Satanoperca curupira, Ota & Kullander & Deprá & Da Graça & Pavanelli, 2018

Ota, Renata R., Kullander, Sven O., Deprá, Gabriel C., Da Graça, Weferson J. & Pavanelli, Carla S., 2018, Satanoperca curupira, a new cichlid species from the rio Madeira basin in Brazil (Teleostei: Cichlidae), Zootaxa 4379 (1), pp. 103-112: 104-109

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Satanoperca curupira

new species

Satanoperca curupira   , new species

( Figs. 1–4 View FIGURE 1 View FIGURE 2 View FIGURE 3 View FIGURE 4 )

Satanoperca   sp. “Jaru” —. Weidner 2000: 243 (photograph of living specimen).

Satanoperca jurupari   —. Stawikowski & Werner 2004: 404 (photograph of living specimen) —. Graça et al. 2013: 373 (in part; lots UFRO-I 7869 and UFRO-I 11589).

Holotype. INPA 7621 View Materials , 137.7 View Materials mm SL: Brazil, Rondônia, Ariquemes, lago Fortaleza, tributary of the rio Canaã , rio Jamari basin (09°57'S 63°03'W); G.M. dos Santos, 0 9 Jun 1984. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. All from Brazil, Rondônia, rio Madeira basin: CPUFMT 365, 9 (2, c&s, 78.3–81.4 mm SL), Pimenta Bueno, rio Roosevelt, immediately above the bridge of Cinta Larga ( Aldeia do João Bravo ), 11°38'15''S 60°26'56''W, A.C. Ribeiro & F.C.T GoogleMaps   . Lima, 30 Oct 2009; INPA 55147 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 109.7 View Materials mm SL, same data of holotype GoogleMaps   ; INPA 37443, 7, 86.9–111.3 mm SL, Ariquemes, igarapé, just below the UHE Samuel , 10°12'19''S 62°44'13''W, G.M. dos Santos, 21 Jun 1988 GoogleMaps   ; INPA 49233 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 172.9 View Materials mm SL, rio Jamari , lagoon just below igarapé Japiin, lagoa Boa esperança   ; MCP 38560 View Materials , 23, 54.9–99.2 mm SL, Ariquemes, ribeirão Carapanã, tributary of the rio Jamari , ca. 37 km N of Ariquemes, BR-364, 09°37'22''S 63°04'18''W, V. Bertaco, P. Lehmann, J.P. Silva & A.R. Cardoso, 17 Jul 2004 GoogleMaps   ; MZUSP 74533 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 103.9 View Materials mm SL, Ariquemes, igarapé in Boa Vista farm, 10°12'21''S 62°44'14''W, A.C.B. Oliveira, Aug 2001 GoogleMaps   ; NUP 19340 View Materials , 1, 130.7 mm SL, Monte Negro, rio Jamari , 10°20'10"S 63°15'12"W, J.R. Gonçalves, 0 1 Aug 2015 GoogleMaps   ; NUP 19369 View Materials , 1, 147.0 mm SL, Ariquemes, rio Itapoana, tributary of the rio Jamari , 09°57'23"S 63°05'46"W, J.R. Gonçalves, 0 1 Aug 2015 GoogleMaps   ; NUP 19443 View Materials , 1, 147.0 mm SL, Ariquemes, rio Itapoana, tributary of the rio Jamari , J.R. Gonçalves, 0 1 Apr 2016   ; NUP 19445 View Materials , 1, 150.3 mm SL, Monte Negro, rio Jamari , 10°05'01"S 63°08'52"W, J.R. Gonçalves, 0 1 Apr 2016 GoogleMaps   ; NUP 19473 View Materials , 2, 156.2– 160.5 mm SL, Monte Negro, rio Jamari , 10°14'04"S 63°14'01"W, J.R. Gonçalves, 0 1 Sep 2016 GoogleMaps   ; UFRO-I 7869, 1, 154.8 mm SL, Porto Velho, lago Madalena, tributary of the rio Jaciparaná , 09°17'0.9''S 64°23'57.1''W, A.C. Mota, 0 3 Aug 2010 GoogleMaps   ; UFRO-I 16611, 1, 157.2 mm SL, Porto Velho, mouth of the igarapé Jatuarana, tributary of the rio Madeira , 08°49'50.4''S 64°02'47.2''W GoogleMaps   , LIP/UNIR staff, 0 8 Nov 2009; UFRO-I 16612, 1, 154.6 mm SL, Porto Velho, mouth of the rio Jaciparaná , 09°17'S 64°24'W GoogleMaps   , LIP/UNIR staff, 0 1 Oct 2011.

