Pauropsalta opaca Ewart, 1989
Owen, Christopher L. & Moulds, Max S., 2016, Systematics and Phylogeny of the Australian Cicada Genus Pauropsalta Goding and Froggatt, 1904 and Allied Genera (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini), Records of the Australian Museum 68 (4), pp. 117-200: 161-163
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|Pauropsalta opaca Ewart, 1989|
Fig. 27 View Figure 27 , Pl. 4
Pauropsalta opaca Ewart, 1989: 298 , 306–308, 369; Owen et al., 2015: 263, 272.
Material examined. QUEENSLAND: Holotype male, Bakerville , 11.xii.1972, J.H. Barrett, holotype T11150 View Materials , Pauropsalta opaca Ewart (QM) . Paratypes as follows: 1♂ (genitalia prep. PAU297), Irvinebank , W of Herberton, 29.xii.1982, G. Wood ; 1♂ (genitalia prep. PAU294), Walsh Bluff , 17 km NW of Atherton, 30.xi.1986, D.A. Lane ; 1♀, Clohesy R., 17.i.1974, A. & M. Walford-Huggins ; 1♂, Mareeba , 3.ii.1974, A. & M. Walford-Huggins ; 4♂♂ (one genitalia prep. PAU295), 2♀♀, Tinaroo Lakes , 20.xii.1981, J. Olive , 1♂, Tinaroo Creek Road, nr Mareeba , 21.i.1982, G. & A. Daniels ; 1♂, Tinaroo Dam, nr Atherton , 20.xii.1981, J. Olive ; 1♂ (genitalia prep. PAU296), 1♀, Station Creek , S of Mt. Carbine, 27.xi.1979, M.S.& B.J. Moulds ; 1♀, Davies Creek Falls,nr Mareeba , 21.i.1982, G. &A. Daniels ; 1♀, 10 km E of Davies Ck Nat Pk, nr Mareeba , 550 m, 10.i.1980, A. Hiller 2♂♂, Davies Ck nr Mareeba , 20.x.1995, R. Eastwood ( MSM) . Other material not paratypes: 8♂♂ (one genitalia prep. JH6), Herberton , 17°23.2'S 145°22.7'E, 943 m, 9.i.2004, Cooley, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Herberton , 11.xii.2007, M. Moulds & J. Olive ; 1♂, Herberton , 15.xii.1996, T. Woodger ; 1♂, 8 km E of Mt Garnet , 12.i.1990, D.A. Lane ; 1♂, 8 km E of Emuford , 30.xii.1989; M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 6♂♂, 1♀, 15 km W of Mount Molloy , 16°36.9'S 145°13.2'E, 10.i.2004, Cooley, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 2♀♀, 15 km NW of Mount Molloy , 26.xii.1987, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 1♀, Rifle Ck xing, Mount Molloy , 394 m, 16°40'S 145°19.6'E, 12.i.2004, Cooley, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Tinaroo Falls Dam, near Atherton , 5.xi.1987, D.A. Lane ; 7♂♂ (two genitalia preps. JH4 & JH5; two molecular vouchers 04.QLD.DED.13 and 08.AU.QL.DED.01; GenBank accessions: KM377196, KM377376, KM377522, KM668266), approx. 10 km S of Mt Garnet, 17°44.6'S 145°01.7'E, 7.i.2004, Cooley, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( MSM) GoogleMaps .
The paratype male from Walshs Pyramid near Gordonvale is not this species, but a specimen of P. ewarti described above.
Distribution ( Fig. 27 View Figure 27 ). Confined to a small area of northeastern Queensland where it is found in the dryer parts of the Atherton Tablelands and adjoining districts. The most northern record is from Station Creek about midway between Mount Molloy and Mount Carbine. It is occurs as far south as the Mount Garnet district and inland to Irvinebank and nearby Emuford.There are records from mid October to early February but it appears to be most common during the latter half a December and January.
Habitat. Dry open eucalypt forest where adults prefer the upper branches of trees of medium height.
The description of Ewart (1989) is based on a mixed series of true opaca and at least one, or perhaps two, very similar undescribed species. We therefore re-describe opaca and provide distinguishing characters.
Male (Pl. 4). Head wider than lateral margins of pronotal collar but narrower than lateral angles; dominantly black with yellowish brown spot at posterior midline. Postclypeus black with yellowish brown markings; usually a partly yellowish brown dorsally; a yellowish brown mark on midline around most anterior portion; lateral, and usually posterior, margins yellowish brown; transverse ridges and central groove distinct. Anteclypeus black. Rostrum black, tending brown proximally, reaching to or beyond apices of hind coxae. Antennae brown. Supra-antennal plates black, edged yellowish brown along anterior margin to varying degrees.
Thorax. Pronotum black with yellowish brown and reddish brown markings; anterior margin yellowish brown to varying degrees; fascia along midline yellowish brown, usually extending from or near head towards or almost to pronotal collar; a yellowish brown marking on either side of midline dorsally, abutting and/or on anterior margin of pronotal collar; interior with reddish brown patches to varying degrees; lateral angles sometimes black to varying degrees; lateral margin not, or barely, ampliate. Mesonotum primarily black with yellowish brown or reddish brown markings; usually a yellowish brown or reddish brown marking on either side from, or near, anterior arms or the cruciform elevation to, or almost to, pronotum between lateral and submedian sigilla, this marking projecting inwards to varying degrees around its mid length sometimes meeting and sometimes extending along midline, and sometimes surrounding scutal depressions; a reddish brown marking along lateral sides; cruciform elevation yellowish brown and black, sometimes muddy brown, anterior arms usually yellowish brown, posterior arms usually brown, sometimes proximally black, black between anterior and posterior arms, often a black fascia down midline. Metanotum black at hind wing base, remainder reddish brown, sometimes black at dorsal midline.
