Dasydorylas okongoensis, FÖLDVÁRI, MIHÁLY, 2013

FÖLDVÁRI, MIHÁLY, 2013, Taxonomic revision of the Afrotropical species of the tribe Eudorylini (Diptera, Pipunculidae), Zootaxa 3656 (1), pp. 1-121: 29-43

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.3656.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:73E59AED-B16D-430C-B611-EB5CFEAF7FDD

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A487FD-FF8A-FFD3-1D0F-FF56FAD44DC7

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Dasydorylas okongoensis
status

sp. nov.

Dasydorylas okongoensis   sp. nov. ( Figs 9A–F, 39S)

Diagnosis: This species is generally dark in colour (still pale humeri), two very distinct erect hairs on t3 anteromedially and 3–4 dark spines in a row on the hind trochanters ventrally.

Type material: Namibia: 1♂, HT [# T648], Eenhana district , 29 E Okongo, 17°37’22’’S 17°28’44’’S, 14– 15.x.1999, Kirk-Spriggs Pape Hauwanga, Malaise traps, dry woodland   ; 1♀, AT, same data as HT (both NMNW)     ; 6♂, 3♀, PTs, same data as HT ( NMNW, except 2♂, 1♀ HNHM)   .

Other material examined: Botswana: 1♂, Third Bridge , 19°14’S 23°21’E, 10.III.1993, E. Marais ( NMNW) GoogleMaps   . Namibia: 1♂, 3♀, Rundu district , 20 km E Rundu, 17°55’46’’S 19°58’43’’E, 17–18.x.1999, Kirk-Spriggs Pape Hauwanga, Malaise trap sample ( NMNW, 1♀ HNHM) GoogleMaps   . South Africa: 1♂, Kruger Nat’l. Park , Pretoriuskop, 20– 21 Feb. 1968, Krombein & Spangler ( USNM)   . [these specimens were examined after the original description and type selection, therefore they are not part of the type series]

Male

Head. Third antennal segment acuminate; yellow-brown. Face silvery pollinose. Frons, upper part subshining black, lower part grey; eyes touching for distance equal to 2 times ocellar triangle. Occiput silvery pollinose, more brownish towards ocelli.

Thorax. Humeri pale brown. Mesonotum (viewed obliquely from front) subshining grey, along anterior margin more silvery; greyish from the side. Scutellum slightly silvery pollinose, with very few, weak hairs. Dorsocentral hairs short. Halter yellowish brown, stem darker.

Legs. Trochanters and base of femora dark brown, femora black (f1–2 silvery pollinose posteriorly and shining black ventrally; f3 shining black pv), knees yellow, tibiae and tarsal segments brownish yellow, last segment dark brown. Ventroapical row of 6–7 short, dark spines on first four femora; 7–8 longer spines on 3rd femur. Subapical (distal) spines on first four tibiae present. Two erect, dark anteromedial hairs on 3rd tibia. Hind trochanter with 3–4 dark spines in a row on ventral side. Pulvilli shorter than last tarsal segment.

Wing. Fourth costal section 0.7–0.8 times as long as third costal section. Cross-vein R-M just before 1/3 of discal cell. Pterostigma fully coloured. Hairs on tegula missing.

Abdomen. Viewed obliquely from front tergites subshining black, distal 1/3 of T1–4 silvery pollinose laterally, T5 grey on distal half, sides of tergites grey on distal half. Hairs dispersed, short and weakly developed. Laterally 3–4 dark spines in a row on first tergite. Postabdomen in dorsal view: T5 1.4–1.5 times as long as ST8. Genitalia without dissection: ST8 black, rectangular in dorsal view, SS and cerci yellow, m.a. as broad as 2/3 of width of ST8.

Genitalia. Surstyli symmetrical, both with median projections; epandrium with distinct shape around cerci ( Fig. 9B). SES uncertain; gonopods subsymmetrical, both pointed at tip and with tiny hairs; hypandrium with “tubercles” on lobes; phallic guide broad in ventral view ( Fig. 9F), pointed and with projection in lateral view ( Fig. 9A); phallus trifid, minute spines on at least one branch and with extra structure (gonostylus?) visible in ventral view; ejaculatory apodeme rounded, club-like; sperm pump oval ( Fig. 9D).

Female

As male except for the following characters. Frons, eyes separated; silver-grey pollinose except in front of ocellar triangle on upper 2/3 of frons. Pulvilli and claws about as long as last tarsal segment. Female ovipositor as in Fig. 39S.

Distribution— Botswana, Namibia, South Africa.

Etymology —The species' name comes from the type locality Okongo in Namibia.

Dasydorylas quasidorsalis ( Hardy, 1961)   ( Figs 9G–L, 39J–K)

Dorilas (Eudorylas) quasidorsalis Hardy 1961: 145   .

Diagnosis: Fourth costal section very short (0.5 times the length of C3). Femora and tibiae dark brown to black. SES with 12–14 little spines; gonopods symmetric, with 1–2 minute hairs on each side; phallic guide pointed, with 2 spines; phallus longer than SS, curved.

Type material: Democratic Republic of Congo     : 1♂, HT, Congo belge, P.N.G., Miss [ion] H. De Saeger , II/fd/18, 21-xii-1951, Rec. H. De Saeger 2939   ; 1♀, AT, same as HT, II/gd/4, 22-viii-1952, No. 3964; 1♀, PT, same as HT, II/fd/17, 28-i-1952, No. 3067; 1♀, PT, same as HT, II/gd/10, 8-viii-1952, No. 3909 (all MRAC)   ; 1♀, PT, same as HT, II/gc/8, 30-iv-1952, No. 3402, I.G. 24.203 ( ISNB)   .

Male

Head. Third antennal segment acuminate; brown. Face greyish pollinose. Frons, upper part black, lower part with black triangle in the middle, otherwise greyish pollinose; eyes touching for distance equal to 3.5–4 times ocellar triangle. Occiput, upper half brownish, lower half greyish pollinose.

