Cryphalus sylvicola ( Perkins, 1900 ),

Johnson, Andrew J., Honsberger, David & Beaver, Roger A., 2021, New records and taxonomic notes on Cryphalus Erichson, 1836 in Hawaiʻi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Zootaxa 4999 (1), pp. 41-57: 49-51

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4999.1.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B06EDF71-88EB-44FC-AF42-97583ADFF61F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A587B6-0B26-FFA2-FF58-FBE8FDCBFEB7

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Cryphalus sylvicola ( Perkins, 1900 )
status

 

Cryphalus sylvicola ( Perkins, 1900) 

( Figs. 5A–DView FIGURE 5)

Hypothenemus sylvicola Perkins, 1900: 181  .

Cryphalus sylvicola ( Perkins, 1900)  : Hagedorn 1910: 88.

Ericryphalus henshawi Hopkins, 1915: 38  (syn.: Wood 1960: 23).

Ptilopodius sylvicola ( Perkins, 1900)  : Schedl 1939: 327.

Ericryphalus sylvicola ( Perkins, 1900)  : Schedl 1941: 111.

Cryphalus sylvicola obliquus Schedl, 1950: 48  . (syn.: Wood 1960: 23).

Cryphalus dimorphus Schedl, 1950: 49  (syn.: Beaver 1991: 89).

Ericryphalus sylvicolus ( Perkins, 1900)  : Swezey 1954: 116, 162, incorrect spelling.

Taenioglyptes sylvicola ( Perkins, 1900)  : Browne 1970: 540.

Type material examined. Holotype Hypothenemus sylvicola Perkins, 1900  : UNITED STATES • 1 ♂  Holotype; Hawaiʻi, Lānaʻi Island, Lânaʻi ; Jan. 1894; labeled “Hawaiian Is.//1900-99//// Hypothenemus sylvicola  // Type // Lanai 2500ft // I.1894.//// Cryphalus  not Hypothen. D. J. Atkinson det 1950// NHMUK 010805975View Materials ”; UFFE:26227; ( NHMUK)  . Holotype Ericryphalus henshawi Hopkins, 1915  : ♀ United States, Hawaiʻi. Hilo; H. W. Henshaw leg.; USNMENT:01356810  .

