Cryphalus negrosensis Browne, 1979,

Johnson, Andrew J., Honsberger, David & Beaver, Roger A., 2021, New records and taxonomic notes on Cryphalus Erichson, 1836 in Hawaiʻi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Zootaxa 4999 (1), pp. 41-57: 47-49

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Cryphalus negrosensis Browne, 1979


Cryphalus negrosensis Browne, 1979 

( Figs. 1DView FIGURE 1, 4A–DView FIGURE 4)

Cryphalus negrosensis Browne, 1979: 85  .

Type material examined. Holotype Cryphalus negrosensis Browne, 1979  . PHILIPPINES • 1 ♀  Holotype; Ne- gros, Bais , Dewey Island; 11 Aug. 1976; G. B. Vida leg.; “On seeds of small sp. of bacauan”; NHMUK: 010805985; UFFE:26214; ( NHMUK) • 1 ♂  Paratype; same collection data; UFFE:10411; ( NHMUK); [2 additional paratypes in NHMUK present, 2 paratypes missing from point]  .

Other material examined. UNITED STATES • 7 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂; Hawaiʻi, Hawaiʻi County, Kainaliu Experiment Station; 04 Oct. 2010; D. Oishi leg.; UFFE:15076–15079,15083,15084,15086 ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; Hawaiʻi, Hawaiʻi County, Kainaliu Experiment Station; 02 Nov. 2010; J. M. Scharff leg.; UFFE:15074; ( UFFE) • 1 ♀; Same collection data; UFFE:15075; ( UFFE) • 1 ♀; Same collection data; UFFE:15080 • 1 ♂; Same collection data; UFFE:15081 • 1 ♀; Same collection data; UFFE:15082 • 1 ♀; Same collection data; UFFE:15085 • 1 ♀; Same col- lection data; UFFE:15087 • 1 ♀; Same collection data; UFFE:15088; ( UFFE) • 1 ♂; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, UH Mānoa campus; 21.3017°N,- 157.8150°E; Jan. 2019; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Artocarpus altilis  ; ex. breadfruit fruits; UFFE:35204 • 1 ♀; Same collection data; UFFE:35202 • 1 ♂; Same collection data; UFFE:35203 • 65; Same col- lection data; UFFE:35201 • 1; Hawaiʻi, Moloaʻa, Moloaʻa Coffee; 01 Aug. 2016; Jared Bernard leg.; UFFE:26364 • 1 ♂; Hawaiʻi, Moloaʻa, Moloaʻa Coffee; 08 Jul. 2017; Jared Bernard leg.; UFFE:26366 • 12; Hawaiʻi, Kauaʻi, Nu- mila, Kauai Coffee; 18 Jan. 2017; Curtis Ewing leg.;”04Q 0447858 2421109”; UFFE:26363. • 38; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, UH Mānoa; 21.3017°N,- 157.8150°E; Oct. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Artocarpus altilis  ; Artocarpus altilis  fruits; all mature, heads retracted; UFFE:36085 • 100; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, UH Mānoa; 21.2993°N,- 157.8189°E; 26 Oct. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Artocarpus altilis  ; Artocarpus altilis  fruits; mostly mature, some teneral, some dead; UFFE:36089 • 1 ♀; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, UH Mānoa; 21.2993°N,- 157.8189°E; 26 Oct. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Artocarpus altilis  ; Artocarpus altilis  fruits; UFFE:36087 • 1 ♂; Same collection data; UFFE:36088 • 150; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, UH Mānoa; 21.2993°N,- 157.8189°E; 26 Oct. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Artocarpus altilis  ; fruits; UFFE:36086 • 50; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Waimānalo Research Station; 21.3379°N,- 157.7160°E; 15 Dec. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Artocarpus altilis  ; fruits; UFFE:36090 • 2 Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, UH Mānoa; 21.2994°N, - 157.8179°E; 21 Jan. 2021; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Adansonia digitata  adults with eggs, in the husk and fruit (D.Honsberger collection, not yet deposited); • 4 Hawaiʻi, Kainaliu Expt. Station. 4-11.x.2010 ex. Ethanol methanol lindgren trap. Coll. D. Oishi. Ericryphalus longipilus Schedl, 1943  ? det. G.A. Samuelson 2010; ( BPBM).

