIGURE 18), and females with an interpulmonary fold lacking a conspicuous median flap ( Fig. 9A ‒BView FIGURE 9).

Description. Coloration: Carapace color ranging from light orange to dark reddish tones ( Figs 14FView FIGURE14, 56AView FIGURE 56); eyes bounded by dark outlines ( Fig. 54AView FIGURE54); legs and palps colors ranging from light yellow to dark reddish tones ( Figs 17A ‒BView FIGURE17, 65A ‒BView FIGURE 65); abdomen color ranging from light gray with a conspicuous dark dorsal pattern ( Fig. 18A ‒BView FIGURE 18), to dark grey ( Fig. 64A ‒BView FIGURE64). Total length: 2.8‒20.25; carapace 1.38‒5.6 long, 1.02‒3.8 wide. Carapace: oblong, cephalic region narrower than thoracic region, posterior border straight or slightly concave ( Figs 14AView FIGURE14 31EView FIGURE31); sparsely distributed setae usually concentrated in its edge and in the cephalic region; thoracic fovea smooth/ inconspicuous with only a shallow depression for muscular insertion ( Fig. 3A ‒BView FIGURE 3). Eyes: six indirect eyes, anterior median eyes absent, lateral eyes arising from a single tubercle ( Fig. 3A ‒BView FIGURE 3). Chelicerae: conical, frontal surface flattened, wider basally in lateral view, usually projected forwardly in males; lateral basal transverse ridge prominent ( Fig. 3CView FIGURE 3); frontal basal longitudinal band of ridges and/or tubercles present, without insterstitial setae ( Fig. 3CView FIGURE 3); setae scattered distally on the paturon frontal and lateral region ( Figs 3CView FIGURE 3, 36GView FIGURE 36); cheliceral teeth composed by three promarginal and one retromarginal, all conical, and with ridged cuticle ( Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3, left inset); cheliceral gland with scattered pores ( Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3, right inset); posterior distal region with a depression, where the endites distal end fits ( Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3); fangs short, almost two times the diameter of the distal part of the paturon, shaft with an internal serrula ( Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3). Mouthparts: labrum well-developed, longer than the labium, without dorsal median setae ( Figs 3FView FIGURE 3, 18BView FIGURE 18, 19BView FIGURE19); endites spatulate, obliquely depressed, narrowed medianly ( Ramírez 2014: 60), and rounded proximally ( Fig. 3E ‒FView FIGURE 3), hyaline distal prolateral end bearing a setae tuft ( Figs 3E ‒FView FIGURE 3, 12GView FIGURE 12); setae tuft composed by cylindrical setae with one row of conical barbs ( Fig. 3FView FIGURE 3, inset); serrula with a single row of teeth ( Fig. 3FView FIGURE 3); labium longer than wider, narrowed in its distal portion, 2/3 of the length of the endite, separated from the sternum by a partially membranous suture ( Figs 3EView FIGURE 3, 38BView FIGURE38). Digestive system: labial plate with lateral transverse walls, slightly narrowed distally, labrum duct straight, connected to the esophagus through a short pharynx which leads to the sucking stomach ( Fig. 11A ‒BView FIGURE 11). Sternum: longer than wider, anterior region truncated, straight or slightly concave, not fused with the carapace or the pedicel ventral sclerite ( Fig. 36HView FIGURE 36). Male palp: tibiae basally swollen, longer than the cymbium ( Figs 4AView FIGURE4, 17BView FIGURE17), and with one or two dorsal trichobothria; cymbium forming a distal notch with the prolateral portion slightly longer than the retrolateral one, forming a distal notch ( Figs 4BView FIGURE4, 51BView FIGURE 51), sometimes bearing a dorsal chemosensory setae patch ( Figs 15AView FIGURE 15, 48AView FIGURE 48); bulb rounded or subrectangular, abruptly narrowed forming a mid-portion between the bulb and the embolus, the latter curved forwards ( Figs 4AView FIGURE4, 21A ‒BView FIGURE 21); spermatic duct with an internal porous stripe with one convolution inside the bulb ( Figs 4D ‒EView FIGURE4, 17A ‒BView FIGURE17; following Cooke 1966: 37; Cooke 1970: 143, 145), becoming narrow and hyaline between the mid-portion and embolus ( Fig. 5AView FIGURE 5, following Lipke et al. 2014); embolus tubular ( Fig. 4A ‒CView FIGURE4). Female palp: short and robust, with one articulated smooth claw at the tip, diaxially orientated ( Fig. 4GView FIGURE4), and scattered macrosetae on the prolateral region of the tarsi and