Other material examined. UNITED STATES • 1 ♂; Hawaiʻi, Hawaiʻi Isl., 7 mi. S. Hilo Hwy. 11; 20 Nov. 1976; C. W. and L. B. O’Brien leg.; UFFE:12486; ( FSCA) • 1; Hawaiʻi, Kauaʻi, Moloaʻa, Moloaʻa Coffee; 29 Nov. 2016; UFFE:26365 • 1 ♂; Hawaiʻi, O‘ahu, Tantalus; O. H. S. leg.; ex. Clermontia  ; labeled “Tantalus Oahu, Coll. O.H.S”; collector full name, date, method unknown; host assumed from similarly labeled specimen; UFFE:15100; ( UFFE) • 1 ♀; Same collection data; UFFE:15101; ( UFFE) • 1 ♀; Hawaiʻi, O‘ahu, Tantalus; O. H. S. leg.; ex. Clermontia  ; labeled “Tantalus Oahu, Coll. O.H.S”; “9 ex bark Clermontia  ”; UFFE:15102; ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; Hawaiʻi, O‘ahu, Mānoa; 04 Jan. 1920; J. C. Bridwell leg.; ex. Clermontia  ; UFFE:15099; ( UFFE) • 1 ♀; Hawaiʻi, O‘ahu, Kailua; 03 Aug. 1964; C. J. Davis leg.; ex. Morus  ; ex. mulberry (weak branches); labeled: “Kailua, Hawaii, VIII- 3-1964 //// ex mulberry (weak branches)////C.J. Davis H-64-41, Collector//// 1 //// State Ento. Branch Hawaii No. 64-979//// Ericryphalus sylvicola (Perk)  .Wood det (‘64)”; UFFE:15103; ( UFFE) • 1 ♀; Hawaiʻi, O‘ahu, Kailua; 03 Aug. 1964; C. J. Davis leg.; ex. Morus  ; ex. mulberry (weak branches); labeled: “Kailua, Hawaii, VIII-3-1964 //// ex mulberry (weak branches)////C.J. Davis H-64-41, Collector//// 6 [or 9?]”; UFFE:15104; ( UFFE) • 1 ♀; Hawaiʻi, O‘ahu, Kailua; 03 Aug. 1964; C. J. Davis leg.; ex. Morus  ; ex. mulberry (weak branches); labeled: “Kailua, Ha- waii, VIII-3-1964 //// ex mulberry (weak branches)////C.J. Davis H-64-41, Collector”; UFFE:15105; ( UFFE) • 1 ♀; Same collection data; UFFE:15106; ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; Same collection data; UFFE:15107; ( UFFE); • 1 ♀; Hawaiʻi, Kauaʻi, Lihue; 05 Apr. 2007; Robert J. Rabaglia leg.; UFFE:35226. • 4 ♀♀, 4 ♂♂; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Waimānalo Research Station; 21.3339°N,- 157.7077°E; 19 Nov. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Morus  ; Morus sp.  branches; UFFE:36065 • 16; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Mānoa Valley; 21.3060°N,- 157.8092°E; 15 Dec. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Artocarpus altilis  ; collected from branches, under bark; UFFE:36082 • 1 ♀; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Mānoa Valley; 21.3060°N,- 157.8092°E; 15 Dec. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Artocarpus altilis  ; collected from branches, under bark; UFFE:36076 • 1 ♀; Same collection data; UFFE:36077 • 50; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Waimānalo Research Station; 21.3339°N,- 157.7077°E; 15 Dec. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Morus  ; from branches; UFFE:36064 • 1 ♀; Same collection data; UFFE:36060 • 1 ♂; Same collection data; UFFE:36061 • 1 ♀; Same collection data; UFFE:36058 • 1 ♀; Same collection data; UFFE:36059. • 1; [Undesignated specimen from type series?] Hawaiʻi, Lānaʻi Island, “Lanai 2000 ft. I.1894. Lanaʻi; 2000 ft. Perkins, 12.1893. Fauna Hawaiiensis collection”; [Additional point and label of same collection data without a specimen]; ( BPBM)• 1; Hawaiian Ids. Oʻahu. S.E. Koʻolau Mts. July 1917. Pauoa J.; Bred ex. dead twigs Clermontia  under bark. J.C. Bridwell Collector; ( BPBM). • 15; Similarly mounted specimens labeled as “Pauoa 7-17. J.C.B. Oʻahu.” • 1; Hawaiian Ids. Oʻahu. S.E. Koʻolau Mts. July 1917. Pauoa J.; J.C. Bridwell Collector; ( BPBM). • 1; Mt. Tantalus. 6.10.17. Oʻahu. J.C. Bridwell Collector. Ericryphalus sylvicola (Perk.) Det. By O.H. Swezey.  [labeled with “? mangiferae  ”]; ( BPBM).

Diagnosis: Female. Length 1.2–1.5 mm. Proportions 2.1–2.3 times as long as wide. Color variable, yellow brown to dark brown. Frons weakly convex ( Fig. 5CView FIGURE 5). Antennal funiculus with four funicular segments, club with straight or recurved sutures. Pronotal margin with four asperities, the median pair much larger and contiguous. Pronotal disc approx. 1/3 of pronotal length, tuberculate surface texture, with mostly scale-like setae. Elytral disc more than half of elytral length. Interstrial bristles erect, long and hair-like on elytral disc, curved scale-like on elytral declivity, pointing towards apex. Striae barely discernable. Ground vestiture scale-like. Setae on lateral area of first visible abdominal ventrite a mix of bifid and hair-like, setae on posterior margin of abdominal ventrites hair-like and not in a distinct row.

Male similar to female except: frons with deeply emarginated epistomal margin ( Fig. 5DView FIGURE 5), and with a transverse ridge in upper level (obscured by pronotum in Fig. 5DView FIGURE 5). Pronotum with gentle slope, projecting strongly. Elytral disc shorter than female, about half elytral length.