Thorax. Humeri pale brown. Mesonotum (viewed obliquely from front) brownish pollinose, along anterior margin with 2 greyish patches; brown from the side with grey pollinosity. Scutellum with faint brownish pollinosity, two bristle-like hairs. Dorsocentral hairs uncertain. Halter: knob and basal half of the stem black, yellow distally.

Legs. Trochanters and base of femora dark brown, femora black (f3 shining posteroventrally), knees yellowish brown, tibiae black (yellow at tip). Tarsal segments yellow-brown, last segment darker. Ventroapical row of 6–7 strong, short spines on first four femora (first four legs missing on HT); 4–5 weak hairs on 3rd femur. Subapical (distal) spines on first four tibiae present. One bristle-like anteromedial hair on 3rd tibia. Hind trochanter greyish pollinose with 3–4 fine pale hairs on ventral side. Pulvilli slightly longer than last tarsal segment.

Wing. Fourth costal section 0.5 times as long as third costal section. Cross-vein R-M beyond 1/3 of discal cell. Pterostigma almost fully coloured. 2–3 hairs on tegula.

Abdomen (most parts dissected). Hairs dispersed, short and weakly developed. Lateral spines on first tergite: 1 dark brown bristle. Postabdomen in dorsal view: (T6, S7, EP) visible.

Genitalia. Surstyli subsymmetrical; ST8 slightly enlarged, m.a. wide, slit-like ( Fig. 9H). SES borders not clear, with 12–14 little spines; gonopods symmetric, with 1–2 minute hairs on each side ( Fig. 9L); phallic guide pointed, with 2 spines; phallus longer than SS, curved ( Fig. 9G); ejaculatory apodeme and sperm pump both funnel-shaped ( Fig. 9K).

Female

As male except for the following characters. Frons, eyes separated; shining black, except basal part (close to antennae), which is greyish pollinose (for length of ocellar triangle). Trochanter more shiny, but also with white hairs. Fourth costal section on wing equal to third. Halter yellow-brown, base darker. Abdominal T1,2 greyish pollinose, other tergites black with brownish pollinosity; hind margins of T3–5 brownish pollinose; sides with grey patches. T1 with 4–5 black bristles. Female ovipositor as in Figs 39J–K.

Distribution— Democratic Republic of Congo.

Dasydorylas sordidatus ( Hardy, 1950)   ( Figs 10A–F, 40M)

Dorilas (Eudorylas) sordidatus Hardy 1950: 36   .

Diagnosis: 3–4 outstanding dark hairs anteromedially on 3rd tibia. Surstyli bent ventrally and with numerous hairs on the ventral side at border with SES; phallic guide short, rather wide apically and with folded membranes, tip pointed in lateral view.

Type material: Democratic Republic of Congo     : 1♂, HT, Congo belge: Kiwu, Kinyamuhara ( Djomba ), 1800 m, 23-viii-1934, G.F. de Witte: 55   ; 1♀, AT, Congo belge: PNA, vers Mt. Kamatembe , vers 2300 m, 7 au 23-i-1935, G.F. de Witte: 1051 (both MRAC)   ; 1♂, PT, Congo belge: P.N.A., Nyasheke ( Volc. Nyamuragira ), 1820m, 14 au 26-vi-1935, G.F. de Witte: 1482 ( USNM)   .

Other material examined: Kenya: 1♂, lake Nakuru, 5767 feet, 15–16.xii.1970, A.E Stubbs, B.M. 1972-211 ( BMNH)   .

Male (No head on specimens)

Head.

Thorax. Humeri dark brown. Mesonotum (viewed obliquely from front) brown pollinose; subshining brown from Legs. Trochanters and femora dark brown to black, knees yellowish, basal 1/3 of tibiae yellow-brown, otherwise black. Tarsal segments brown, last segment black. Ventroapical row of 4–5 short, black spines on f1, 7–8 on f2; 5– 6 longer one on 3rd femur. Subapical (distal) spines on first four tibiae present. 3–4 outstanding dark hairs anteromedially on 3rd tibia. Hind trochanter bare on ventral side. Pulvilli slightly longer than last tarsal segment.

Wing. Fourth costal section 0.75 times as long as third costal section. Cross-vein R-M at 2/5 of discal cell. Pterostigma fully coloured. Hairs on tegula absent.

Abdomen. Viewed obliquely from front tergites brownish pollinose (shrunken in HT). Hairs dispersed, short and darker on sides. 5–6 dark lateral spines on first tergite. Postabdomen in dorsal view: T5 1.2 times as long as ST8. Genitalia without dissection: black, m.a. occupies half width of ST8, SS and EP yellow-brown.

Genitalia. Surstyli symmetrical, bent ventrally and with numerous hairs on the ventral side at border with SES. SES short, borders uncertain; gonopods asymmetrical, outer longer; hypandrium elongated ( Fig. 10D); phallic guide short, rather wide apically and with folded membranes, tip pointed in lateral view ( Fig. 10A); phallus trifid, branches slender; ejaculatory apodeme slightly funnel shaped; sperm pump rounded ( Fig. 10E).

Female (head missing in AT)

As male except for the following characters. Only short, pale hairs on scutellum. Pulvilli and claws not enlarged, about as long as in males. Two hairs on tegula. Abdomen: T1,2 silvery pollinose, otherwise brownish, with grey triangle-like patches on the side. Female ovipositor ( Fig. 40M) with long and slender piercer.

Distribution— Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Kenya.

Dasydorylas turneri (Hardy, 1949)   ( Figs 10G–L)

Dorilas (Eudorylas) turneri Hardy 1949 a: 58 —   comb. nov.

Diagnosis: No anteromedial hairs on 3rd tibia. T5 three times as long as ST8, S7 enlarged. Surstyli large, both hook-shaped in lateral view and with extended basal lobes; SES clearly visible, with 16–18 hairs on both sides; phallic guide narrowing towards tip, S-shaped in lateral view; phallus: only one branch visible.

Type material: South Africa: 1♂, HT, Cape Town, Milnerton , Jan. 1926; S. Africa, R.E. Turner, Brit. Mus. 1926- 71 ( BMNH)   .

