Ariadna obscura ( Blackwall, 1858 ),

Giroti, André Marsola & Brescovit, Antonio Domingos, 2018, The taxonomy of the American Ariadna Audouin (Araneae: Synspermiata: Segestriidae), Zootaxa 4400 (1), pp. 1-114: 25-29

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Ariadna obscura ( Blackwall, 1858 )


Ariadna obscura ( Blackwall, 1858)  Figures 16‒17View FIGURE 16View FIGURE17, 71View FIGURE 71

Dysdera obscura Blackwall, 1858: 334  (Immature holotype from Pernambuco, Brazil, should be deposited in the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, Oxford, England, destroyed, according to Beatty (1970: 480)).— Blackwall (1861: 446).— Petrunkevitch (1911: 132).— Bonnet (1956: 1632).

Ariadora campinensis Mello-Leitão, 1916: 13 (♀ holotype from Campina Grande [07°13'50"S; 35°52'52"W], Paraíba, Brazil, T. Leitão leg., should be deposited in MNRJ 1471, lost).— Mello-Leitão (1947: 234, Syn.).— Bonnet (1955: 732).— Moreira et al. (2010: 61).

Ariadna gracilis Vellard, 1924: 160  , pl. 12, fig. 45 (♂ holotype from Caxias [04°51'32"S; 43°21'21"W], Maranhão, Brazil, should be deposited in Instituto Vital Brazil, lost).— Bonnet (1955: 732).— Beatty (1970: 479, figs 7, 28‒29, 33).— World Spider Catalog (2018).— NEW SYNONYMY.

Ariadna taperae Mello-Leitão, 1929: 93  (♀ holotype from Tapera ( currently : Moreno, Bonança) [09°25'38"S; 40°44'15"W], Pernambuco, Brazil, B. Pickel leg., deposited in MNRJ 41478View MaterialsGoogleMaps  ; Syntypes 1♂ 6♀ 3 immatures, same data from the holotype, deposited in MNRJ 1263View Materials; all examined).— Mello-Leitão (1947: 234, Syn.).GoogleMaps 

Ariadna conspersa Mello-Leitão, 1941: 256  (Immature holotype from Curitiba [25°25'47"S; 49°16'19"W], Paraná, Brazil, 10.I.1919, F. Lange de Morretes leg., deposited in MNRJ 14087, examined).— Beatty (1970: 483, as nomem dubium).— NEW SYNONYMY.

Ariadna obscura  — Mello-Leitão (1943: 233, Transf. from Dysdera  ; 1947: 234).— Beatty (1970: 480).— World Spider Catalog (2018).

Ariadna  taperana— Bonnet (1955: 737).

Synonymy. Beatty (1970) hypothesized the synonymy of A. obscura  and A. gracilis  due to morphological characteristics described by Blackwall (1858) and Vellard (1924), but did not confirm it due to the known distribution of both species, which despite of being recorded for the Brazillian northeast, also present records of A. gracilis  for the State of Amazonas and Peru. In the present study, a wider distribution of A. obscura  was found in comparison with the one presented by Beatty (1970), extending from east of Peru and center of State of Amazonas, to the south region of Brazil. Furthermore, after the examination of type specimens designated by Mello-Leitão (1929; 1947) and the original descriptions, it was observed that A. gracilis  can be considered a junior-synonym of A. obscura  , as well as A. taperae  and A. conspersa  , due to the macrosetae pattern of tibia I of females and the strong retrolateral apophysis in the metatarsi I of males, and also the same distribution area.

