Craspedochaeta pleuralis ( Williston, 1896 ), Lonsdale & Marshall, 2006

Lonsdale, Owen & Marshall, Stephen A., 2006, Revision of the New World species of Craspedochaeta (Diptera: Clusiidae), Zootaxa 1291 (1), pp. 1-101: 44-47

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.1291.1.1

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Craspedochaeta pleuralis ( Williston, 1896 )


Craspedochaeta pleuralis ( Williston, 1896)   comb.nov

( Figs. 8 View FIGURES 7–9 , 21 View FIGURES 10–23 , 24 View FIGURES 24–26 , 57, 58 View FIGURES 53–58 , 64 View FIGURES 61–66 , 67 View FIGURES 67–70 , Map 8)

Heteroneura pleuralis Williston, 1896: 387   . Czerny, 1903: 102.

Sobarocephala pleuralis, Melander & Argo, 1924: 45–46   .

Redescription ( Figs. 8 View FIGURES 7–9 , 21 View FIGURES 10–23 , 24 View FIGURES 24–26 )

Body length 3.1–3.3 mm. Bristles light brown to yellow (including bristles on basal section of costa). Acrostichal bristle present. Notum yellow with distinct to irregular cruciate pattern; pattern occasionally faded or absent centrally; holotype with postpronotum brown anteriorly. Scutellum and laterotergites brown. Pleuron white to light yellow with vertical brown stripe in posterodorsal corner of anepisternum. Legs white to light yellow. Head yellow to light yellow with frons light brown to orange posteriorly, ocellar spot brown and back of head with one pair of brown stripes; face sometimes light brown on lower half (holotype with face yellow); gena and parafacial white and silvery tomentose. Abdomen predominantly dark brown with tergite 1 yellow and with cerci and surstylus white. Wing lightly infuscated along distal ¼ of R and R (darkest along R 2+3), distance between crossveins distinctly greater than length of posterior cross­vein.




Externally as described for male except as follows: anterior half of tergite 2 yellow; anterior corners of tergites 3 and 4 yellow; terminalia yellow.

Male terminalia ( Figs. 57, 58 View FIGURES 53–58 , 64 View FIGURES 61–66 )

Annulus well developed. Epandrium slightly higher than wide; height ¾ length. Cerci large and plate­like, as long as epandrium and shallowly emarginate. Surstylus smooth, relatively long (compared to others with cruciate pattern), and strongly curved posteriorly. Pregonite with one long and numerous minute bristles; anterodistal margin with rounded protuberance. Phallapodeme small and triangular with apex curled backwards. Basiphallus elongate (slightly less than length of hypandrial arm). Distiphallus small and pointed; subequal in length to phallapodeme. Ejaculatory apodeme small with “stem” shorter than width of “cap” (cf. fig. 59).

Female terminalia ( Fig. 67 View FIGURES 67–70 )

Spermatheca subcylindrical with distal 1/3 strongly tapered (“jalapeno­shaped”). Spermathecal duct thin and 1/3 length of spermatheca. Ventral receptacle ovate and poorly sclerotized. Subterminal flagellum very thin, approximately four and a half times length of ventral receptacle and slightly swollen distally with apex pointed.

Distribution: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Costa Rica, Cuba, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Mexico, Panama, Peru, Puerto Rico, St. Vincent, Trinidad, Venezuela (Map 8).

Holotype: ST. VINCENT. W.I., Leeward side, H.H. Smith (1♂, BMNH).  

Additional material examined: 257♀♀ 268♂♂ [ CNCI, DEBU, EMUS, INBC, INPA, IZAV, QCAZ, NHRS, ROME, USNM]  

Comments: Craspedochaeta pleuralis   can sometimes be difficult to separate from C. transversa   , C. synneura   , and paler specimens of C. pollostos   because their colouration can be quite similar, the characters of the wings are subtle, and the distance between the crossveins is slightly reduced in some specimens. The most reliable way to separate these species is by examining the shape of the surstylus (see Figs 45–58 View FIGURES 45–46 View FIGURES 47–52 View FIGURES 53–58 ).

One aberrant specimen from Brazil (Amazonas: S. Gabriel Cachoeira, Morro 6 Lagos, 28.ix–6.x. 1990, 800m, arm. Malaise, J.A. Rafael & J. Vidal (1♀, INPA)) agrees with the above description but the transverse stripe is not continuous with the longitudinal stripe, the laterotergites are yellow (excluding the lateral margins and a small sub­scutellar spot) and the apex of the scutellum is extensively yellow   .

While several species of Craspedochaeta   are found in the Caribbean, C. pleuralis   is by far the most frequently encountered. Craspedochaeta pleuralis   is also one of the most commonly collected species throughout the neotropics, along with C. pollostos   , C. concinna   and C. annulipes   .

Craspedochaeta sasakawai   nomen nov. is provided here as a replacement name for the Pacific C. pleuralis ( Curran, 1936)   , a junior homonym of the neotropical C. pleuralis ( Williston, 1896)   . The name honours Dr. Mitsuhiro Sasakawa, who revised the Oriental Craspedochaeta   in 1971.


Canadian National Collection Insects


Ontario Insect Collection, University of Guelph


Swedish Museum of Natural History, Entomology Collections


Royal Ontario Museum - Entomology


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia






Craspedochaeta pleuralis ( Williston, 1896 )

Lonsdale, Owen & Marshall, Stephen A. 2006

Sobarocephala pleuralis

Melander, A. L. & Argo, N. G. 1924: 46

Heteroneura pleuralis

Czerny, P. L. 1903: 102
Williston, S. W. 1896: 387