Panicum cupressifolium A. Camus in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 372. 1925

Vorontsova, Maria S., 2018, Revision of the group previously known as Panicum L. (Poaceae: Panicoideae) in Madagascar, Candollea 73 (2), pp. 143-186 : 158

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Panicum cupressifolium A. Camus in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 372. 1925


9. Panicum cupressifolium A. Camus in Bull. Soc. Bot. France 72: 372. 1925 View in CoL View at ENA ( Fig. 6A View Fig , 7 View Fig ).

Lectotypus (designated here): MADAGASCAR. Prov. Fianarantsoa: Andringitra massif , II.1921, Perrier de la Bâthie 14548 ( P [ P00224765 ]!; isolectotype: E!, EA!, G [ G00022443 ], K [ K000244691 , K000244692 , K000244693 , K000244694 , K000244695 ]!, MO!, P [ P00224764 , P00462677 ]!, PRE [ PRE0031827 View Materials -0]!, S [S-G-4484] image seen, SI!, TAN!, US [ US00147793 , US00148388 ]!) . Syntypus: Andringitra massif , 2.V.1911, Perrier de la Bathie 10833 ( K [ K000244697 ]!, P [ P00462676 , P00224767 , P00462675 ]!), TAN !).

Woody perennial, much branched, the main stems lignified, to 50 cm tall, the culms and nodes glabrous. Leaf sheaths glabrous. Ligule absent. Leaf blades scale-like, ovate, flat, coriaceous, 0.05–0.3 × 0.05–0.2 cm, drying red-brown, imbricate, appressed, glabrous on both sides, often larger on the central stem. Spikelets terminal, rare and difficult to find, single at branch apices or rarely up to three together, nodding, elliptic, apically obtuse, c. 2.5 mm long, with poorly visible veins, whitish to purple, opening only partly. Lower glume c. ½ as long as the spikelet, chartaceous, apically obtuse, 3-veined, glabrous. Upper glume 3/4 as long as the spikelet, herbaceous, 3–5-veined, glabrous. Lower floret barren, with a reduced palea. Lower lemma herbaceous, 5-veined, glabrous. Upper lemma smooth, shiny, pale.

Distribution and ecology. – Endemic to Madagascar, restricted to high elevation and high soil moisture environments in the Andringitra massif, 2400–2700 m ( Fig. 8A View Fig ).

Notes. – Likely the most unusual of Madagascar’s grasses, P. cupressifolium does resemble a low stature conifer when forming monotypic stands on the plateau of Andringitra National Park. Leaf blades and leaf sheaths are reduced, while inflorescences are not readily visible as they are reduced to a single spikelet (or sometimes a group of up to three spikelets) at the culm apex.

The lectotype sheet has been chosen for its high quality material and an annotation in the author’s handwriting.

Additional material examined. – MADAGASCAR. Prov. Fianarantsoa: Andringitra , 27.XI.1924, Humbert 3888 ( G, K [ K000244696 , K000805462 ]; GoogleMaps ibid. loco, VI.1965, Morat 1298 ( P [ P00224766 ]); GoogleMaps Andringitra , à 100 m du pic, 22°11'42"S 46°53'31"E, 28.XI.2013, Nanjarisoa et al. 87 ( K, TAN); GoogleMaps Andringitra , Peak Boby , 22°11'41"S 46°53'07"E, 25.XI.2009, Rakotonasolo et al. 1502 ( K [ K000664083 ]); GoogleMaps Sendrisoa , 18.X.1956, Rakotovao 8452 ( P [ P02251441 ], TAN); GoogleMaps ibid. loco, 12.I.1958, Rakotovao 9913 ( P [ P00224773 ]); GoogleMaps Andringitra , below Imarivolanitra , 22°11'42"S 46°53'24"E, 12.XII.2013, Vorontsova et al. 1233 ( TAN); GoogleMaps ibid. loco, 12.XII.2013, Vorontsova et al. 1237 ( TAN) GoogleMaps .


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh


National Museums of Kenya - East African Herbarium


Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève


Royal Botanic Gardens


Missouri Botanical Garden


South African National Biodiversity Institute (SANBI)


Department of Botany, Swedish Museum of Natural History


Museo Botánico (SI)


Parc de Tsimbazaza


University of Stellenbosch













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