Proctophyllodes pirangae Hernandes, 2017

Hernandes, Fabio Akashi, OConnor, Barry M., Bauchan, Gary R. & Ochoa, Ronald, 2017, A new species of Proctophyllodes Robin, 1868 (Acari: Proctophyllodidae) from two tanagers of the genus Piranga Vieillot (Passeriformes: Cardinalidae) from North America, Journal of Natural History 51 (41 - 42), pp. 2407-2416 : 2408-2414

publication ID 10.1080/00222933.2017.1381772

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scientific name

Proctophyllodes pirangae Hernandes


Proctophyllodes pirangae Hernandes and OConnor sp. nov.

( Figures 1–4 View Figure 1 View Figure 2 View Figure 3 View Figure 4 )

Type material

Holotype male, 12 male and 12 female paratypes ex Piranga olivacea (Gmelin) ( Passeriformes : Cardinalidae ), USA, Maryland, Prince George’ s Co., Beltsville, 30 April 2014, R. Ochoa coll.; Paratypes: 5 males, 5 females, ( BMOC 86–0828-001) ex P. olivacea ( UMMZ 224,850), USA: Michigan, Wayne Co., Plymouth, 42°20 ʹ N 83°32 ʹ W, 10 May 1988, C. Guregian; 4 males, 6 females ( BMOC 09–0803-001) ex P. olivacea ( UMMZ 241,920), USA: Michigan, Washtenaw Co., Ann Arbor, 42°17 ʹ 315 ʺ N 83°41 ʹ 10 ʹ 5 ʺ W, 16 May 2009, K. Luker; 1 male, 4 females ( BMOC 13–1101-001) ex P. olivacea ( UMMZ 243,318), USA: Michigan, Washtenaw Co., Ann Arbor, University of Michigan campus, 42°16 ʹ 27 ʺ N 83°44 ʹ 00 ʺ W, 24 May 2013, L. Hawkes; 5 males, 6 females, ( BMOC 09–1118-002) ex P. olivacea ( UMMZ 241,960), USA: Michigan, Washteanw Co., 5.25 mi SW Manchester, 42°05 ʹ 50 ʺ N 84° 06 ʹ 45 ʺ W, 12 May 2009, M. Bialecki.

Additional material

Three males, 2 females ( BMOC 07–0213-005) ex Piranga ludoviciana (Wilson) ( UMMZ 241,239), USA: Idaho, Ada Co., Boise area, no date, via Idaho Bird Observatory. Following specimens in collection of W. T. Atyeo, housed in UMMZ: 2 males, 2 females ( NU 1852) ex P. ludoviciana , USA: Texas, [Culberson Co.], Guadalupe Mountains, 27 April 1939, T.D. Burleigh; 2 males, 3 females ( NU 1853) ex P. ludoviciana , MEXICO: Oaxaca, [Papaloapan region, Tuxtapec district] 1 mi SW [San Juan Bautista] Valle Nacional [17°45 ʹ 39 ʺ N 96° 18 ʹ 56 ʺ W], 1 April 1961, L.C. Binford. Note: The latter two collections were formerly identified by Atyeo and Braasch (1966) as Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 .

Type deposition

Holotype and paratypes at USNM; paratypes at UMMZ and DZUnesp-RC .


Male. ( Figures 1 View Figure 1 , 3 View Figure 3 (a–d, f), 4(d, f, g)); holotype, range for 8 paratypes in parentheses). Idiosoma, length × width, 246 (228–250) × 127 (118–135); length of hysterosoma 149

(145–162). Prodorsal shield: setae vi absent, anterolateral extensions short, lateral margins entire, posterior margin sinuous, posterior angles truncate, greatest length 76 (64–77), greatest width 77 (67–80), surface without ornamentation. Distance between scapular setae se 53 (50–53). Scapular shields narrow. Humeral shields well-developed, not fused with epimerites III, setae c2 on anterior margins of humeral shields. Subhumeral setae c3 lanceolate, 16 (16–18) in length, 4 (4) in width. Hysteronotal shield: anterior margin slightly concave, anterior angles rounded, length 148 (141–154), width at anterior margin 83 (75–83), surface without ornamentation. Supranal concavity open terminally, its anterior end between levels of setae e2 and h1, length from anterior end to bases of setae ps1 26 (25–34). Posterior margin of opisthosoma between setae h2 almost straight. Terminal lamellae nearly circular, with inner margins slightly overlapping, with pennate venation; length 32 (29–44), greatest width 30 (26–37). Setae ps1 minute. Distances between hysteronotal setae: c2:d2 57 (53–64), d1:d2 27 (23–30), h1:h3 16 (12–15), h2:h2 53 (48–54), h3:h3 37 (34–37), ps2:ps2 64 (57–65).

