Beilschmiedia opposita Kosterm.

Werff, Henk van der, 2003, A synopsis of the genus Beilschmiedia (Lauraceae) in Madagascar, Adansonia (3) 25 (1), pp. 77-92: 84-86

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Beilschmiedia opposita Kosterm.


4. Beilschmiedia opposita Kosterm.  

J. Sci. Res. (Jakarta) 1: 115 (1952). — Apollonias oppositifolia Kosterm., Notul. Syst. (Paris)   8: 71 (1939), non Beilschmiedia oppositifolia (Meisn.) Hook.   f., nom. illeg. — Type: Perrier de la Bâthie 10182, Madagascar, forêt d'Analamazaotra (holo-, P!). Potameia lucida Kosterm., Commun. Forest, Res. Inst.  

55: 8 (1957). — Type: Service Forestier 10995,

Madagascar, Ambohitantely (holo-, P), syn. nov.

Tree to 25 m tall. Twigs terete, glabrous, the older ones often with a grey, corky bark, the younger ones smooth, black, young branchlets often fascicled. Terminal bud with some appressed hairs or glabrous. Leaves subopposite, coriaceous, 4-6.5 × 1.5-2.5 cm, elliptic, glabrous, the base acute, the apex obtuse, margin sometimes inrolled, venation immersed and scarcely discernable, lateral veins scarcely or not at all visible. Petioles glabrous, 3-7 mm long. Inflorescences axillary, glabrous or sparsely appressed pubescent, to 2 cm long, paniculate, few-flowered. Flowers with a few appressed hairs or almost glabrous, with a short floral tube and incurved tepals, often closely subtended by a nearly glabrous bract, this c. 1.5 mm long and dehiscing with the tepals. Tepals 6, equal, united at the base into a short floral tube, the free part c. 1.5 mm long, erect and incurved at the upper half. Stamens 6, representing the outer 2 whorls, covered by the incurved tepals, c. 1 mm long, pubescent, 2-celled, the cells introrse. Whorl III usually staminodial, pubescent, with 2 globose glands at the base, infrequently 1 or 2 locelli present, in size intermediate between staminodia of Whorl IV and the stamens. Whorl IV represented by 3 triangular, pubescent staminodia, c. 0.5 mm long. Pistil glabrous, ovary globose, seated in the cupshaped, pubescent receptacle. Fruit globose, c. 3 cm in diameter; petals and floral tube soon deciduous in old flowers and leaving a conspicuous, circular scar at base of very young fruit.

ECOLOGY. — Mossy forest at higher elevations (800-1600 m).

DISTRIBUTION. — Upper parts of the eastern slope in the center of Madagascar. — Fig. 3. View Fig

PHENOLOGY. — Flowers in June, October; fruits in December.

Beilschmiedia opposita   is a poorly known species. The type has only a few buds. Most other collections attributed to this species are sterile. The description of the flowers presented above is based on two recent collections [Service Forestier 26807 and Service Forestier (Capuron) 28427)], which have slightly smaller, less coriaceous leaves than the type and which have a plane, rather than inrolled leaf margin. The concept of B. opposita   here accepted includes all collections with subopposite, elliptic, small leaves with an acute base, immersed venation and smooth, black young twigs. The type of Potameia lucida   , which has no flowers, only immature fruits, fits very well in this concept. KOSTERMANS mentioned in his discussion of P. lucida   that the tepals were completely deciduous in the fruiting stage, a character more commonly found in Beilschmiedia   than in Potameia   . Flowering material can be easily recognized by the nearly glabrous inflorescences and flowers and by the deciduous floral tube and tepals. Several collections were identified as B. oppositifolia (Kosterm.) Kosterm.   , a combination never published by KOSTERMANS, because of the earlier name B. oppositifolia (Meisn.) Hook.   f., an illegitimate, but validly published name.

Instead, KOSTERMANS created the new name B. opposita   for Apollonias oppositifolia   .

COMMON NAMES. — Sary, voa-koromanga, tavolo-sary, sary mena.

The identifications of the sterile specimens cited below are tentative.

SPECIMENS STUDIED. — MADAGASCAR: Perrier de la Bâthie 5261, forêt d’Analamazaotra, fr. (P); Perrier de la Bâthie 10182, forêt d’Analamazaotra, fr. (P); Service Forestier 10984, Moramanga, st. (P); Service Forestier 10995, Ambohitantely, fr. (P, TEF); Service Forestier 21277bis, Ambohimalaza, Périnet, st. (P); Service Forestier 25740, Analamazaotra, Périnet, st. (P); Service Forestier 25741, Analamazaotra, Périnet, st. (P); Service Forestier 25742, Analamazaotra, Périnet, st. (P); Service Forestier 26020, Analamazaotra, Périnet, st. (P); Service Forestier 26021, Analamazaotra, Périnet, st. (P); Service Forestier 26180, Analamazaotra, Périnet, st. (P); Service Forestier 26807, Ankazomanitra, Anosibe, Moramanga, fl. (MO, TEF); Service Forestier (Capuron) 28427, W of Antanandava, km 45 route Moramanga-Anosibe, fl. (MO, TEF); Service Forestier 25-B-R-172, Ambodivoasary, Périnet, st. (P); Service Forestier 94-B-R-172, Sahamaloto, st. (P); Service Forestier 149-R-212, St. Pierre, st. (P); Service Forestier 189-R-212, St. Pierre, st. (P); Service Forestier 191-R- 212, St. Pierre, st. (P); Service Forestier 200-R-212, St. Pierre, st. (P); Service Forestier 201-R-212, St. Pierre, st. (P); Service Forestier 205-R-212, St. Pierre, st. (P); Service Forestier 209-R-212, St. Pierre, st. (P); Service Forestier 240-R-212, St. Pierre, st. (P); Service Forestier 251-R-212, St. Pierre, st. (P); Service Forestier 403-R- 212, St. Pierre, st. (P); Herb. Station Forestière d’Analamazaotra 21-E, Ambohimalaza, Périnet, st. (P).