Cryphalus sylvicola  is similar to C. brasiliensis  , especially the females, which can be distinguished by the interstrial bristles on the elytral disc ( C. sylvicola  : long, erect, hair-like, much longer than those on the declivity; vs C. brasiliensis  : short, slightly flattened, of a similar length and shape to rest of elytra). Males can be distinguished more easily, with additional differences in the epistomal margin ( C. sylvicola  : deeply concave; vs C. brasiliensis  : flat, similar to female), the pronotal slope ( C. sylvicola  : very flat with only small asperities; vs C. brasiliensis  : flatter than female, but 30 or more small asperities clearly visible), and by the setae on the protarsi and protibiae ( C. sylvicola  : coarse, curved hair-like; vs C. brasiliensis  : spatula-shaped, obviously wide and flat near the tips).

Host plants. Aquifoliaceae  : Ilex  L. sp. ( Wood & Bright 1992); Moraceae  : Artocarpus altilis  , Morus  L. sp., Ficus sp.  (“banyan”, Schedl 1941); Campanulaceae  : Clermontia Gaudich. sp.  ( Schedl 1941); Fabaceae  : Cajanus cajan  (L.) Millsp. ( Schedl 1941), Bauhinia variegata  (L.) Benth. ( Beaver 1976), Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit  ( Beaver 1976), Acacia Mill. sp.  ( Wood & Bright 1992); Malvaceae  : Theobroma cacao  L. ( Beaver 1976); Passifloraceae  : Passiflora  L. sp. ( Beaver 1976); Urticaceae  : Pipturus Wedd. sp.  ( Swezey 1941).

Distribution. Hawaiʻi: Hawaiʻi; Lânaʻi; Kauaʻi; Oʻahu. Other locations: American Samoa; Samoa; Cook Isl.; Federated States of Micronesia (Caroline Isl.); Fiji; French Polynesia (Marquesas Isl.); Guam, Northern Mariana Isl.; Niue; Tonga.

Discussion. The synonymy of C. swezeyi  and C. pini  is rejected here, see notes under C. pini  . The correct citation for the synonymy of Ericryphalus henshawi  is ambiguous, since the apparent synonymy by Schedl (1941), cited by Wood & Bright (1992) and Johnson et al. (2020a), is only a note that they may be the same based on the description. Wood (1960) listed C. henshawi  under C. sylvicola  without citing any synonymy, and Schedl (1963b) made an express statement of synonymy.

This species is widespread across the Pacific islands. The distribution and host range indicated is of verified records based on the material examined, and other material confirmed to match the description of C. sylvicola  and not C. swezeyi  or C. pini  . These taxonomic changes remove Pinus  and Piper sp.  from the verified host range, and the Philippines from the verified distribution. The broad host range is still remarkable, since most Cryphalus species  are restricted to one family of plant hosts.

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

FSCA

Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology

BPBM

Bishop Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Curculionidae

Genus

Cryphalus

Loc

Cryphalus sylvicola ( Perkins, 1900 )

Johnson, Andrew J., Honsberger, David & Beaver, Roger A. 2021
2021
Loc

Taenioglyptes sylvicola ( Perkins, 1900 )

Browne, F. G. 1970: 540
1970
Loc

Ericryphalus sylvicolus ( Perkins, 1900 )

Swezey, O. H. 1954: 116
1954
Loc

Cryphalus sylvicola obliquus

Wood, S. L. 1960: 23
Schedl, K. E. 1950: 48
1950
Loc

Cryphalus dimorphus

Beaver, R. A. 1991: 89
Schedl, K. E. 1950: 49
1950
Loc

Ericryphalus sylvicola ( Perkins, 1900 )

Schedl, K. E. 1941: 111
1941
Loc

Ptilopodius sylvicola ( Perkins, 1900 )

Schedl, K. E. 1939: 327
1939
Loc

Ericryphalus henshawi

Wood, S. L. 1960: 23
Hopkins, A. D. 1915: 38
1915
Loc

Cryphalus sylvicola ( Perkins, 1900 )

Hagedorn, M. 1910: 88
1910
Loc

Hypothenemus sylvicola

Perkins, R. C. L. 1900: 181
1900