Pauropsalta adelphe, Owen & Moulds, 2016
Owen, Christopher L. & Moulds, Max S., 2016, Systematics and Phylogeny of the Australian Cicada Genus Pauropsalta Goding and Froggatt, 1904 and Allied Genera (Hemiptera: Cicadidae: Cicadettini), Records of the Australian Museum 68 (4), pp. 117-200: 134-136
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Pauropsalta adelphe n.sp.
Fig. 12 View Figure 12 ; Pl. 2
Pauropsalta adelphe Owen et al., 2015: 260 , nomen nudum.
Types. Holotype male (molecular voucher 04.AU.NT.KWW.11), genitalia prep. PU222), 30 km W [SW] of Katherine , Northern Territory, 163 m, 14°40.8'S 132°05.1'E, 24.i.2004, Cooley, Hill, Marshall, Moulds ( NTM) GoogleMaps . Paratypes — NORTHERN TERRITORY: 1♂, 20 mi [miles] NE [of] Oenpelli [12°20'S 133°03E], Oct.1910 , W.Omer-Cooper ( AM) GoogleMaps . 1♀, 30 km W of Katherine , 14°40'42"S 132°05'17"E, 24.i.2004, J. Olive ( JO) GoogleMaps . 3♂♂ (one molecular voucher 04.AU.NT.KWW.05; GenBank accessions: KM377375, KM377449, KM668296) (one genitalia prep. PAU 222), 30 km W [SW] of Katherine , 163 m, 14°40.8'S 132°05.1'E, 24.i.2004, Cooley, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Howard Springs, nr Darwin , 29.xii.1986, M.S. & B.J. Moulds ; 1♂ (genitalia prep. PAU 280), Berry Springs , 29.x.1993, G. Husband ( MSM) . 3♂♂ (genitalia prep. PAU 222), 30 km W [SW] of Katherine , 163 m, 14°40.8'S 132°05.1'E, 24.i.2004, Cooley, Hill, Marshall, Moulds GoogleMaps ; 1♂ (molecular voucher 11.AU.NT.MIK.08), Yurmikmik trailhead area/parking lot on road to Gunlom Falls area, Kakadu National Park ,c. 4 km W of South Alligator River, 82 m, 13°518'S 132°452'E, 12.i.2011, K. Hill, D. Marshall ( NTM) . 3♂♂, 1♀, Mary River NP ( Proposed ), 12°53.496'S 131°38.311'E, 28.xi.2008, L. Popple, D. Emery, 700-0001 to 700-0004 GoogleMaps ; 4♂♂, Leaning Tree Lagoon , 12°42.459'S 131°25.206'E, 28.xi.2008, L. Popple, D. Emery, 700-0005 to 700-0008 GoogleMaps ; 5♂♂, Pine Creek (lookout), 13°50'S 131° 50'E, 27–28.xi.2008, L. Popple, D. Emery, 700-0009 to 700-0013 ( LP) GoogleMaps .
Distribution ( Fig. 12 View Figure 12 ). Top End of the Northern Territory where there are records from Howard Springs and Berry Springs near Darwin, Oenpelli on the western edge of Arnhem Land, Mary River National Park, Pine Creek and 30 km southwest of Katherine. Usually an uncommon species but sometimes locally common.Adults have been taken from late October to late January. Adults are active and difficult to approach.
Habitat. Open eucalypt woodland where adults rest on tree trunks and limbs.
Male (Pl. 2). Head a little wider than width of lateral margins of pronotal collar, about as wide or narrower than lateral margins of pronotum; dominantly black. Postclypeus black and orange brown; dorsal surface orange brown in central region; ventral surface with a broad black fascia centered on midline, never reaching lateral extremities; transverse ridges distinct, central groove indistinct. Anteclypeus dark brown. Rostrum pale brown with a black apex, reaching to apices of hind coxae. Antennae brown to dark brown. Supra-antennal plates orange brown.
Thorax. Pronotum orange brown with black markings; a black fascia on either side of midline, not always continuous, extending from the head and meeting at the pronotal collar, widest near head and pronotal collar; black fascia along paramedian fissure, diverging at posterior end to become parallel to midline; lateral fissure black; lateral edge of pronotum black; pronotal collar between lateral angles dominantly pale brown; lateral margins of pronotal collar mostly black, narrowly edged orange brown, not ampliate, some specimens with a small rounded tooth at margin that is indistinct or missing in others. Mesonotum orange brown with black to dark brown markings; submedian sigilla black to dark brown with margins sometimes edged reddish brown; lateral sigilla black to dark brown fading to reddish brown in parts; sometimes a black fascia on either side of midline, with anterior end starting at the center of the mesonotum and extending to, or towards, anterior arms of cruciform elevation; brown to dark brown fascia extending from centre of mesonotum, along midline to cruciform elevation; black or dark brown marking on anterior lateral margin of mesonotum; scutal depressions marked as black spots; lower ridge of wing groove orange brown; cruciform elevation orange brown with black fascia along midline joining with fascia along midline of mesonotum. Metanotum dark brown at hind wing base, remainder orange brown.