Legs. Fore legs mostly black but with a brown to reddish brown fascia to varying degrees along anterior and exterior length of femora, sometimes a brownish red fascia along lateral interior of femora; femora with spines black; sometimes tarsi with a yellowish brown patch; pretarsal claws yellowish brown tending black distally. Mid and hind legs mostly black or brown tending dark brown; coxae with proximal margin edged brown; yellowish brown fascia along anterior, interior, exterior length of femora; tibiae and tarsi brown tending black distally. Meracanthus black with outer lateral margin and apex pale yellow.
Wings. Hyaline. Fore wing with fused stem of veins M and CuA not complete, the veins abutted rather than fused as one; venation brown; inconspicuous infuscation distally on clavus; basal membrane muddy brown. Hind wing with 5 apical cells; venation brown except for pale yellowish brown 2A and 3A; plaga muddy white to brown; black infuscation on wing margin at distal end of vein 2A.
Opercula. For the most part not reaching distal margin of tympanal cavity; widely separated; a low rounded swelling of epimeron 3; black, usually tending yellowish brown on distal half.
Timbals with four long ribs spanning the width of timbal membrane and one much shorter anterior rib terminating before lower end of adjacent intercalary rib.
Abdomen. Tending triangular in cross section with epipleurites reflexed inwards from junction with tergites. Tergites black with reddish brown and yellow markings. Tergite 1 black; tergites 2–8 black with posterior margin reddish brown to varying degrees, sometimes a reddish brown spot adjacent to posterior margin on dorsal midline, extreme posterior margin usually narrowly edged orange, sometimes anterior margin edged reddish brown and sometimes heaviest on lateral sides. Sternite I brownish black with muddy yellow dorsally; sternites II mostly black or nearly so; sternites III–VII orange, sometimes with posterior margin yellowish orange to varying degrees; sternite VIII yellowish brown.
Genitalia ( Fig. 27 View Figure 27 ). Pygofer upper lobe narrow and long, in lateral view gradually tapering to a rounded apex. Basal pygofer lobe tending flat, barely discernible in lateral view, distally broadly rounded in ventral view, not turned inwards. Secondary basal pygofer lobe small, barely developed, tending linear in ventral view. Median lobe of uncus gradually tapering to a nearly flat apex. Claspers clawlike, flattened and narrow in dorsal view, distally slightly diverging, concave below. Aedeagus with pseudoparameres inconspicuous, translucent, hair-like, lying adjacent to dorsal surface of endotheca, arising at about the base of endotheca and terminating at about a quarter its length. Endotheca long, parallel sided, circular in cross-section; apex with a single lateral projection on each side and a ventral project, dorsal side sloping backwards much more than ventral side.
Female (Pl. 4). Similar to male. Abdominal segment 9 dark brown, with a black fascia on each side of midline extending distally from the anterior margin but not reaching posterior margin; Ovipositor sheath extending some 2.0– 2.5 mm beyond apex of abdomen; dark brown to black.
Measurements. Range and mean (in mm) for 10♂♂ and 10♀♀; includes smallest and largest of available specimens. Length of body: male 19.3–23.0 (21.5); female 22.5–27.2 (24.4). Length of fore wing: male 23.0–28.5 (26.4); female 26.0–29.0 (27.4). Width of fore wing: male 7.7–9.5 (8.9); female 8.6–9.7 (9.3). Ratio length/width of fore wing: male 2.9–3.1 (3.0); female 2.8–3.0 (2.9). Width of head (including eyes): male 6.0–6.8 (6.4); female 6.6–7.0 (6.8). Width of pronotum (across lateral angles): male 6.5–7.8 (7.3); female 7.0–8.0 (7.6).
Distinguished from most other species of Pauropsalta in having the stems of fore wing veins M and CuA closely abutted rather than fused as one. Amongst those species with abutted veins care should be taken not to confuse this species with Pau. ewarti or Pau. herveyensis . Distinguished from Pau. ewarti by the length of the rostrum; that of opaca reaches or almost reaches the apices of the hind coxae while that of Pau. ewarti barely reaches the bases of the hind coxae. Distinguished from herveyensis in having much of the inner pronotum pigmented with dark reddish brown patches whereas that of Pau. herveyensis is entirely black.
Male genitalia are unique in having an aedeagus with a pair of pseudoparameres situated laterally near the base of the endotheca that are very small, short, hair-like, barely discernible, and a tubular endotheca that terminates in a small down-turned “beak” and a pair of lateral “ears”.
Song ( Fig. 27 View Figure 27 ). The song is composed of phrases with clicks and a single echeme. Clicks occur continuously for c. 6 s and this is followed by an echeme. The echeme is usually c. 7 s in length. The song ranges in frequency from 4–16 kHz with the dominant frequency occurring between 4 kHz and 12 kHz.
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