Cryphalus brasiliensis Schedl, 1976

Johnson, Andrew J., Honsberger, David & Beaver, Roger A., 2021, New records and taxonomic notes on Cryphalus Erichson, 1836 in Hawaiʻi (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae), Zootaxa 4999 (1), pp. 41-57: 42-45

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4999.1.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:B06EDF71-88EB-44FC-AF42-97583ADFF61F

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A587B6-0B2F-FFAC-FF58-FAD4FB94FE93

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Cryphalus brasiliensis Schedl, 1976
status

 

Cryphalus brasiliensis Schedl, 1976  

( Figs. 1A–C View FIGURE 1 , 2A–E View FIGURE 2 )

Cryphalus brasiliensis Schedl, 1976: 65   .

Type material examined. Holotype Cryphalus brasiliensis Schedl, 1976   : BRAZIL • ♀; “Guanabara” [Rio de Janeiro], Botafogo ; Jan. 1970; M. Alvarenga leg.; labeled “BOTAFOGO // Guanabara Brasil // 1.1970 // M. Al- varenga leg.//// Type Cryphalus brasiliensis   // K. -E. Schedl //// Dauernpräparat//Nr. 3541// Fühler // coll. Schedl ”; ( NHMW).  

Other material examined. UNITED STATES • 1 ♀; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, UH Mānoa campus; 21.2954°N,- 157.8145°E; 27 Jul. 2018; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Ficus microcarpa   ; collected from branches, under bark; UFFE:35211 • 1 ♂; Same collection data; UFFE:35212 • 110; Same collection data; UFFE:35210 • 31; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, UH Mānoa campus; 21.2954°N,- 157.8145°E; 08 Sep. 2018; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Ficus microcarpa   ; UFFE:35213 • 1 ♂; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, UH Mānoa campus; 21.2954°N,- 157.8145°E; 11 Jan. 2019; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Ficus microcarpa   ; 1 male for potential dissection; UFFE:35216 • 80; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, UH Mānoa campus; 21.2954°N,- 157.8145°E; 11 Jan. 2019; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Ficus microcarpa   ; collected from branches, under bark; UFFE:35215 • 70; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, UH Mānoa campus; 21.2954°N,- 157.8145°E; 17 May 2019; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Ficus microcarpa   ; UFFE:35214 • 50; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, UH Mānoa; 21.2954°N,- 157.8145°E; 18 Nov. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Ficus microcarpa   ; Ficus microcarpa   branches; UFFE:36093 • 10; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, UH Mānoa; 21.2952°N,- 157.8141°E; 03 Dec. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Trema orientalis   ; collected from branches, under bark; UFFE:36094 • 3 ♀♀, 2 ♂♂; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Mānoa Valley; 21.3060°N,- 157.8092°E; 15 Dec. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Artocarpus altilis   ; mostly teneral, some mature; UFFE:36083 • 1 ♂; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Mānoa Valley; 21.3060°N,- 157.8092°E; 15 Dec. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Artocarpus altilis   ; collected from branches, under bark; UFFE:36078 • 1 ♀; Same collection data; UFFE:36081 • 1 ♀; Hawaiʻi, Oʻahu, Waimānalo Research Station; 21.3379°N,- 157.716°E; 15 Dec. 2020; David Honsberger leg.; ex. Artocarpus altilis   ; UFFE:36070.

Diagnosis: Female. Length 1.2–1.5 mm. Proportions 2.1 times as long as wide. Most mature specimens yellow/ orange-brown. Frons flat or slightly convex ( Fig. 2D View FIGURE 2 ). Antennae with four funicular segments, club with straight or weakly procurved sutures. Pronotal margin with approx. four asperities of a similar size. Pronotal disc approx. one half of pronotal length, covered with tridentate scale-like setae. Elytral disc more than one half of elytral length. Interstrial bristles flattened with rounded tips, approximately even in length. Striae barely discernable. Ground vestiture clearly scale-like. Setae on lateral area of first visible abdominal ventrite mostly bifid, setae on posterior margin of each abdominal ventrites in distinct row, dagger-like, widest in middle of each seta.

Diagnosis: Male. Similar to female except: upper frons with transverse ridge ( Fig. 2E View FIGURE 2 ). Protibiae and protarsi with large spatula-shaped setae ( Fig. 2B View FIGURE 2 , ventral).

Among the species known from the Hawaiian Islands, this is most similar to Cryphalus sylvicola   which can be most reliably distinguished by differences in the interstrial bristles on the elytral disc near the median suture ( C. brasiliensis   : of a similar length to the rest of the interstrial bristles; vs C. sylvicola   : much longer than the rest of the interstrial bristles), and for the males, by the epistomal margin ( C. brasiliensis   : very weakly chevron-shaped margin; vs C. sylvicola   : deep fovea at epistomal margin, with enlarged mandibles), the pronotal slope ( C. brasiliensis   : many marginal asperities, clearly visible; vs C. sylvicola   : barely visible asperities, mostly just rugose cuticle), and by the setae on the protibiae and protarsi ( C. brasiliensis   : spatula-shaped setae along distal inside margin; vs C. sylvicola   : slightly curved, hair-like setae only).

The species is similar to the recently described Cryphalus itinerans Johnson, 2020   , a species from Asia which was introduced to Florida. However, the species differ by the interstrial bristles ( C. brasiliensis   : flattened, less than five times as long as wide; vs C. itinerans   : narrow, slightly flattened, more than five times as long as wide), and by the setae on the male protibiae and protarsi ( C. brasiliensis   : spatula-shaped setae along distal inside margin; vs C. itinerans   : scythe-shaped setae).

This species is also similar to the widely distributed species Cryphalus dilutus Eichhoff, 1878   , a probable pest of mango and fig. It is especially similar in the proportions and the large setae on the protibia of males. The species can be distinguished by antennal club sutures ( C. brasiliensis   : evenly spaced and weakly procurved; C. dilutus   : unevenly spaced, the most distal more procurved), and by the mesofemoral spur on the males ( C. brasiliensis   : absent; C. dilutus   : present).

Host plants. Moraceae   : Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson ex F.A.Zorn) Fosberg   , Ficus microcarpa   L.; Cannabaceae   : Trema orientalis   (L.) Blume.

Distribution. Hawaiʻi: Oʻahu; Other locations: Brazil.

Discussion. Cryphalus brasiliensis   is an enigma: described from a single specimen from a region with no known native species. No other specimen has been collected or seen since the description and the specimens report- ed here, though it is possible that the species may have already been described elsewhere. It is likely that this is an introduced species in Hawaiʻi but may have been overlooked because of the similarity with C. sylvicola   . Specimens were found in this study occurring in especially high densities, feeding and reproducing in the phloem/cambium layer under the bark of F. microcarpa   branches, possibly expanding necrotic areas.

NHMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Curculionidae

Genus

Cryphalus

Loc

Cryphalus brasiliensis Schedl, 1976

Johnson, Andrew J., Honsberger, David & Beaver, Roger A. 2021
2021
Loc

Cryphalus brasiliensis

Schedl, K. E. 1976: 65
1976