5. Beilschmiedia pedicellata van der Werff   , sp. nov.

Beilschmiediae oppositae similis, sed pedicellis longioribus et nervatione in superficiebus ambabus foliorum elevata recedit.

TYPUS. — Miller, Bradford, Rakontonasolo & Randrianasolo 8779, Madagascar, Prov. Anatananarivo, Anjozorobe, 18°22'S, 47°53'E, 1320 m, 22 Oct. 1996, fl., fr. (holo-, GoogleMaps   MO!; iso-, P!, TAN).

Shrub or small tree, to 5 m. Twigs round, glabrous, often blackish when young, older ones with a grey, lenticellate bark, terminal buds nearly glabrous or sparsely appressed pubescent. Leaves 4-7 × 1.8-2.5 cm, glabrous, opposite, firmly chartaceous, narrowly elliptic to oblong, the base obtuse to acute, the apex obtuse to bluntly acute, midrib raised on both surfaces, secondary veins difficult to distinguish, 6-10 on each side, venation forming a reticulate pattern visible on both surfaces, slightly raised on the upper surface, more prominently on the lower surface; lateral veins, petioles c. 5 mm long, shallowly canaliculate on the upper side. Inflorescences to 3 cm long, with a few lateral branchlets near the base or racemose, with usually up to 10 flowers, very sparsely pubescent with the hairs erect or ascending, in the axils of the distal leaves. Flowers green, 2.5 mm in diameter, pedicels (5-)6-7(-9) mm long. Tepals 6, 1- 1.3 mm long, ovate elliptic, equal, with a few hairs on the outer surface, inner surface glabrous or nearly so, erect at anthesis; stamens 9, all 2-celled, the outer six 0.8 mm long, broad, without a distinct filament, dorsally with some short, papillose hairs, the anther cells opening introrse, inner 3 about the same length, columnar, moderately pubescent with papillose hairs, the cells lateral, glands present at the base of the inner stamens, pistil glabrous, c. 0.7 mm long, receptacle bowl-shaped, densely pubescent inside. Fruits roundish, c. 3 cm in diameter, tepals not persistent in fruit, infructescences 2-2.5 cm long. — Fig. 1. View Fig

ECOLOGY. — Montane forests, 600-1600 m.

DISTRIBUTION. — Forests on the eastern slope, from Anjozorobe to Ranomafana National Park. Collections with dimerous flowers are known from the Special Reserve Anjaharibe-Sud to the Ranomafama National Park. — Fig. 2. View Fig

PHENOLOGY. — Flowers in October; fruits in May-October.

Beilschmiedia pedicellata   , named for its relatively long pedicels, is closely related to B. opposita   . It differs mainly in pedicel length (to 3 mm long in B. opposita   , 5-9 mm long in B. pedicellata   ); and the slightly raised reticulate venation on both leaf surfaces (immersed in B. opposita   ). In addition the inflorescences and flowers of B. pedicellata   are sparsely pubescent, whereas they are glabrous in B. opposita   . Beilschmiedia moratii   has a raised reticulation on both leaf surfaces, but differs from B. pedicellata   in its shorter (c. 3 mm long) pedicels, broadly elliptic leaves and the presence of indument on inflorescences and flowers. However, very few flowering collections are known of these species and identification of sterile or fruiting specimens remains difficult. Five collections are placed in B. pedicellata   with hesitation. They differ from Beilschmiedia   in their dimerous flowers (as in Potameia   ), but share the opposite leaves, deciduous tepals, fruits not seated in a distinct pedicel, the blackish young twigs and cuticle characters with the type of B. pedicellata   .

COMMON NAME. — Voasapoka.

PARATYPES. — MADAGASCAR: Rakoto 137, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Parc National de Ranomafana , 21°16'S, 47°24'E, 1300 m, fr. ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier (Capuron) 14303, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Ampamaherana, 21°29'S, 47°19'E, 900-1100 m, fr. ( P) GoogleMaps   ; Turk & Marolahy 601, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Ranomafana National Park , 21°14'S, 47°30'E, 600 m, fr. ( MO) GoogleMaps   .

The following collections differ from B. pedicellata   in having dimerous flowers and are tentatively placed here: Ravelonarivo & Rabesonina 481 & 500, Prov. Antsiranana , Réserve Spéciale d'Anjaharibe- Sud, 14°44'42''S, 49°27'42''E, 1185-1335 m, fl., fr. ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Service Forestier (Capuron) 23854, massif du Vohibe-Antoatra, 1600-1869 m, fl. ( MO, P)   ; Service Forestier (Capuron) 28371, Ambatovy, au NE de Moramanga , fl. ( MO, P)   ; Turk & Randrianasolo 570, Prov. Fianarantsoa, Ranomafana National Park, 21°15'30''S, 47°25'00''E, 950-1150 m, fl. ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   .


Missouri Botanical Garden


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Parc de Tsimbazaza


University of New England














Beilschmiedia opposita Kosterm.

Werff, Henk van der 2003

Apollonias oppositifolia Kosterm., Notul. Syst. (Paris)

1939: 71