Other material examined: South Africa: 2♂, Cape Prov , 7km N Prince Alfreds Hamlet 21.xi.1986, J.G.H. Londt 850m, Malaise trap 3319AD (1 NMSA, 1 HNHM)   ; 1♂, on Protea caffra (19), Mike’s Pass, 1640m, Cathedral Peak area , Natal Drakensberg , 32/9, Natal South Africa , Pajor Istvan (25/9/1988) ( NMSA)   ; 1♂, on Protea caffra (21), Mike’s Pass, 1640m, Cathedral Peak area , Natal Drakensberg , 65, Natal South Africa , Pajor Istvan (9/10/1988) ( HNHM)   ; 1♂, Cape of Good Hope, Nature Reserve , III-7-10-1968, Paul J. Spangler ( USNM)   .

Male

Head. Third antennal segment obtuse; brown. Face silvery pollinose. Frons, upper part shining black, lower part silvery pollinose except a black median line as wide as 1/3 of frons; eyes touching for distance equal to 3.5–4 times ocellar triangle. Occiput, lower half silvery pollinose, upper half less so.

Thorax. Humeri pale brown. Mesonotum (viewed obliquely from front) brownish pollinose, along anterior margin more silvery; also grey from the side. Scutellum brownish pollinose, with 6–8 pairs of short, pale hairs. Dorsocentral hairs weakly developed. Halter brown.

Legs. Trochanters and base of femora yellow, femora black with silver pollinosity (f3 shining posteroventrally), knees, tibiae, tarsal segments yellow, last segment brown. Ventroapical row of 10–12 short, black spines on mid femora; no spines on 3rd femur. Subapical (distal) spines on first four tibiae present, but weakly developed. No anteromedial hairs on 3rd tibia. Hind trochanter covered with short, white pubescence on ventral side. Pulvilli as long as last tarsal segment.

Wing. Fourth costal section as long as third costal section. Cross-vein R-M beyond 1/3 of discal cell. Pterostigma fully coloured. Hairs on tegula absent.

Abdomen. Viewed obliquely from front tergites subshining black with slight brownish pollinosity on T1,2, sides with silver pollinosity. Minute whitish hairs dispersed. Four dark lateral spines on first tergite. Postabdomen in dorsal view: S7 clearly visible; T5 three times as long as ST8. Genitalia without dissection: black, ST8 small, S7 enlarged, EP and SS yellowish.

Genitalia. Surstyli large, subsymmetrical, both hook-shaped in lateral view and with extended basal lobes; epandrium as long as broad; ST 8 in dorsal view not extending too much to the right, m.a. small, round ( Fig. 10H). SES clearly visible, with 16–18 hairs on both sides; gonopods weakly developed, symmetric; hypandrial lobes elongated; phallic guide narrowing towards tip ( Fig. 10L), S-shaped in lateral view; phallus: no division, only one branch visible ( Fig. 10G); ejaculatory apodeme linear, broadening at tip; sperm pump oval with two small projections ( Fig. 10K).

Female—Unknown.

Distribution— South Africa.

D) REVISION OF THE GENUS EUDORYLAS ACZÉL, 1940  

Eudorylas Aczél, 1940: 151   . Type species: Pipunculus fuscipes Zetterstedt, 1844   , by subsequent designation (ruling of the ICZN 2002: 143, Opinion 2000, Case 3132).

Metadorylas Rafael, 1987: 35   . Types species: Pipunculus schreiteri Shannon, 1927   , by original designation, syn.: Skevington and Yeates (2001): 438.

Diagnosis—Pedicel usually with very short bristles, pterostigma present, tegula with 0–2 hairs. Distal tibial spines on first four tibiae usually present, front femur usually with rows of ventral spines. ST8 usually with membranous area, surstyli and gonopods asymmetrical, phallus trifid, ejaculatory apodeme fan shaped, sperm pump elongate with two distal tails. For more details see Skevington and Yeates (2001).

Eudorylas abdominalis ( Loew, 1858)   ( Fig. 39M)

Pipunculus abdominalis Loew 1858: 374   [ 1860: 354].

Diagnosis: All tergites in lateral view and T5 entirely are yellow. But only the female HT is known so far therefore identifications must be made with caution.

Type material: South Africa: 1♀, HT, Caffraria [2 hand-written labels:] “235.”, “167”, [typewritten label:] “ Pipunculus abdominalis   ” (NHRS).

Other material examined: South Africa: 1♀, Natal Umgeni Calley Ranch , 1km N Howick 2930 Ac, 7-IV-1980, R. Miller & P. Stabbins; ( NMSA)   .

Female

Head. Third antennal segment acuminate; yellow. Face silvery pollinose. Frons, upper part shining black, Vshaped turns (in the middle of the frons) continuously into the silvery pollinose (lower) part. Occiput, lower half silvery pollinose, upper half brownish.

Thorax. Humeri yellow. Mesonotum (viewed obliquely from front) silvery pollinose; also grey from the side. Scutellum grey, with 3–4 pairs of pale hairs. Dorsocentral hairs very weakly developed. Halter yellow.

Legs. Completely yellow. Ventroapical row of 4–5 very short, dark spines on f2; no spines on f1,3. Subapical (distal) spines on first four tibiae well developed. One or two erect, pale anteromedial hairs on 3rd tibia. Hind trochanter covered with minute brown hairs on ventral side. Pulvilli slightly longer than last tarsal segment.

Wing. Fourth costal section as long as third costal section. Cross-vein R-M at 2/5 of discal cell. Pterostigma fully coloured. Hairs on tegula missing.

Abdomen. Viewed obliquely from front tergites (shining): T1 yellow-brown completely, T2–4 brown in the middle (ca. 1/3), yellow on both sides dorsally, T5 almost entirely brown. In lateral view all tergites are yellow. Hairs dispersed, pale and weakly developed. Laterally 2 dark spines on first tergite.

Ovipositor ( Fig. 39M). Base dark brown, piercer yellow-brown, about as long as base.

Male—no males with certain association.

