Temburongia similanensis, Fuangarworn, Marut & Lekprayoon, Chariya, 2011
Fuangarworn, Marut & Lekprayoon, Chariya, 2011, New species of oribatid mites in the families Synichotritiidae and Phthiracaridae from Thailand, with a checklist of Thai Euptyctima (Acari: Oribatida: Euphthiracaroidea, Phthiracaroidea), Zootaxa 3106, pp. 24-41: 25-30
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Temburongia similanensis sp. nov.
Diagnosis. Prodorsum with lateral carina and paired medial longitudinal cristae; sensillus filiform; other prodorsal setae simple, attenuate; two pairs of exobothridial setae present; notogaster with ventral tectum, touching medially; fourteen pairs of notogastral setae present, all simple and attenuate; notogastral surface foveate or finely granulate according to location; genito-aggenital shield with seven pairs of short simple setae; ano-adanal shield semicircular with three anal and adanal setae in separate rows; palp four segmented; supracoxal seta simple; coxal setation 3 - 1- 2 - 3; legs heterotridactylous.
Description. Measurements of holotype: prodorsum 305 long, 200 wide, and 125 high; notogaster 597 long, 309 wide, and 402 high. Color: body generally pale yellow and shiny; border of prodorsum and of ventral tectum of notogaster dark brown.
Prodorsum ( Figs. 1–2 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 ). With typical form of euphthiracaroid mites ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 A –B). Lateral carina (ca) present, running from dorsal edge of bothridium to lateral margin of prodorsum. Bothridial scale (bs) above bothridium projecting posterolaterally in angle. Bothridium with interior chambers connected to numerous fine, tubular brachytrachea ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 C). Cuticle shiny, smooth without fovae, muscle sigilla evident above bothridium. With sagittal apodeme about one-fifth length of prodorsum. Sensillus (ss) about 110 long, filiform with minute barbs in distal half. Interlamellar seta (in), lamellar seta (le) and rostral seta (ro) simple, smooth and subequal, about 70 long. Two pairs of exobothridial setae (exa and exp) present, about 18 long; exp thiner than exa. Mutual distance of setae: inin> le-le> ro-ro. Seta ro located more posteriorly, near center of prodorsum. One pair of distinct longitudinal cristae, and two or three much shorter, lower and less distinct cristae present anterior to region between setae ro and le ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A).
Notogaster ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 A –B). Outline elongate and laterally compressed. Ventrally with pair of extensions from notogastral tectum touching medially (not fusing), covering articulation of genital and ano-adanal shields; notogastral tectum therefore appearing emarginated to encircle protruding ano-adanal shields. Tectonotal notch (tn) well developed. Terminal fissure absent. Fourteen pairs of notogastral setae present; all simple and finely attenuate, about 75–100 long; setae in rows h and ps longer than in anterior rows. Setae ps 2 and ps 3 located near emargination rim. Surface of notogaster foveate in anterior region of setal row c, posterior of row e, and on notogastral tectum; otherwise integument finely granulate. Opisthosomal glands absent. Neither lyrifissures nor alveolar vestiges of setae f 1-2 observable (due to well mineralized cuticle which obscures these structures, Norton & Lions 1992).
Gnathosoma ( Figs. 3 View FIGURE 3 A –C). Subcapitulum ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 A) stenarthric with three pairs of setae (a, h, m), all simple and barbed; lateral lip with three adoral setae (or 1-3). Setae or 2 and or 3 simple, or 1 forked. Supracoxal seta (ep) simple, with minute barbs. Palp ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 B) four segmented, genu and femur fused; setation (trochanter to tarsus, solenidion in parenthesis): 0-1 - 2-8 (1); setae ul’, ul” and su eupathidial. Chelicera ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 C) robust, chelate-dentate; digits with four teeth; setae cha and chb subequal and distinctly barbed.
Ano-genital region ( Figs. 1 View FIGURE 1 A –B). Genito-aggenital shield triangular; completely fused medially except for median incision at anterior border which bears strong reflexed lip—also completely divided by median incision; posteriorly with elongate extension articulating with ano-adanal shields. Seven pairs of genito-aggenital setae present of which one pair on reflected lip, five pairs arranged in transverse row on groove beneath reflected lip, and one most posterior pair; all setae simple, smooth, about 10–12 long. Ano-adanal shield broad, semicircular in ventral aspect; anteriorly, median margin of shield projecting dorsad as preanal apodeme; postanal apodeme well developed; with three anal setae (an 1-3) and, in separate longitudinal row, three adanal setae (ad 1-3); all simple and smooth, about 20–25 long. Progenital chamber with three pairs of genital papillae, of which anterior two pairs normal in form while posterior pair (VP) reduced and separated from anterior pairs ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 B).