Coxal apodemes I (epimerites) fused into a narrow U, without lateral extensions. Setae 4b and 3a situated at the same transverse level. Genital arch of moderate size, 29 (26–28) in length, 31 (25–31) in width, apex at posterior level of trochanters III, base situated at midlevel of trochanters IV. Aedeagus stylet-shaped, directed immediately backward from the genital arch apex, extending between levels of setae g and ps3, 43 (39–43) in length; genital sheath wedge-shaped, extending to apex of aedeagus, slightly attenuate apically ( Figures 1 View Figure 1 (b), 3(f)). Setae 4a situated at anterior level of the genital arch. Paragenital and pregenital apodemes absent. Bases of genital papillae connected. Opisthogastric shield H-shaped with anterior arms touching the tips of genital arch, anterior ends with small and acute extension, with two small lateral projections at level of setae ps3; greatest length of opisthogastric shields 42 (38–44), greatest width in anterior part 39 (34–39). Setae g and ps3 filiform, arranged in low trapezium, both setae on the opisthogastric shield, distances between these setae: g:g 10 (9–11), g:ps3 8 (7–9), and ps3:ps3 25 (24– 27). Adanal suckers cylindrical, 14 (17–21) in length, 8 (8–11) in width, corolla with 16–19 small teeth.

Femora II with narrow ventral crests. Tarsus IV 30 (27–31) in length, modified seta d at basal third of this segment, noticeably larger than modified seta e ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (d)). Genual solenidion σ III slightly closer to basal margin of segment ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (c)). Length of genual solenidia: σ1 I 29 (27–33) and σ III 11 (11–14). Length of tibial solenidion φ IV 35 (33–38).

Female. ( Figures 2 View Figure 2 , 3 View Figure 3 (e, g), 4(a–c); range, for 8 paratypes): Length of idiosoma 398–423, width 161–178, length of hysterosoma 278–303. Prodorsal shield: setae vi absent, anterolateral extensions acute, lateral margins entire, posterior margin sinuous, length 91–100, width 101–111, surface without ornamentation ( Figure 2 View Figure 2 (a)). Distance between scapular setae se 71–76. Scapular shields narrow. Humeral shields fused with epimerites III, encompassing bases of setae cp; setae c2 on anterior margins of these shields. Subhumeral setae c3 lanceolate, 20–26 in length, 5–6 in width. Lobar region of opisthosoma separated from remaining part of hysterosoma, hysteronotal shield split into anterior and lobar parts by narrow transverse furrow, but remains connected ventrolaterally by sclerotized bands. Anterior hysteronotal shield roughly rectangular, 210–225 in length, 92–100 in width, with anterior margin concave, posterior margin sinuous, surface without ornamentation except for a pair of pale sclerotized areas near posterolateral margins. Lobar shield entire, anterior margin concave, 73–80 in length, 93–102 in width. Supranal concavity absent. Opisthosomal lobes attenuate apically; terminal cleft narrowly U-shaped, 46–53 in length, 11–15 in width at level of setae ps1. Setae h1 on soft tegument between anterior hysteronotal and lobar shields. Setae ps1 on lateral margins of terminal cleft. Setae h2 with basal enlargement and with filiform apical part; setae h3 filiform, 69–84 in length, about ¾ the length of terminal appendages. Distance between dorsal setae: c2:d2 76–85, h2:h3 34–40, d1:d2 30–37, h1:h2 22–27, h2:ps1 19–25, h1:h1 26–32, h2:h2 76–84.

Coxal apodemes I shaped as in males. Epigynum short, bow-shaped, tips nearly extending to level of genital papillae, lateral extensions absent, length 32–38, width 64–76. Copulatory opening situated immediately posterior to anal opening and covered with posterior ends of anal flaps ( Figure 2 View Figure 2 (b)). Head of spermatheca simple, conical, secondary spermaducts short ( Figure 3 View Figure 3 (g)). Translobar apodemes wide, connected to each other anterior to terminal cleft. Setae ps2 situated at basal half of anal opening and widely separated from each other.