Remarks —The type specimen was collected during a Swedish expedition to southern and south-eastern Africa led by J.A. Wahlberg. The numbers refer to particular localities, but the list of localities had disappeared and correct labels had never been produced according to Thomas Pape, NHRS (pers. comm.). The specimen is from Distributional data other than listed in material examined are based on De Meyer 1996.

Distribution— Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Madagascar, Rwanda, South Africa, Tanzania, Uganda, Zimbabwe.

Eudorylas acroapex ( Hardy, 1962)   ( Figs 11A–F)

Pipunculus (Eudorylas) acroapex Hardy 1962: 252   .

Diagnosis: 2–3 erect anteromedial hairs on 3rd tibia. The m.a. round, pv directed, occupies 2/3 of width of ST8. Surstyli symmetric, rounded at tip; ST8 with large m.a.; gonopods symmetric, tips with 3 hairs on each side; phallic guide pointed at tip (hooked in lateral view), with 2 projections in ventral view; phallus short, trifid, two branches teethed.

Type material: Madagascar: 1♂, HT, [West] Madagascar Tul., Sakaraha, 13.III.58, F. Keiser ( BMNH)   .

Other material examined: Malawi: 1♂, Mlanje [hand-written], Nyasaland, 17.iii.1913., [leg.] S.A. Neave, No 1953–357, No 1953–343 [Hardy’s label: “ Dorilas   n. sp. rel. to abditus Hardy, poor cond., Det. 1977 D.E. Hardy ”] ( BMNH)   .

Male

Head. Third antennal segment acuminate; brown. Face silvery pollinose. Frons, upper part shining black, lower part silvery pollinose; eyes touching for distance equal to 3 times ocellar triangle. Occiput, lower half silvery pollinose, upper half less so.

Thorax. Humeri yellow. Mesonotum (viewed obliquely from front) brownish pollinose; silvery from the side. Scutellum slightly silvery, with 6–7 pairs of weakly developed hairs. Dorsocentral hairs weakly developed. Halter brown, middle of stem yellow.

Legs. Trochanters and base of femora yellow-brown, femora brown, shining ventrally, f3 posteriorly as well. Knees, tibiae and tarsal segments yellow, last segment brown. Ventroapical row of 7–8 black, short spines on first four femora; 5–6 spines on 3rd femur (same size). Subapical (distal) spines on first four tibiae missing. 2–3 erect anteromedial hairs on 3rd tibia. Hind trochanter with 2 brown hairs on ventral side (as long as width of f3 at base). Pulvilli distinctly shorter than last tarsal segment.

Wing. Cross-vein R-M at 1/3 of discal cell. Pterostigma fully coloured. Hairs on tegula missing.

Abdomen. Viewed obliquely from front tergites brownish pollinose (T1 silvery), hind margins with small grey triangles laterally (almost reaching each other on T5), sides completely greyish pollinose. No abdominal hairs. Lateral spines on first tergite dark brown, in a row of 4–5. Postabdomen in dorsal view: T5 1.2 times as long as ST8. Genitalia without dissection: ST8 subshining brown, cerci yellowish, m.a. round, pv directed, occupies 2/3 of width of ST8.

Genitalia. Surstyli symmetric, rounded at tip; epandrium small; ST8 with large m.a. ( Fig. 11B). Borders of SES uncertain; gonopods symmetric, tips with 3 hairs on each side (the shape of the tip may vary) ( Fig. 11F); phallic guide pointed at tip (the hook in lateral view is characteristic), with 2 lateral projections in ventral view; phallus short, trifid, two branches with teeth; ejaculatory apodeme linear; sperm pump short, round ( Fig. 11E).

Female—Unknown.

Distribution— Madagascar, Malawi.

Eudorylas aculeatus ( Loew, 1858)   ( Figs 11G–L)

Pipunculus aculeatus Loew 1858: 375   [ 1860: 355].

Diagnosis: Scutellum brown, with 4–6 longer dark hairs. Surstyli subsymmetrical, broad at tip (may be an amorphous knob); epandrium as wide as long; ST8 with small, triangular m.a.; OG longer; SES clearly visible, with 5–7 thick hairs on each side; phallic guide hairy, thick and strongly bent in ventral view, slightly curved towards SS in lateral view, tip pointed; phallus trifid, branches short, compared to phallic guide. ejaculatory apodeme, F: ventral view with phallic guide and phallus (without ST8), G: outer surstylus with phallic guide and outer gonopod, lateral view, H: dorsal view, I: inner surstylus, lateral view, J: sperm pump with ejaculatory apodeme, K: ventral view with phallic guide and phallus (without ST8), L: surstyli, dorsal view. Scale bars: 0.1 mm

Type material: South Africa: 1♂, HT, Caffraria, [2 hand-written labels:] “236” and “170”, [typewritten label:] “ Pipunculus claripennis   ” [leg: Wahlberg] (NHRS), see remarks.

Other material examined: South Africa: 1♂, RSA, Cape Prov [ince], Piekeniers-kloof , 15 km S Citrusdal, 32°38' S, 18°57' E, 370m, 04.X.1994., loc.5., leg. R. Danielsson ( ZML) GoogleMaps   ; 1♂, Cape Mountain Zebra Natl Park , 1400m, March 12 1972, ME & BJ Irwin, 3225 Ab   ; 1♂, Clovelly., (Cape Peninsula ), 74.10.31, H.K. Munro   .; 1♂, Wit River Valley, Cambria area, Patensie Dist. , 6.12.67, 3324DA, B&P Stuckenberg   ; 1♂, Capland, Stellenbosch , Oct 8 1926, Dr. H. Brauns   ; 1♂, Natal, Cathedral Peak area, Forest Reserve , 2829 Cc , 4–11.iv.1977, JGH Londt ex Malaise   ; 1♂, Cape #46, helderberg Nature Res , 34º04’S: 18º52’E, 180m, Date: 4.x.1993, Colll: j. G.H. Londt, Hillside macchia veg GoogleMaps   .; 1♂, Natal #37, Royal Natal Nat. Park , 28º41’S: 28º56’E, 1440 m, Date: 23–28.iii.1991, Coll: J. G. H. Londt, forest margin malaise (all NMSA) GoogleMaps   .