Diagnosis: Female. Length 1.3–1.6 mm. Proportions 2.0 times as long as wide. Matures red-brown. Frons with small median keel on lower half ( Fig. 4CView FIGURE 4). Antennal funiculus with four funicular segments, club with straight sutures. Pronotal margin with 2−4 small asperities, the median pair larger. Pronotal disc approx. 1/5 of pronotal length, with hair-like setae only. Elytral disc about half of elytral length. Interstrial bristles hair-like, all of similar length. Striae weakly visible. Ground vestiture mostly hair-like, with widened bases and tapered tips. Setae on lateral area of first visible ventrite a mix of hair-like and bifid, setae on posterior margin of abdominal ventrites hair-like and not in a distinct row.

Diagnosis: Male. Similar to female except: upper frons with fine, raised, transverse carina ( Fig. 4DView FIGURE 4), often obscured by pronotum. Pronotum with asperities on margin fused to a sclerotized ridge ( Figs. 4B, 4DView FIGURE 4).

Host plants. Moraceae  : Artocarpus altilis  , Ficus  L. sp.; Anacardiaceae  : Mangifera indica  ; Fabaceae  : Inga edulis Mart.  ; Malvaceae  : Adansonia digitata  L.; Rhizophoraceae  : “bacauan” [likely Rhizophora  L. or Brugueira Lam.].

Distribution. Hawaiʻi: Hawaiʻi; Kauaʻi; Oʻahu. Other locations: Philippines; Papua New Guinea.

Discussion. This species is often collected in fruits, an unusual environment for Cryphalus  . In Hawaiʻi, they have been collected from Artocarpus altilis  (breadfruit) fruits, as well as Inga edulis  fruits (ice cream bean) and Adansonia digitata  (baobab). Additionally, specimens have been collected from Mangifera  and Ficus  fruits in Papua New Guinea (Johnson, pers. obs.). The type series was collected from mangrove “seeds”, probably referring to the propagules. It is unclear if they reproduce in all of these fruits; reproduction has only been observed in Artocarpus  fruits.

On breadfruit, these were observed boring into unripe fruits. While this species has not been reported as a pest in these systems, this behavior may cause premature ripening or decay of fruits, and make further introductions elsewhere plausible. This behavior has not been observed on other specialty crops involved in international trade such as mango and figs, but the records of it also attacking mangroves, likely the living propagules, could suggest that it may attack living tissue of other plant hosts.

The species was recorded from Hawaiʻi by Bernard et al. (2018) under the name Cryphalus longipilus  . The material was determined as Cryphalus longipilus Schedl, 1943  by AJJ, based on non-type specimens collected in Hawaiʻi in 2010 (UFFE:15074–15088) labeled as “? Ericryphalus longipilus Schedl  ” by G. A. Samuelson in 2010. AJJ’s determination was accompanied by a caveat that the species might be synonymous with C. negrosensis ( Bernard et al. 2018)  . The material examined in this study included loans of unpublished vouchers from Bernard et al. (2018) (UFFE:26363,26364,26366).

The authors have not yet been able to examine type material of C. longipilus  , but we now consider it unlikely that it is synonymous with C. negrosensis  . Wood (1960) redescribed C. longipilus (Schedl, 1943)  , and noted a conspicuous tuft of denser, more red colored setae present at the base of the declivity of interstriae 1 in the female. Although Wood’s redescription is detailed, it does not mention the conspicuous keel on the lower half of the frons of all specimens, and the males with the particularly unusual character of fused serrations on the anterior margin of the pronotum. Based on that description alone, the specimens from Hawaiʻi do not match, and there are no bona fide records or specimens of C. longipilus  from Hawaiʻi.

Additionally, the lectotype of Cryphalus walkeri (Blandford, 1896)  and the holotype of its junior synonym, Coccotrypes hagedorni Eggers, 1908  appear to have a superficial resemblance to this species. The lectotype of C. walkeri  is a male (by the shallow-sloped and flat pronotal declivity with minute asperities), but it clearly has marginal asperities not fused into a continuous ridge, whereas the type of Co. hagedorni  is a female and may not be diagnosable with the known characters. Further investigation with more specimens from the type localities, with molecular data or at least more characters (e.g., frons, proventriculus, and aedeagus) would be needed before making further taxonomic judgements.


Natural History Museum, London


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Cryphalus negrosensis Browne, 1979

Johnson, Andrew J., Honsberger, David & Beaver, Roger A. 2021

Cryphalus negrosensis

Browne, F. G. 1979: 85