Additional material examined: BRAZIL: Amazonas State: Manaus [03°06'00"S; 60°01'48"W], Rio Tarumã- Mirim , 4♀ 5imm., 8.VIII ‒6.IX.1987, H. Höfer leg. ( SMNK 3093View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Tefé [03°21'14"S; 64°42'39"W], 1♂, 1919, H.O. Parrish leg. ( MCZ 46060View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Pará State: Without specific locality, Casa , 12♀, Olevia leg. ( NHM 949.20View Materials)  ; 10♀ 2imm. (NHM‒1307); Ilha de Marajó, Santo André [00°58'S; 49°34'W], 2♀, 14.IV.1912, Bluntschili leg. ( AMNH); Belém [01°27'21"S; 48°30'16"W], 5♀ 1imm., VII.1954, N.L.H. Krauss leg. ( AMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Piauí State: Castelo do Piauí [05°19'19"S; 41°33'10"W], 3♀ 1imm., 21‒23.VII.2012, L.S. Carvalho leg. (CHNFUPI 1586‒1589)GoogleMaps  ; Ceará State: Fortaleza, Bairro Benfica [03°44'36"S; 38°32'24"W], 1♂, 20.I.2008, S.C. Carvalho leg. ( MPEG 11628View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Fortaleza [03°47'08"S; 38°33'06"W], Campus of Universidade Estadual do Ceará , 3♀ 1imm., 13.IX.2012, A.M. Giroti leg. ( IBSP 165434View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Rio Grande do Norte State: Atol das Rocas [03°52'S; 33°49'W], 1♂ 2♀, 4.IX.1996, C.E. Almeida leg. ( IBSP 12053View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Paraíba State: Araruna, Parque Estadual Pedra da Boca , 228m (06°27'16.5''S; 35°40'45.5''W), 3♀, 1‒2. VI.2012, I.L.F. Magalhães & J.L. Chavari leg. ( IBSP 165436View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Soledade [07°02'11"S; 36°27'31"W], 1♀, 16.XI.1999, A.B. Kury & A. Giupponi leg. ( MNRJ 6863View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Juazeirinho, Planalto da Borborema [07°04'04"S; 36°34'40"W], 1♀, IX.1956, C. Gonçalves leg. ( MNRJ 6427View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Pernambuco State: without specific locality data, 3♀ (MACN-Ar 21367); Bom Jardim, proximidades da PE 0 90, 364m (07°50'03''S; 35°37'39.5''W), 2♀ 3imm., 29.V.2015, L.S. Carvalho leg. (CHNUFPI 1621); Buíque, Parque Nacional do Catimbau (08°28'46''S; 37°18'55.74''W), 1♀, 9.IV.2012, I.L.F. Magalhães et al. leg. ( UFMG 11122View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Tapera (currently: Moreno, Bonança) [09°25'38"S; 40°44'15"W], 1♂, B. Pickel leg. ( MNRJ 14239View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Bahia State: Mata de São João (12°31'49"S; 38°17'57"W), Fazenda Caramujipe , 1♂, 2006, C. Machado leg. ( IBSP 85421View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Salvador [12°58'16"S; 38°30'39"W], Barra , 1♀, IV.1992 ( IBSP 17596View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Salvador, 4♀ 1imm., VI.1954, N.L.H. Krauss leg. ( AMNH); Santa Brígida [09°47'17,3"S; 38°15'42,4"W], Povoado de Colônia, 342mGoogleMaps  , 1♀, 21.V.2012, I.L.F. Magalhães & J.L. Chavari leg. (IBSP 165435); Una [15°17'36"S; 39°04'31"W], Reserva Biológica do Una , 4♀, 13.IV.1998, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. ( IBSP 18283View Materials; 18318)GoogleMaps  ; Sergipe State: Laranjeiras [10°48'11"S; 37°10'10"W], Caverna Aventureiros , 1♀, 25.VII.2011, C. Donato et al. leg. ( IBSP 165437View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Laranjeiras, Gruta dos Orixás , 1♀, 12.XII.2010, C. Donato & P. Rocha leg. ( IBSP 165439View Materials)  ; 1♀1imm., 25.VII.2011, C. Donato et al. leg. (IBSP 165440); Laranjeiras, Pedra Furada, 1♀, 28.XI.2010, C. Donato et al. leg. (IBSP 165441); 1♀, 8.VI.2011, C. Donato et al. leg. (IBSP 165438); Espírito Santo State: Conceição da Barra [18°35'36"S; 39°43'56"W], Itaúnas , 1♀ 3imm., I.1999, C.A. Rheims leg. ( IBSP 20498View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; São Mateus [19°23'27"S; 40°04'19"W], Reserva Florestal do Vale do Rio Doce , 3♀, 19‒25.VII.1997, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. ( IBSP 13016View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Apiacá [21°09'14"S; 41°34'04"W], Fazenda Santa Maria , 1♀, 5.IX.1986, R.L.C. Baptista leg. ( MNRJ 6410View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 3♀, 5.X.1985, R.L.C. Baptista leg. (MNRJ 6414); Rio de Janeiro State: Bom Jesus de Itabapoana [21°08'02"S; 41°40'48"W], Chácara São Luís , 5♀, 6.X.1985, R.L.C. Baptista leg. ( MNRJ 6404View Materials; 6418)GoogleMaps  ; 1♂, 15.VII.1986 (MNRJ 6408); Mendes [22°36'31"S; 43°43'58"W], 3♀ ( MNRJ 1264View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Nova Iguaçu [22°45'37"S; 43°26'51"W], 2♂, Bianc leg. ( MNRJ 1279View Materials /2061); Pinheiral [22°30'46"S; 44°00'03"W], 3♂, Mello-Leitão leg. ( MNRJ 1271View Materials; 1272); Parati [23°13'21"S; 44°42'50"W], Centro , 1♂, 1.VI.1985, R.L.C. Baptista leg. ( MNRJ 6401View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; São Paulo State: São Sebastião, Ilha de Alcatrazes [24°06'S; 45°41'W], 2♀, 4‒6.VII.1998, M.E. Callefo leg. ( IBSP 19490View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Paraná State: Guaraqueçaba, Serra Negra [25°09'56"S; 48°25'59"W], 4♀ 4imm., A. Mayer leg. ( MNRJ 2058View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 9♀ 1imm., VIII.1946 (MHCI 3375‒3382); Santa Catarina State: Bombinhas [27°07'54"S; 48°31'40"W], ARIE Costeira de Zimbros , 2♀ 2imm., 2.VIII.2011, A. Chagas et al. leg. ( IBSP 165442View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1♀, A.L. Trivia & L. Malta leg. (IBSP 165443); Bombinhas , 1♂, 23.XII.1988, M.A.L. Marques leg. ( MCN 18135View Materials)  ; PERU: San Martín Region: Mishqui-Yacu, 1200 M.A. S.L., 20km NE Moyobamba [06°02'S; 76°58'W], 2♀, 16‒24.VIII.1947, F. Woytkowsky leg. ( AMNH).GoogleMaps 