Male

Head. Third antennal segment acuminate; dark brown, arista shining black. Face silvery pollinose. Frons, upper part shining black, lower part silvery pollinose with black median line; eyes touching for distance equal to 3.5 times ocellar triangle. Occiput, lower half silvery pollinose, upper half brownish.

Thorax. Humeri yellow. Mesonotum (viewed obliquely from front) brownish pollinose; silvery from the side. Scutellum brown, with 4–6 longer dark hairs. Dorsocentral hairs weakly developed, but dark hairs are present on humeri and on notopleura (12–14). Halter brown, stem yellow apically.

Legs. Trochanters and base of femora yellow, femora black with greyish pollinosity (f3 shining posteroventrally); knees, tibiae and tarsal segments yellow, last segment brown. Ventroapical row of 8–10 strong black spines on mid femora; 3–4 short hairs on 3rd femur. Subapical (distal) spines on first four tibiae strongly developed. No anteromedial hairs on 3rd tibia. Hind trochanter with 10–12 erect hairs on ventral side (as long as width of t3 at base). Pulvilli as long as last tarsal segment.

Wing. Fourth costal section 0.9 times as long as third costal section. Cross-vein R-M beyond 2/5 of discal cell. Pterostigma fully coloured. Hairs on tegula missing.

Abdomen. The HT was already dissected. Laterally 2-4 strong dark spines on first tergite. Postabdomen in dorsal view: (T6, S7, EP) visible.

Genitalia. Surstyli subsymmetrical, broad at tip (can be distinct); epandrium as wide as long; ST8 with small, triangular m.a. ( Fig. 11H). Borders of SES clearly visible, with 5–7 thick hairs on each side; gonopods asymmetrical, OG longer; phallic guide hairy, thick and strongly bent in ventral view ( Fig. 11K), slightly curved towards SS in lateral view, tip pointed ( Fig. 11G); phallus trifid, branches short, compared to phallic guide; ejaculatory apodeme linear, broad at tip; sperm pump elongated ( Fig. 11J).

Female—Unknown.

Remarks —The type for this species has been mislabelled, probably by the author after having made the descriptions for Pipunculus aculeatus   and P. claripennis   in Loew (1858). There is a list created by Loew himself for his identifications (courtesy of Bert Viklund, Stockholm), where he gives the numbers present on the labels of specimens and the identification belonging to the specific individual. This is 169 and 238 for P. aculeatus   , but the specimen with these data is a female Tomosvaryella   . Loew (1860) gives more detailed descriptions in German, and from those features (e.g. presence of the pterostigma, position of the R-M vein and the sex (male for P. aculeatus   )) it is clear that the types of the two species were interchanged. The type specimens have been relabelled according to this interpretation, but original labels haven't been removed.

The type specimen was collected during a Swedish expedition to southern and south-eastern Africa led by J.A. Wahlberg. The specimen is from “Caffraria”, which refers to a large part of current South Africa. Loew 1858 (p. 375) gives the type locality as “Caffraria (Wahlb.)”, but does not mention the number of specimens he had studied. Distribution— South Africa.

Eudorylas aemulus (Hardy, 1949)   ( Figs 12A–C, 39C)

Dorilas (Eudorylas) aemulus Hardy 1949 a: 16   . projections at base; SES with several hairs (6–7); gonopods strongly sclerotized behind PG; phallic guide with two lobes at the end and with an uncertain structure in the middle.

Type material: South Africa: 1♀, HT, Mossel Bay , Cape Province, 1–14. XI. 1921., S. Africa, R.E. Turner, Brit. Mus. 1921-476   .; 1♂, AT, Natal: Van Reenen, Drakensberg 1–22.i.1927, S. Africa R.E. Turner, B.M. 1927-54. (both BMNH)   ; 1♀, PT, Cape Town, Milnerton , Jan 1926, ... 1926-71., Paratype No 58386 ( USNM)   .

Male (AT—only parts of legs remain)

Head. Third antennal segment long acuminate; dark brown. Face and frons silvery pollinose. Eyes touching for distance equal to 2 times ocellar triangle. Occiput silvery pollinose.

Thorax. Humeri pale. Mesonotum (viewed obliquely from front) brownish pollinose, silvery along anterior margin; brown from the side. Scutellum brownish pollinose with weakly developed hairs. Dorsocentral hairs weakly developed. Halter dark brown, stem yellowish.

Legs. Trochanters and femora black, knees yellowish brown, proximal 2/3 of tibiae dark brown, distally yellowish. Tarsal segments yellow-brown, last segment missing. No ventroapical row of spines on femora. Subapical (distal) spines on first four tibiae very weak. Hind trochanter without hairs or spines on ventral side.

Wing. Fourth costal section approximately equals the third costal section. Cross-vein R-M just beyond 2/5 of discal cell. Pterostigma partly coloured (only distal 2/3). Hairs on tegula uncertain.

Abdomen. Greasy, colours not clear. Hairs short and weakly developed. Lateral spines on first tergite missing. Postabdomen in dorsal view: T5 1.6 times as long as ST8. Genitalia without dissection: small, dark; SS yellowish, no membranous area.

Genitalia. Surstyli curving towards each other, both with ventral projections at base; cerci elongated; ST8 large, triangle-shaped ( Fig. 12B). Borders of SES uncertain with several hairs (6–7); gonopods subsymmetrical, strongly sclerotized behind PG; hypandrium elongated, slightly turned, not connected to EP; phallic guide with two lobes at the end and with an uncertain structure in the middle ( Fig. 12C); phallus: missing on AT.