Non-types. All from Brazil, Rondônia, rio Madeira basin: MPEG 22058 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 125.3 View Materials mm SL   , REBIO Jaru , 10°15'S 61°50'W, F.R. Silva, Nov 2009 GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 22084, 1, 84.8 mm SL; MPEG 22085, 1, 70.0 mm SL, Ji-Paraná, igarapé Jacarezinho, REBIO Jaru , 10°15'17.4''S 61°50'44.8''W, F.R. Silva, 0 9 Nov 2009 GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 22087, 6 (4, 78.6– 117.6 mm SL), Ji-Paraná, igarapé do Carlão, REBIO Jaru , 09°31'53''S 61°47'10.6''W, F.R. Silva, Nov 2009 GoogleMaps   ; NUP 19498 View Materials , 2, 157.2–159.0 mm SL, Ariquemes, rio Canaã , 10°01'29"S 63°03'27"W, J.R. Gonçalves, 0 1 Dec 2016 GoogleMaps   ; UFRO-I 7879, 1, 135.4 mm SL, Porto Velho, igarapé Belmont , tributary of the rio, 08°39'42.8''S 63°52'42.3''W, F. Vieira, 16 Oct 2010 GoogleMaps   ; UFRO-I 11589, 3, 67.7–94.7 mm SL, São Miguel do Guaporé, igarapé São Luís, tributary of the rio São Miguel , 11°42'56.2''S 62°29'46.1''W GoogleMaps   , LIP/UNIR staff, 30 Aug 2008.

Diagnosis. Satanoperca curupira   is distinguished from all congeners by the following combination of characters: 3–7 dark-brown oblique stripes on lachrymal (vs. 2 well-defined dark-brown stripes, or dark-brown stripes absent) and an irregular pattern of dark-brown stripes on cheek and opercular series (vs. cheek without darkbrown markings or with light-beige rounded spots). Additionally, it differs from S. acuticeps (Heckel)   , S. daemon (Heckel)   and S. lilith Kullander & Ferreira   by the absence of black rounded blotches on flank (vs. presence). From S. jurupari   , S. leucosticta   , S. mapiritensis   , S. pappaterra   and S. rhynchitis   by having 14–16 gill rakers (mode 15) on ceratobranchial 1 (vs. 13–14, mode 14, in S. rhynchitis   ; 15–19, mode 18, in the remaining species), and by the lateral band absent or inconspicuous in preserved specimens (vs. lateral band always present and conspicuous in preserved specimens of S. jurupari   , S. leucosticta   , S. mapiritensis   and S. rhynchitis   , or very pronounced in S. pappaterra   ).

Description. Morphometric data summarized in Table 1. Body laterally compressed; greatest depth at vertical through pelvic-fin origin. In lateral view, dorsal contour more arched than ventral. Dorsal profile of head ascending straight or slightly convex from tip of snout to nape, slightly elevated above orbit. Dorsal profile of trunk moderately convex from nape to end of dorsal fin; slightly concave along caudal peduncle. Ventral profile almost straight from tip of snout to pelvic-fin origin; straight or slightly convex between pelvic fin and anal-fin origin; moderately convex along anal fin; and slightly concave along caudal peduncle.

Snout long and pointed in lateral view, its tip below horizontal through median axis of body. Mouth terminal, well below level of orbits; lips of “American type ”, thick, upper with continuous fold, lower interrupted symphysially. Tip of maxilla reaching about vertical between nostril and orbit. Nostril dorsolaterally placed, below horizontal line through lower margin of orbit, halfway between tip of snout and orbit. Orbit large, situated dorsally on posterior half of head; pupil approximately at same level of upper lateral line. Interorbital space narrower than mouth. Posterior margin of preopercle smooth. Supracleithrum serrated only in one specimen.

E1 scales 27(10) or 28*(9); scales between upper lateral line and dorsal-fin 3½ – 4½ anteriorly, 1½ posteriorly.

Scales in transverse row 8+1+3½. Scales on lateral line 17/9(1), 17/10(1), 18/9(1), 18/10(4), 18/11(2), 19/11*(6), 19/12(1), 20/10(2) or 21/12(1); two scales of lower lateral line continuing onto caudal fin. Cheek scales ctenoid posterodorsally, cycloid anteroventrally, arranged in 4(5), 5*(10) or 6(4) rows. Opercle scales cycloid, with different sizes and stochastically arranged. Subopercle covered with 1(5) or 2*(14) rows of cycloid scales. Interopercle with two or three cycloid scales embedded in skin. Preopercle naked. Circumpeduncular scale rows 16, including lateral line scales. Predorsal region with scales cycloid and ctenoid, approximately half size of flank scales. Flank scales ctenoid. Prepelvic scales cycloid, decreasing in size towards gular region. Abdominal scales ctenoid, slightly smaller than flank scales. Pectoral, pelvic, dorsal and anal fins naked. Caudal fin covered with inter-radial cycloid scales from base of rays to one-fourth of its length; series of scales with pores and canals between rays D3–D4 (2–3 scales) and V4–V5 (6–10 scales continuing from lower branch of lateral line).