Diagnosis. Ariadna obscura  is similar to A. tarsalis  , A. arthuri  , A. multispinosa  , A. reginae  n. sp. and A. aurea  n. sp. due to the morphology of the male metatarsi I ( Figs 16C ‒EView FIGURE 16, 32C ‒EView FIGURE 32, 38C ‒EView FIGURE38, 54C ‒EView FIGURE54, 56C ‒EView FIGURE 56) and macrosetae pattern of the tibiae I ‒II of females, but differ by the presence of males with metatarsi I with a strong ventroretrolateral apophysis bearing a slender macrosetae, and other prolateral shorter with a seed-shaped macrosetae (i.e. globous base with pointed tip) ( Fig. 16C ‒EView FIGURE 16); females differ by presenting a short dorsal lobe and an expanded ventral lobe and glandular ducts plate, both lobes not sinuous ( Fig. 17C ‒DView FIGURE17).

Description. Male ( IBSP 85421). Carapace and chelicerae orange ( Fig. 16AView FIGURE 16). Endites orange; labium dark orange. Sternum orange, with darker margins ( Fig. 16BView FIGURE 16). Palps light yellow ( Fig. 17A ‒BView FIGURE17). Legs orange, with pairs I ‒II darker. Femur, patellae and tibiae reddish. Tibia and metatarsus I ‒II with dark pigment forming diffuse distal rings ( Fig. 16C ‒EView FIGURE 16). Abdomen light grey, darker dorsally ( Fig. 16A ‒BView FIGURE 16). Total length 4.92; carapace 2.68 long, 1.84 wide. Chelicerae projected ( Fig. 16AView FIGURE 16). Palps: tibia slightly inflated, with the dorso-ventral diameter slightly larger than the bulb, bearing a slender prolateral macroseta; bulb small sub-rectangular, mid-portion and embolus of equal lengths; embolus tubular, curved and tapered ( Fig. 17A ‒BView FIGURE17). Legs: robust and sparsely coated with setae ( Fig. 16C ‒EView FIGURE 16); tibia I with the one distal ventro-retrolateral macrosetae lanceolated ( Fig. 16D ‒EView FIGURE 16); metatarsi I with a group of short distinct setae in the proximal retrolateral region ( Fig. 16DView FIGURE 16); tarsal brush of putative chemosensory setae present in legs I ‒IV, but reduced in pair I. Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. Leg measurements: I femur 3.32, patella 1.0, tibia 2.76, metatarsus 2.28, tarsus 1.04, total 10.4; II 2.96, 1.0, 2.64, 2.44, 0.8, 9.84; III 2.08, 0.84, 1.48, 1.56, 0.64, 6.6; IV 2.36, 1.0, 1.92, 1.72, 0.72, 7.72. Macrosetae: I femur D0-1-0-1-0-1-0-2/1-0, P0-0-0-0-0-1-0-1-0; tibia P1-1-0-1-0-1-0, vp1-0-0-1-0-1-0, vr1-1-3/1-1-1/0-1-0-1(lanceolated), r1-1-0-1-0-1-0; metatarsus P0-0-0-0-0- 1(seed-shaped/apophysis)-0, vp1-0-0-0-0-0-1, vr0-0-0-1(apophysis)-0-0-1 ( Fig. 16C ‒EView FIGURE 16); II femur D0-1-0-1-0-1-0- 2-0, P0-0-0-0-0-1-0-1-0; tibia P0-1-0-1-0-1-0, vp0-0-0-0-1-1-0, vr1/2-1-1-1-0-1-0, R1-1-0-1-0-1-0; metatarsus vp1-0-0-0-1-0-1, vr1-0-0-0-1-0-1, R0-1-0-0-0-0-0; IV metatarsal comb with 3-4 macrosetae.