Female (HT and PT damaged)

As male except for the following characters. Frons, eyes separated; shining black on at least 2/3 of the upper part, otherwise probably silvery pollinose. Face silver-grey. Pv surface of f1,2 greyish pollinose, f3 shining black. Ventroapical row of 6–7 small black spines on first four femora, 5 longer, black spines on f3. One erect anteromedial hair present on t3. Pulvilli and claws about 2 times as long as last tarsal segment. Trochanters with 4– 5 fine, pale hairs ventrally (1–3 longer brown hairs may be present, as long as width of t3 at base), apical half of t3 thicker. Fourth costal section 0.8 times as long as third costal section, cross-vein R-M beyond 1/3 of discal cell. Abdomen with brownish pollinosity and grey patches on sides. Female ovipositor ( Fig. 39C) flattened and with sclerotized ridge laterally.

Remarks —Genitalia of the male AT were lost after completing three drawings. The other two male PTs have been described as E. swanengi   and E. pondolandi   in Földvári (2003 a), since the shape of the genitalia were very different.

Distribution— South Africa, Nigeria.

Eudorylas aethiopicus (Hardy, 1949)   ( Figs 12D–I, 40A–B)

Dorilas (Eudorylas) aethiopicus Hardy 1949 a: 17   .

Diagnosis: Third antennal segment long acuminate. ST8 very large; thick hairs at base of SS (6 left, 3 right); gonopods’ apical part with little “holes”, outer edges with zigzag pattern; hypandrium with two long lobes; phallic guide shorter than GP, rounded at tip. In ventral view both SS with an edge along middle line.

Type material: Kenya: 1♂, HT, H J A Turner, Naivasha, 7 [July] 37; Pres. By Comm. Inst. Ent. B.M. 1953-343 ( BMNH)   ; 1♂, PT, same data as HT ( USNM)   . South Africa: 1♀, AT, Cape Province: Sommerset East, October 1930; S.W. Africa, RE. Turner Brit. Mus. 1930-561 ( BMNH)   .

Male

Head. Third antennal segment long acuminate, densely pubescent; brown. Face silvery pollinose. Frons silvery pollinose; eyes touching for distance equal to 3 times ocellar triangle. Occiput silver pollinose, black behind the ocellar triangle.

Thorax. Humeri pale brown. Mesonotum (viewed obliquely from front) brownish pollinose, along anterior margin more silvery; distinctly greyish pollinose from the side. Scutellum greyish-brown pollinose, distinct 4–5 pairs of pale hairs. Dorsocentral hairs very weakly developed. Halter yellow-brown, stem paler.

Legs. Trochanters and base of femora dark brown, femora black with distal 1/5 yellow (f1,2 silvery pollinose, f3 shining black on pv surface), knees yellow, tibiae yellow. Tarsal segments yellow, last segment dark brown. Ventroapical row of 4–8 short, dark spines on first four femora; some very weakly developed hairs on 3rd femur. Subapical (distal) spines on first four tibiae present. No anteromedial hairs on 3rd tibia. Hind trochanter finely pubescent, without hairs or spines on ventral side. Last tarsal segment 1.5 times longer than pulvilli.Wing. Fourth costal section 1.5 times as long as third costal section. Cross-vein R-M at 2/5 of discal cell. Distal ¾ of pterostigma coloured. No hairs on tegula.

Abdomen. Viewed obliquely from front tergites brownish pollinose, laterally more silvery, hind margins more subshining black, sides greyish pollinose. Hairs dispersed, distinct, pale, longest on ST8. No lateral spines on first tergite. Postabdomen in dorsal view: corners of S7 and EP visible; T5 1.1 times as long as ST8. Genitalia without dissection: postabdomen black with grey pollinosity; EP and SS yellow; SS very asymmetrical, protruding from abdomen; no membranous area.

Genitalia. Surstyli asymmetrical, IS longer; epandrium wide but smaller than ST8; ST8 very large ( Fig. 12E). Borders of SES uncertain, some thicker hairs at base of SS (6 left, 3 right); gonopods flattened, apical part with little “holes”, outer edges with zigzag pattern; hypandrium with two long lobes, connected to EP; phallic guide shorter than GP, rounded at tip ( Fig. 12I); phallus uncertain; ejaculatory apodeme short, thick, widening at tip; sperm pump long, thick tube-like, S-shaped ( Fig. 12G). In ventral view both SS with an edge along middle line.

Female (AT - no head)

As male except for the following characters. Trochanter and base of femur yellowish brown. Pulvilli and claws about 1.5 times as long as last tarsal segment. Subapical (distal) spines distinct on first four tibiae. Cross-vein R-M just beyond 1/3 of discal cell, pterostigma fully coloured. Halter dark brown, stem pale. Abdominal tergites brownish pollinose, 1/3 to 1/5 of hind margins silvery pollinose. Two dark spines on T1. Female ovipositor ( Figs 40A–B) with two protuberances on the inner surface of the base.

Remarks —The drawing in Hardy 1959 a: 398 is not E. aethiopicus   , but resembles E. flexus   .

Distribution— Kenya, South Africa.

Eudorylas amani Földvári, 2003   ( Figs 13A–G)

Eudorylas amani Földvári 2003 b: 280   .

Diagnosis: Third antennal segment long acuminate. S7 visible, epandrium broad and curves along outer edge; ST8 small compared to epandrium; SES with several hairs; gonopods very small, not protruding at all; phallic guide with two lobes on each side in ventral view, pointed tip in lateral view.

Type material: Tanzania     : 1♂, HT, Usambara Mts. , Amani, 1000m, 1.1.1976, O. Lomholdt leg ( ZMUC)   ; 1♂, PT, East Usambara , Amani, 1000m, 1.ii.1977., Zool. Mus. Copenhagen, H. Enghoff, O. Lomholdt, O. Martin leg. ( HNHM)  

Other material examined: Kenya: 1♂, Mt. Kenya. , Kathita river., 9,900ft., 7.viii.1949., J.A. Riley.; " O.U.E.C. Exp, Mt Kenya, B.M. 1949-562."; "56" [hand-written]( BMNH)   ; South Africa: 1♂, Natal , St. Lucia Nature Res., 2832AD, 18–20.xii.1981, Londt & Stuckenberg, Coastal bush & forest ( NMSA). [these specimens were examined after the original description and type selection, therefore they are not part of the type series]  

Male

Head. Third antennal segment long acuminate; yellow-brown. Face silvery pollinose. Frons, upper part shining black, lower part silvery pollinose; eyes touching for distance equal to 3–3.5 times ocellar triangle. Occiput, lower half greyish pollinose, upper half slightly brownish.