Legs. Fore legs mostly orange brown to dark brown; thin dark brown band outlining proximal edge of coxa; femora mostly dark brown; distal end of tarsi and pretarsal claws dark brown, almost black. Mid and hind legs orange brown to dark brown; dark brown outline on the proximal edge of coxa; femora dark brown; tibiae dark brown tending orange brown on distal half; distal end of tarsi and pretarsal claws dark brown, almost black. Meracanthus dark brown to black near base with a brown distal half.
Wings. Hyaline. Fore wing with fused stem of veins M and CuA not complete, the veins abutted rather than fused as one; venation dark brown; without infuscations; basal membrane grey to black, sometimes with hints of brown. Hind wing with 5 apical cells; venation brown; blackish infuscation along 2A and on wing margin at distal end of vein 2A; plaga grey.
Opercula. Small, not reaching distal margin of tympanal cavity; widely separated; a low rounded swelling on epimeron 3; dark brown to black on epimeron 3, otherwise orange brown.
Timbals with the ribs not heavily sclerotized; four long ribs spanning the width of timbal membrane and a much shorter anterior long rib terminating before lower end of adjacent intercalary rib.
Abdomen. Tending round in cross section with epipleurites not reflexed inwards but following curvature of abdomen; orange brown to dark brown. Tergite 1 dark brown tending black; tergite 2 dark brown tending black, primarily on anterior lateral half; tergites 3–7 orange brown with posterior edged light brown; tergite 8 usually brown rather than orange brown. Sternites I–VIII orange brown.
Genitalia ( Fig. 12 View Figure 12 ). Pygofer upper lobe long, in lateral view almost tear-drop in shape, very wide and rounded at base, thereafter narrowing to a narrow rounded apex. Basal pygofer lobe small, in lateral view broadly rounded. Median lobe of uncus wider than long, slightly bi-lobed at apex, the branches broad and rounded. Claspers claw-like, concave below, of medium width in dorsal profile. Aedeagus with pseudoparameres a little longer than endotheca, slender, flattened in cross section with distal portion gradually tapering to a point, in lateral view aligned with endotheca tube, in dorsal view parallel to each other but distally gradually diverging outwards by about 30°; endotheca nearly parallel sided, circular in cross-section, apex in cross section key-hole shaped, in lateral view distal portion of endotheca expanding towards apex, apex in lateral view sloping forwards dorsally, sloping backwards much more so ventrally.
Female (Pl. 2). Similar to male. Abdominal segment 9 yellowish brown, with a black or dark brown fascia on either side of midline extending distally from the anterior margin but not reaching posterior margin. Caudal beak very small, barely discernable. Ovipositor sheath extending 2.0 mm
beyond apex of abdomen; dark brown to black.
Measurements. Range and mean (in mm) for 10♂♂ and 1♀; includes smallest and largest of available specimens. Length of body: male 22.4–25.6 (23.9); female 22.0. Length of fore wing: male 28.8–31.3 (29.8); female 28.1. Width of fore wing: male 8.6–9.9 (9.2); female 8.4. Ratio length/width of fore wing: male 3.1–3.4 (3.2); female 3.3. Width of head (including eyes): male 6.9–7.4 (7.1); female 6.8. Width of pronotum (across lateral angles): male 7.4–8.2 (7.9); female 7.4.
Distinguished from most other species of the Pauropsalta group of genera (i.e. those genera with species bearing an infuscation at the distal end of hind wing vein 2A) by the following combination of characters. Fore wing veins M and CuA with their stems closely abutted but not fused as one (view under magnification), a fore wing length longer than 27 mm, and a pronotum with a background that is dominantly brown rather than black.
Pauropsalta adelphe is most similar to Pau. agasta . While their distributions appear to be separate ( Pau. adelphe from the central part of the Top End of the Northern Territory, Pau. agasta from the far west of the Top End) there is little to distinguish the two species. As a general rule Pau. adelphe differs from Pau. agasta in having the markings on the mesonotum black rather than brown, but examination of the male genitalia is required for positive identification.
Song ( Fig. 12 View Figure 12 ). The song is composed of a series of echemes all at a length equal to or less than 1 s. The echemes have been recorded at a rate slightly above 1 echeme per second. The majority of the echemes fall within the frequency of 2 kHz and 16 kHz.
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