Female ( IBSP 165434). Carapace and chelicerae brownish orange ( Fig. 16FView FIGURE 16). Endites, labium and sternum as in male ( Fig. 16GView FIGURE 16). Palps orange, with reddish tibia and tarsus. Legs orange, with pairs I ‒II darker. Tibia I and metatarsus I ‒II reddish. Dark pigment forming distal diffuse rings in tibia and metatarsus I ‒II ( Fig. 16H ‒IView FIGURE 16). Abdomen as in male ( Fig. 16F ‒GView FIGURE 16). Total length 8.32; carapace 3.73 long, 2.44 wide. Chelicerae not projected ( Fig. 16FView FIGURE 16). Legs: robust and cloated with setae; legs I ‒II with ventro-prolateral and ventro-retrolateral tibial macrosetae of similar size, and metatarsal macrosetae of different size ( Fig. 16H ‒IView FIGURE 16). Leg formula: I-II-IV-III. Leg measurements: I, femur 2.88, patella 1.24, tibia 2.52, metatarsus 2.2, tarsus 0.64, total 9.48; II, 2.56, 1.32, 2.32, 2.12, 0.6, 8.92; III, 2.16, 1.04, 1.56, 1.52, 0.64, 6.92; IV, 2.84, 1.36, 2.4, 1.76, 0.68, 9.04. Macrosetae: I, femur D0- 0-0-0-0-2-0, P0-0-0-1-2-1-0; tibia P0-1-0-1-0-1-0, vp1-1-1-1-1-1-0, vr1-1-1-1-0/1-1-1, R0-1-0-1-0-0-0; metatarsus vp1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1, vr1-1-1-1-1-1-0/1-1-1 ( Fig. 16H ‒IView FIGURE 16); II, femur D0-0-0-0-0-2-0, P0-0-0-1-0-0/1-0; tibia P0-1-0- 1-0-1-0, vp1-0/1-1-1-1-1-0/1-, vr1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1, R0-1-0-1-0-0-0; metatarsus vp1-1-1-1-1-1-1-1, vr1-1-1-1-1-1-1- 1; IV, metatarsal comb with 4 macrosetae. Internal genitalia: anterior receptaculum with short dorsal lobe ( Fig. 17C ‒DView FIGURE17).

Variation. Male (n=10): Total length 4.48‒6.24; carapace 2.64‒3.2 long, 1.84‒2.28 wide; femur I, 2.84‒3.52. Female (n=10): Total length 6.72‒9.84; carapace 3.44‒4.36 long, 2.44‒2.96 wide; femur I, 2.68‒3.2.

Distribution. Northern to Southern Brazil, and Peru (San Martín) ( Fig. 71View FIGURE 71).


Museum of Comparative Zoology


American Museum of Natural History


McNeese State University


Universit� di Perugia


Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo














Ariadna obscura ( Blackwall, 1858 )

Giroti, André Marsola & Brescovit, Antonio Domingos 2018

Ariadna conspersa Mello-Leitão, 1941 : 256

Mello-Leitao 1941: 256

Ariadna taperae Mello-Leitão, 1929 : 93

Mello-Leitao 1929: 93

Ariadna gracilis

Vellard 1924: 160

Dysdera obscura

Blackwall 1858: 334


Audouin 1826


Latreille 1804