Thorax. Humeri pale brown. Mesonotum (viewed obliquely from front) brownish pollinose, somewhat greyish Legs. Trochanters and base of femora dark brown, femora dark brown with greyish pollinosity (f3 shining posteroventrally), knees yellow, tibiae yellow with faint dark ring in the middle. Tarsal segments yellow, last segment dark brown. Ventroapical row of 6–7 short, black spines on mid femora; no spines on 1st and 3rd femur. Subapical (distal) spines on first four tibiae present. No anteromedial hairs on 3rd tibia. Hind trochanter covered with fine white pubescence on ventral side. Pulvilli slightly shorter than last tarsal segment.

Wing. Fourth costal section 0.8–1 times as long as third costal section. Cross-vein R-M before 1/3 of discal cell. Pterostigma coloured on distal 4/5. Hairs on tegula missing.

Abdomen. Viewed obliquely from front tergites brownish pollinose, T1–4 with silvery patches laterally in dorsal view, T5 completely greyish; sides of all tergites silvery pollinose. Hairs dispersed, short and weakly developed. Laterally short pale hairs on first tergite. Postabdomen in dorsal view: S7 visible; T5 1.3 times as long as ST8. Genitalia without dissection: Generally dark brown to black, no m.a., EP and SS yellow.

Genitalia. Surstyli asymmetrical, IS longer; epandrium broad and curves along outer edge; ST8 small compared to epandrium ( Fig. 13B). Borders of SES uncertain, with several hairs; gonopods very small, not protruding at all; phallic guide with two lobes on each side in ventral view ( Fig. 13G), pointed tip in lateral view ( Figs 13A, D); phallus not found (may be lost); ejaculatory apodeme linear; sperm pump round with one process ( Fig. 13E).

Female—Unknown.

Distribution— Kenya, South Africa, Tanzania.

Eudorylas amitinus ( Hardy, 1962)   ( Figs 13H–M)

Pipunculus (Eudorylas) amitinus Hardy 1962: 253   .

Pipunculus (Eudorylas) fractus Hardy 1962: 260 —   syn. nov.

Diagnosis: Eyes touching for distance equal to 4–5 times ocellar triangle. Three to four anteromedial hairs on 3rd tibia. Surstyli similar in shape but inner tips different; SES clearly visible, with thick hairs medially; phallic guide with parallel sides in ventral view, slightly pointed in lateral view.

Type material: Madagascar: 1♂, HT, Madagascar , Centre, Anjavidilava 2020m, Andringitra Ambalavao, 17– 21.I.58 B. Stuckenberg ( MNHN)   ; 1♂ [HT of E. fractus   ], [Central] Madagascar Tan., Ambohitantely, 11.VI.58, F. Keiser ( NHBM)     .

Male

Head. Third antennal segment acuminate; brown or yellow. Face silvery pollinose. Frons, upper part shining black, lower part pollinose along margins, subshining black in the middle; eyes touching for distance equal to 4–5 times ocellar triangle. Occiput, lower half silvery pollinose, upper half more brownish.

Thorax. Humeri brown to dark brown. Mesonotum (viewed obliquely from front) brownish pollinose; more silvery from the side. Scutellum brown, 8–10 short, pale hairs. Dorsocentral hairs well developed, pale. Halter brown to dark brown.

Legs. Entirely yellow brown or brown (f3 shining pv). Ventroapical row of spines on four femora missing. Subapical (distal) spines on first four tibiae missing. Three to four anteromedial hairs on 3rd tibia. Hind trochanter with 5–6 short, pale hairs on ventral side. Pulvilli half as long as last tarsal segment.

Wing. Fourth costal section 0.8–1.1 times as long as third costal section. Cross-vein R-M beyond 2/5 of discal cell. Pterostigma fully coloured. Two dark hairs present on tegula.

Abdomen (already dissected). Viewed obliquely from front tergites brownish pollinose. Hairs dispersed, short and weakly developed. Laterally 3–4 dark spines on first tergite.

Genitalia. Surstyli similar in shape but inner tips different; epandrium short and broad; ST8 broadened, m.a. circular ( Fig. 13I). SES clearly visible, connected to SS, with thick hairs medially; gonopods short, symmetrical; phallic guide with parallel sides in ventral view ( Fig. 13M), slightly pointed in lateral view ( Fig. 13H); phallus trifid, short; ejaculatory apodeme linear; sperm pump elongated, with two small projections, border with sperm duct uncertain ( Fig. 13K).

view, E: sperm pump with ejaculatory apodeme, F: surstyli, dorsal view, G: ventral view with phallic guide (without ST8), H: outer surstylus with phallic guide, lateral view, I: dorsal view, J: inner surstylus, lateral view, K: sperm pump with ejaculatory apodeme, L: surstyli, dorsal view, M: ventral view with phallic guide and phallus (without ST8). Scale bars: 0.1 mm Remarks —Synonymy is proposed, because of similarity of genitalia: SS with two apical projections and PH, PG identical in shape. Legs are darker on the type of E. amitinus   and paler on the type of E. fractus   , but they are neither black (for E. amitinus   ) nor yellow (for E. fractus   ) as in Hardy 1962 (pp. 54, 61).

Distribution— Madagascar.

Eudorylas amuscarium (Hardy, 1959)   ( Figs 14A–F, 39L)

Dorilas (Eudorylas) amuscarium Hardy 1959 a: 398   .

Diagnosis: One erect anteromedial hair on 3rd tibia. S5 and S4 divided. Surstyli elongated, both C-shaped in lateral view (because of the process at base); cerci asymmetrically placed, small; phallic guide with two lobes and an unusual structure in the middle of the space between the SS, connected to the base of the lobes on PG.