Dorsal-fin rays XV.9(1), XV.10*(14), XVI.9(3) or XIV.10(1); dorsal spines increasing in size up to 6th, first spine about one-fourth length of last. Dorsal fin pointed in region comprised by median soft rays, sometimes forming filament reaching up to distal margin of caudal fin; lappets pointed with free posterior margin, slightly surpassing tips of spines. Anal-fin rays III.7 *(15), III.8 (1); middle rays pointed, reaching up to one-third of caudal fin. Caudal fin straight or slightly rounded, with 14 principal rays. Total pectoral-fin rays 14*(12), 15(7). Pectoral fin rounded, with fourth ray longest, reaching up to first anal-fin spine. Pelvic fin pointed, first ray longest, with filamentous extension, reaching up to anal-fin base in large specimens.

Gill rakers externally on first epibranchial lobe 9(1), 10(6), 11(10) or 12*(2), 0–1 on angle; 13(2), 14*(6), 15(8) or 16(3) on ceratobranchial 1. Microbranchiospines present internally and externally only on 2nd and 4th gill arches.

Lower pharyngeal tooth plate elongate; length (including postero-lateral processes) 105% of width; length of dentigerous area 75% of width ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 ). Anterior teeth slender, with unique retrorse cusp. Medioposterior teeth more robust, with large posterior cusp antrorse; 9–11 teeth in median row, 13–17 in posterior row, 29 in each lateral margin. Vertebrae 15+14(2).

Teeth unicuspid and retrorse, of uniform size. Symphysis of both jaws lacking teeth. Hemiseries of upper/ lower jaw 17–33/16–24; one to three inner rows anteriorly in lower jaw.

Color in alcohol. Background yellowish-brown; ventral region yellowish-white; head brownish. No apparent sexual dichromatism. Dorsal region of head with four brown transversal stripes: one between nostrils, two on interorbital space and one on nape. Three to seven dark-brown oblique stripes, from anterior to posterior margin of lachrymal ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 ). Irregular dark-brown stripes on cheek and opercular series. Seven dark-brown vertical bars; six along base of dorsal fin and one at caudal peduncle; bars two to five not always complete, anterior and posterior generally fused, Y-shaped. Lateral band inconspicuous or absent. Dorsal and anal fin yellowish-brown, with white dots on soft rays. Caudal fin yellowish-brown, lighter distally; one black blotch, generally ocellated, at base of D3– D7 rays. Young specimens (smaller than about 65.0 mm SL) similar to adults, except by color pattern of head with only two thick stripes on lachrymal. Irregular dark-brown stripes on cheek and opercular series absent in specimens smaller than 80.0 mm SL.

Color in life. Background color greenish-yellow; ventral region yellowish-white ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 ). Lips orange; lachrymal greenish; cheek and opercular series brownish. Eyes brownish, with light yellow ring around pupil. Pattern of stripes on lachrymal, cheek and opercular series same to that described for color in alcohol. Intensity of vertical bars and lateral band variable. Dorsal fin with dark lappets and gold to yellow spots on soft portion. Pelvic fin with greenish blue iridescent filament. Anal fin with greenish blue iridescent stripes and spots in soft portion. Base of caudal fin with yellowish iridescent spots; dark blotch at base of upper lobe of caudal fin inconspicuous and not ocellated.

Distribution. Satanoperca curupira   is known from the rio Madeira basin in Brazil, occurring in the main channel of the rio Madeira and in several tributaries draining the Brazilian shield (rio Jaciparaná, rio Jamari, rio Jaru and rio Machado), and also at the rio Roosevelt (a tributary of the rio Aripuanã), and at the rio São Luis (a tributary of the rio Guaporé) ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ).

Etymology. The specific name curupira   refers to a mythological creature of Brazilian folklore that protects the forest and its inhabitants, punishing those who hunt for pleasure or who kill breeding females or defenseless juveniles ( Pereira 1994). The Curupira legend reveals the relationship between the indigenous people and the forest: it is not about exploration and indiscriminate use, but respect for life. A noun in apposition.














Satanoperca curupira

Ota, Renata R., Kullander, Sven O., Deprá, Gabriel C., Da Graça, Weferson J. & Pavanelli, Carla S. 2018

Satanoperca jurupari

Graça et al. 2013 : 373