Coxisternal region and legs ( Figs. 3 View FIGURE 3 D, 4–5). Epimeral setation (I –IV): 3 - 1-2 - 3. Setae 1 a and 2 a minute; others long, simple with barbs ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 D). All legs heterotridactylous; legs I –IV setation (famulus included, solenidia in parentheses): trochanter, 1 - 1-2 - 2; femur, 3 - 3 - 2 - 2; genu, 5 (2)- 4 (1)- 3 (1)- 2; tibia, 5 (1)- 4 (1)- 3 (1)- 2 (1); tarsus, 18 (3)- 12 (2)- 11 - 10 / 11. Setal homologies depicted in Figures 4–5 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 . Seta ft’ absent on left tarsus IV.
Distribution. Known only from its type locality, Thailand: Similan Is. of Similan Archipelago, Pang-Nga Province.
Etymology. The specific epithet is derived from the name of the island, Similan, in which the new species was collected.
Material examined. Holotype: Adult (dissected, in alcohol, CUMN-AC2011.01); Thailand, Similan Is., Similan Archipelago National Park, Pang-Nga Province (8 ° 39 ' 30 "N, 97 ° 38 ' 46 " E); ex. forest litter; 7 -IV- 2010; coll. M. Fuangarworn (Field No. MF 2010 - 29). No other specimens known. Holotype deposited in the Acari collection of the Chulalongkorn University Museum of Natural History, Bangkok. Thailand.
Remark. The characters of T. similanensis sp. nov. are generally congruent with the cladogram and diagnosis of Synichotritiidae proposed by Norton and Lions (1992: their Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ). However, there are some exceptions. First is the presence of the cluster of bothridial brachytrachea. This is unusual since all other known synichotritiids lack such structures ( Norton & Lions 1992). Mahunka (1990, 1995) did not mention this character while Norton and Lions (1992) indicated that the brachytrachea or other tubular structures invaginating from the bothridium are absent. Similar structures have been found in Euphthiracaridae , the sister family of Synichotritiidae , in the form of numerous fine tracheoles with terminal bulbs ( Grandjean 1967) and in Phthiracaridae in the form of the three large tubular brachytrachea ( Norton & Behan-Pelletier 2009). In T. similanensis sp. nov. the brachytrachea are rather similar to those of Phthiracaridae except that they are much thinner and occur in a significantly larger number. According to the cladogram of Norton and Lions (1992), this character would be interpreted as occurring independently in T. similanensis sp. nov.
Second, at the subfamilial level, the presence of posterior exobothridial setae (exp) does not correspond to the definition of Temburongiinae. Lack of these setae in Temburongia is considered an apomorphy relative to their plesiomorphic presence in the sister subfamily Synichotritiinae ( Norton & Lions 1992). However, within Synichotritiinae, setae exp may also be lost or vestigial in some species of Sabahtritia , at least in S. mirabilis Mahunka, 1991 b (his Fig. 68). The state of setae exp therefore seems to be a homoplasious character, hence of no value as an indicator of relationship. The presence of exp in T. similanensis sp. nov. is considered a retained, plesiomophic character.
Finally, T. similanensis sp. nov. does not meet the genus description regarding the alignment of ano-adanal setae and the number of claws. Having all ano-adanal setae in a longitudinal row and monodactyl legs are included amongst the apomophies of Temburongia ( Norton & Lions 1992: character no. 20 and 21) but T. similanensis sp. nov. possesses the ancestral two rows of such setae and tridactyl legs. Placing the new species in Temburongia as it is currently defined would contradict these two apomorphies. Since all other characters are in agreement, however, we consider T. similanensis sp. nov. to be the sister species of T. patoi , but retains the two plesiomorphic traits. At least the numbers of claws seems to be a species-level character within Temburongia —a condition paralleling that of Sabatritia ( Norton & Lions 1992). The diagnoses of Synichotritiidae and Temburongiinae, proposed by Norton and Lions (1992), and of Temburongia by Mahunka (1990, 1995) and Niedbała (2000) should be slightly modified regarding the characters discussed.
Temburongia similanensis sp. nov. is justified by its unique character sets, and is distinguished from T. patoi by having simple prodorsal and notogastral setae (vs. phylliform), one pair of median cristae (vs. two pairs), the presence of setae exp and bothridial brachytrachea (vs. absence), two rows of ano-adanal setae (vs. one row); epimeral setation 3 - 1-2 - 3 (vs. 3 - 0-1 - 2); and legs I –IV tridactylous (vs. monodactylous).
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