Type material: South Africa: 1♂, HT, S Afr, Cape Prov., Cape Peninsula, Hout Bay Skoorsteenkop, 26.XII.50, No. 95; Swedish South Africa Expedition 1950–1951, Brinck-Rudebeck ; Insect trap   ; 1♀, AT, same data, 2.2.1951., No. 166   ; 2♂, PTs, same data, 22.I.1951, No. 157     . Type No : 2123: 1–4 (all ZML); 1♀     , PT, same data as HT ( USNM)   .

Other material examined: South Africa: 1♂, Mossel Bay , Cape Province, Aug.1921, S. Africa, R.E. Turner, Brit. Mus. 1921-353 ( D. umbrinus   , det. Hardy 1946) ( USNM)   ; 1♂, Campus Bay , Cape Peninsula., April, 1920, R. E. Turner., 1920- 198; " Dorilas   n. sp. rel. lubuti (Curran) E. Hardy det., 1950" ( BMNH)   ; 1♂, Cape Prov, Hogsback 3226DB, 13–16.xii. 1985, J. & B. Londt Forest & forest margins   .

Male

Head. Third antennal segment acuminate; yellow-brown. Face silvery pollinose. Frons, upper part shining black, lower part silvery pollinose, except narrow black line dorsally; eyes touching for distance equal to 3 times ocellar triangle. Occiput silvery pollinose.

Thorax. Humeri pale brown (yellow). Mesonotum (viewed obliquely from front) subshining black, anterior part silvery pollinose; also silvery from the side. Scutellum brownish pollinose, 8–9 pairs of pale hairs. Dorsocentral hairs weakly developed. Halter, knob dark brown, stem pale.

Legs. Trochanters and base of femora yellow, femora dark brown, shining posteriorly, knees, tibiae, tarsal segments yellow, last segment brown. Ventroapical row of 3–4 spines on f1, 10–14 very short, black spines on f2; no spines on 3rd femur. Subapical (distal) spines on first four tibiae present. One erect anteromedial hair on 3rd tibia. Hind trochanter with 2–3 white hairs on ventral side. Pulvilli as long as last tarsal segment.

Wing. Fourth costal section 0.8 times as long as third costal section. Cross-vein R-M at 2/5 of discal cell. Pterostigma fully coloured. Hairs on tegula missing.

Abdomen. Viewed obliquely from front tergites brownish pollinose, hind margins silvery grey, sides completely silvery. Hairs dispersed, very short and weakly developed. Lateral spines on first tergite: 5–6, dark brown. Postabdomen in dorsal view: T6, S7 visible; T5 as long as ST8. Genitalia without dissection: ST8 large, mainly yellow, m.a. small, EP+SS yellow, SS look large in size.

Genitalia. S5 and S4 divided. Surstyli elongated, both C-shaped in lateral view (because of the process at base); epandrium short and wide, cerci asymmetrically placed, small; ST8 with round m.a. ( Fig. 14B). SES uncertain; gonopods weakly developed or absent (see remarks), IG as a rounded protuberance; phallic guide with two lobes and a special structure in the middle of the space between the SS, connected to the base of the lobes on PG ( Fig. 14E); phallus trifid, short; ejaculatory apodeme broadening at tip, otherwise flat; sperm pump elongated, linear with two membranous lobes ( Fig. 14D).

Female

As male except for the following characters. Frons, eyes separated; completely silver-grey pollinose until 1/6–1/4 from the antennae and along margins up to half of the frons. Enlarged ommatidia silvery shining. Pulvilli and claws about 1.5–2 times as long as last tarsal segment. Female ovipositor ( Fig. 39L) straight.

Remarks —The presence of gonopods remains uncertain due to the presence of an additional structure protruding from the dorsal side of the PG that hampers unequivocal interpretation.

Distribution— South Africa. lateral view, B: dorsal view, C: inner surstylus, lateral view, D: sperm pump with ejaculatory apodeme, E: ventral view with phallic guide (without ST8), F: surstyli, dorsal view, G: dorsal view, H: outer surstylus with phallic guide, lateral view, I: surstyli, dorsal view, J: inner surstylus, lateral view, K: ventral view with phallic guide and phallus (without ST8). Scale bars: 0.1 mm

NMNW

National Museum of Namibia

HNHM

Hungarian Natural History Museum (Termeszettudomanyi Muzeum)

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

MRAC

Musée Royal de l’Afrique Centrale

NMSA

KwaZulu-Natal Museum

ZML

St Petersburg State University

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Pipunculidae

Genus

Dasydorylas

Loc

Dasydorylas okongoensis

FÖLDVÁRI, MIHÁLY 2013
2013
Loc

Eudorylas amani Földvári 2003 b: 280

Foldvari, M. 2003: 280
2003
Loc

Metadorylas

Skevington, J. H. & Yeates, D. K. 2001: 438
2001
Loc

Pipunculus (Eudorylas) acroapex

Hardy, D. E. 1962: 252
1962
Loc

Pipunculus (Eudorylas) amitinus

Hardy, D. E. 1962: 253
1962
Loc

Pipunculus (Eudorylas) fractus

Hardy, D. E. 1962: 260
1962
Loc

Dorilas (Eudorylas) quasidorsalis

Hardy, D. E. 1961: 145
1961
Loc

Dorilas (Eudorylas) amuscarium

Hardy, D. E. 1959: 398
1959
Loc

Dorilas (Eudorylas) sordidatus

Hardy, D. E. 1950: 36
1950
Loc

Dorilas (Eudorylas) turneri

Hardy, D. E. 1949: 58
1949
Loc

Dorilas (Eudorylas) aemulus

Hardy, D. E. 1949: 16
1949
Loc

Dorilas (Eudorylas) aethiopicus

Hardy, D. E. 1949: 17
1949
Loc

Eudorylas Aczél, 1940: 151

Aczel, M. L. 1940: 151
1940
Loc

Pipunculus abdominalis

Loew, H. 1860: 354
Loew, H. 1858: 374
1858
Loc

Pipunculus aculeatus

Loew, H. 1860: 355
Loew, H. 1858: 375
1858