tibiae (sometimes patellae) ( Fig. 4FView FIGURE4); tarsi surrounded almost entirely by tactile setae (interstitial chemosensory setae is also found), the ventral ones thickened, strongly serrated, and gradually decreasing in size in distal direction ( Fig. 4F ‒GView FIGURE4); tibia with one dorsal trichobothria. Legs: robust, prograde, with the third pair directed forward ( Figs 7A ‒CView FIGURE 7, 18F ‒IView FIGURE 18), usually with pairs I ‒II with more setae and macrosetae than pairs III ‒IV; metatarsi and tarsi IV with a ventral brush of thickened and serrated setae and metatarsi IV with a distal ventro-retrolateral preening comb of macrosetae ( Figs 5BView FIGURE 5, 7E ‒FView FIGURE 7); leg formula I-II-IV-III or II-I-IV-III; three tarsal claws, superior ones pectinated, and inferior one with only a small tooth ( Figs 6EView FIGURE6, 7C ‒DView FIGURE 7); tarsal organ exposed with edges, and usually two rimmed receptors ( Fig. 6E ‒FView FIGURE6; Platnick et al. 2012: figs 36‒45); trichobothria on the dorsal subdistal region of metatarsi I ‒IV, dorsal subproximal region of tibia I ‒IV; trichobothrial bases with a transverse ridge, and without a well-delimitation between proximal and distal plate ( Fig. 4BView FIGURE4, inset); tenent setae absent in all legs; males with a tarsal brush of putative chemosensory setae located in the ventral region ( Fig. 5BView FIGURE 5, following Foelix et al. 2010, figs 1‒2; Ramírez 2014: 125); male metatarsi I usually bearing projections, apophyses or modified macrosetae ( Fig. 6A ‒DView FIGURE6); female tibiae and metatarsi without ventral and dorsal macrosetae, only ventro-prolateral, ventro-retrolateral, and sometimes prolateral and retrolateral ( Fig. 7A ‒CView FIGURE 7); female tarsi I ‒II with ventro-prolateral lines of thickened tactile setae, interspersed with lines of chemosensory setae ( Fig. 7D, GView FIGURE 7). Abdomen: longer than wide, uniformly hairy, coated with short setae, and scattered long setae among them ( Fig. 16F ‒GView FIGURE 16); book lung cover weakly sclerotized, and ventral anterior sigillae distinct, with slit sensillae ( Fig. 22HView FIGURE 22); tracheal system dysderoidlike, with tracheoles spreading through the cephalothorax, including all the appendages, and the abdomen ( Figs 9AView FIGURE 9, 11A ‒CView FIGURE 11; Ramírez 2000: 153; Griswold et al. 2005: 39). Spinnerets: ALS with three segments, the basal segment crossed by a diagonal membranous stripe ( Fig. 8AView FIGURE 8), one MAP spigot with a prolateral field of about 15 strain sensillae, divided in two rounded and one canoe-shaped area ( Fig. 8D ‒EView FIGURE 8); PMS with one mAP and one AC spigot ( Fig. 8CView FIGURE 8); PLS usually with 3‒4 AC ( Fig. 8BView FIGURE 8); colulus distinct and pilose ( Fig. 8FView FIGURE 8). Female genitalia: external plate distinct and sclerotized ( Fig. 22HView FIGURE 22); internal genitalia composed by anterior receptaculum, uterus externus, interpulmonary fold, and posterior receptaculum ( Figs 9View FIGURE 9, 10View FIGURE 10, 11C ‒DView FIGURE 11, 33CView FIGURE33); anterior receptaculum usually billobulated, with a dorsal and a ventral lobe, both being dead-end structures, and a glandular ducts plate that fills the median space between the two lobes ( Figs 9BView FIGURE 9, 10A ‒BView FIGURE 10, 17C ‒DView FIGURE17); glandular ducts plate heavily sclerotized (i.e. anterior receptaculum most sclerotized region), composed by cuticular ducts with expanded bases that allows glandular cells to discharge secretion in the lumen of the anterior receptaculum through pores in its cuticle ( Figs 9B ‒DView FIGURE 9, 10A ‒BView FIGURE 10, 35C ‒DView FIGURE 35); interpulmonary fold with dorsal smooth curvature, with a median membranous crack (absent in A. araucana  and A. lalen  n. sp.) ( Fig. 9A ‒BView FIGURE 9); posterior receptaculum composed by a membranous sac that originates from the posterior wall of the bursa copulatrix, with pores connected with tubular invaginations that goes towards the lumen ( Figs 9A ‒CView FIGURE 9, 10C ‒GView FIGURE 10, 11C ‒DView FIGURE 11).


Prirodonamen Muzej Skopje












Ariadna Audouin, 1826

Giroti, André Marsola & Brescovit, Antonio Domingos 2018


Purcell 1904: 165

Segestriella gryllotalpa

Purcell 1904


Hentz 1842: 225

Pylarus bicolor

Hentz 1842


Audouin 1826: 109

Ariadna insidiatrix

Audouin 1826