Buffington, Matthew L., Forshage, Mattias, Liljeblad, Johan, Tang, Chang-Ti & Noort, Simon van, 2020, World Cynipoidea (Hymenoptera): A Key to Higher- Level Groups, Insect Systematics and Diversity 4 (4), No. 1, pp. 1-69 : 36

publication ID 10.1093/isd/ixaa003

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Cynipidae : Cynipinae

Note: Most commonly in recent years, authorship of family-group names based on Cynips has been quoted from Latreille (1802). However, Alonso-Zarazaga and Nieves-Aldrey (2002) corrected the authorship of the family since Latreille did not include any actual cynipids in his family, and the name was not made available until later, making ‘Billberg, 1820’ the correct authorship.

The current classification of the Cynipidae places all extant forms in a single subfamily, with the majority of species falling into one of four tribes: the oak gallers ( Cynipini ), the herb gallers ( Aylacini ), the rose gallers ( Diplolepidini ), and the inquilines ( Synergini ). Ceroptres , previously classified within Synergini , have recently been placed into their own tribe, the Ceroptresini . Diastrophus , gallers on rosaceous herbs, were previously classified within Aylacini , are now in their own tribe, Diastrophini , which includes some inquiline genera. Many herb galling genera, previously classified within Aylacini , have been moved to Aulacideini and Phanacidini . Rarer tribes include the Pediaspidini (maple gallers), and the Eschatocerini (gallers of Acacia and Prosopis in the Fabaceae ). Lastly, two additional rare tribes have been recently described based on morphologically divergent forms from the Southern Hemisphere: Qwaqwaiini , including a single gall inducer on Scolopia ( Salicaceae ) in South Africa, and Paraulacini , including two genera ( Paraulax and Cecinothofagus ) of inquilines (or possibly parasitoids) in chalcidoid galls on Nothofagus ( Nothofagaceae ) in southern South America ( Chile).

Nieves-Aldrey (2001) provides an overview of the Iberian fauna and provides keys to tribes. Ronquist et al. (2015) established several new tribes and provided an illustrated key. Pujade-Villar (2019) follows the same classification of Ronquist et al. (2015) and provides an alternative identification key. Unlike many other insect groups, cynipids can also be readily identified by the gall left behind after the adult wasp has emerged. Weld (1957, 1959, 1960a) pioneered this form of identification, and summarized what was known about gall morphology and host plant records in series of privately printed pamphlets. In addition, Weld’s own collection of galls are located at the USNM and have undergone recuration recently. More recently, Russo (2006) has updated much of Weld’s work, and includes not only color images of galls, but also covers other galling insects of North America. Further, Coulianos and Holmåsen (1991) provide an overview of galls in Scandavia.