Femur II with ventral crest as in male, femur I without crest. Solenidion σ of genu III situated in basal part of segment. Length of genual solenidia: σ1 I 37–42 and σ III 14–18. Length of tibial solenidia φ IV: 25–29. Legs IV with ambulacral discs extending to level of setae h2.

Etymology. The species name is derived from the host genus and is a noun in the genitive case.


The new species belongs to the anthi species group ( Atyeo and Braasch 1966), which is characterized by having the following features: in males, genital organ not extending to level of setae ps3, the opisthogastric shield of each side broadly connected to the opposite member, and in contact with the genital arch; and both setae g and ps3 inserted on the opisthogastric shields. The new species is most similar to Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 , from Passerella iliaca (Merrem) ( Emberizidae ) (type host) and reported from many other passerine hosts, by having in males the genital organ extending beyond the tips of genital arch, genital sheath relatively thick (wedge-shaped), lamellae not exceeding 60 μm, and in females terminal cleft more than 40 μm in length, the lateral margins of the anterior hysteronotal shield normally sclerotized (not heavily dark), and supranal concavity absent. The new species differs from P. polyxenus by the following characteristics: in the male, the aedeagus and genital sheath extend to or slightly beyond the level of setae g, the anterior margin of the opisthogastric shield is shallowly concave, and its posterior margin is nearly squareshaped, and the lamellae are smaller (length × width 26–44 × 26–37). In females, the lobar cleft is considerably narrower, with length being about six times longer than the width, and the transverse band of soft tegument between the anterior and lobar shields is much narrower, occupying about half the opisthosomal width at level of setae h1. In males of P. polyxenus , the aedeagus does not reach the level of setae g, both the anterior and posterior margins of the opisthogastric shield are semicircular, and lamellae length × width is 58 × 42 (range 60 × 37 in 3 paratypes); in females of P. polyxenus , the terminal cleft is much wider, with length about 1.8 times the width, and the transverse furrow between the anterior hysteronotal and lobar shields occupies almost the entire width at level of setae h1, with these shields almost completely separated except for the lateral margins.

It is noteworthy to stress that the closest species P. polyxenus is unusual in host associations since it has been recorded on nearly 40 host species from five passerine families, including one species of the genus Piranga , P. ludoviciana (Wilson) ( Cardinalidae ), in addition to questionable records on three owl species ( Atyeo and Braasch 1966). Those authors, however, acknowledged that this species might eventually be redefined as a species complex in future.

The genus Piranga was traditionally classified with the tanagers, family Tanagridae ( Sclater 1886) or Thraupidae (AOU 1998) or Emberizidae , subfamily Thraupinae ( Howard and Moore 1984) . Dickinson (2003) regarded this genus as ‘ incertae sedis ’ along with some other tanager-like birds. Klicka et al. (2007) conducted a molecular phylogenetic analysis including Piranga and concluded that the genus belonged in the lineage treated as a tribe, Cardinalini, within an expanded concept of Emberizidae . Later workers have treated this lineage at the family rank, Cardinalidae (e.g. Bryson et al. 2013; Pulgarin-R et al. 2013). Eight species of Cardinalidae in this recent sense were known to harbour species of Proctophyllodes . These species, all described by Atyeo and Braasch (1966), have been placed in five different species groups ( Mironov 2012). Four of these mite species are known from a single host genus or species: P. lordocaulus (weigoldi group), from Caryothraustes poliogaster (Du Bus de Gisignies) , P. tricetratus ( tricetratus group), from Spiza americana (Gmelin) , P. habiae (weigoldi group) from Habia spp. , and P. pheuctici (pinnatus group) from Pheucticus spp. The other two, P. longiphyllus (caulifer group) and P. polyxenus (anthi group), are both known from Cardinalidae and also hosts belonging to other families. To the extent that the host phylogeny is correct and the Proctophyllodes species groups are monophyletic ( Klimov et al. 2017), this suggests extensive host shifts and colonization of different species of Cardinalidae rather than a long historical association of one lineage of Proctophyllodes and Cardinalidae .


Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile


University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology


Tavera, Department of Geology and Geophysics


Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History