Paralecanium maritimum (Green)

Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams, 2018, Revision of the soft scale genus Paralecanium (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) with the introduction of three new genera and twenty new species, Zootaxa 4443 (1), pp. 1-162: 114-116

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4443.1.1

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Paralecanium maritimum (Green)


Paralecanium maritimum (Green)  

( Fig. 47 View FIGURE 47 )

Lecanium planum maritimum Green, 1896   , 9. Type data: SRI LANKA: Bentota, on leaves of a thorny bush growing on the seashore. Syntypes, female. Type depository: BMNH, London, England, U.K.

Lecanium maritimum   ; Cockerell & Parrott, 1899, 228.

Paralecanium maritimum   ; Fernald, 1903, 199. Change of combination.

Material examined. Lectotype (here designated): SRI LANKA (as Ceylon): top labels: TYPE in red on round label + Lectotype in red on narrow label; bottom label: Lecanium   / maritimum   / Green / on Carissa   / Bentota / Ceylon ( BMNH): 1/7adff (f, some missing venter; lectotype central specimen). Also: Sri Lanka, top label: co-type in black on oval label; bottom label: Lecanium   / maritimum   / Green / on Carissa   / Bentota ( BMNH): 2/7adff (mostly p, many with no venter). Also: same data ( BMNH): 1/1adm (p).

Other material. SRI LANKA (as Ceylon), Colombo, on Ixora coccinea   , no date or collector (E.E. Green on envelope) ( BMNH): 1/6adff (fp, all with damaged venters). Colombo, no other data, coll. G. Henry #3 ( BMNH): 1/3adff (fg).

MALAYSIA, Sarawak, Kuala Boram, on unknown plant with alternate leaves and pink fruits, 11.vii.1978, V.F. Eastop (no.16, 388) ( BMNH): 1adf (g, dorsum split from venter) + 1 adf D. sarawakense   spec. n., described above). Sarawak, Pasir Ulu, Lindu/Biawak Road, on Piper nigrum   ( Piperaceae   ), 19.i.1979, Kuch Tiong Kheng Agric. Res. Centre, CIE A 10893 View Materials ( BMNH): 1/2adff (g).

Note. The description is based on all specimens in the type series.

Unmounted material. ‘Scale protected by a secretion that becomes tough and gelatinous under treatment with potash.’ ‘Differs from type [ Lecanium planum   ] in smaller size and absence of dermal cells’ ‘Found on both surfaces of leaves of a thorny shrub growing on the sea-shore (within reach of the surf).’ ( Green 1896, p. 9).

Slide-mounted adult female. Body broadest across abdomen. Length 2.2–2.6 mm, width 1.7–2.0 mm; many showing some asymmetry.

Dorsum. Derm of younger adults fairly uniformly sclerotised but more mature specimens with darker areas of sclerotisation forming a pattern medially: a medial longitudinal line and about 8 radial lines emanating from it, with about 5 on abdomen and 3 on thorax, those on head less clear; areolations, each about 8 µm wide, distinct near margin, becoming smaller and more obscure submarginally, also forming a border on either side of anal plates. Marginal radial lines obscure although dorsal pores and setae suggest that there are 11 lines anteriorly between anterior stigmatic clefts, none from each cleft, each side with 3 lines between clefts and 11 on abdomen. Abdominal clear areas absent. Dorsal setae sometimes curved, rather short, length of each 8 µm or less, with a sharp, non-flagellate apex; very hard to see but sparse and possibly mostly situated submarginally in radial lines; absent medially. Large dorsal pores, each 4–7 µm wide (smallest medially and near margin) with distinct micropores; present in broad submarginal/submedial bands, with about 40 per side possibly in a sparse polygonal pattern. Minute simple pores very sparse, each associated with a clear spot on sclerotised dorsum, also perhaps in a polygonal pattern. Anal plates together obviously much longer than wide, each with 4 short setae near apex (2 on outer margin, an apical seta plus 1 on inner margin); without a seta near middle of each inner margin but with 1 or 2 minute pores medially; length of plates 150–160 µm, combined width 80–90 µm (ratio of length to width 1: 0.55). Anogenital fold with 1 pair of small setae along anterior margin; each lateral margin apparently without a seta anteriorly but with 1 medially and another posteriorly.

Margin. Marginal ornamentation present as triangular arrowhead-shaped sclerotisations lying radially to margin, each with a short inner extension, not nearly as deep as marginal setal sockets, with usually 2 or 3 between marginal setae. Marginal setae fan-like; width of each fan 36–42 µm, length 31–38 µm; with 68–70 setae on head between anterior stigmatic clefts, each side with 25–30 between stigmatic clefts, and 58–73 along abdominal margin; none extending up anal cleft. Stigmatic clefts quite deep, each with a sclerotised inner margin and 3 slightly clavate stigmatic spines; median spine clearly longest, each 30–33 µm long, each lateral spine 20–27 µm long. Eyespots each broadly oval, greatest width of socket about 60 µm, that of lens about 20 µm.

Venter. Derm with a complete darker marginal band 60–85 µm wide, and with dark radial “fingers” near margin, each about 30–35 µm long. Multilocular disc-pores in groups on either side of genital opening and on preceding segment only, each side with 6–8 on abdominal segment VII and 13–16 on segment VI. Spiracular discpores present in a narrow band mainly 1 pore wide between margin and each spiracle, with 13–24 pores in each band (least frequent on short side of asymmetrical specimens). Ventral microducts only detected near mouthparts. Ventral setae: with 2 pairs of interantennal setae; long setae present in all abdominal segments; other setae sparse. Antennae well developed, each with 6 segments, total length 240 µm, apical segment 45–50 µm long, apical seta 16 µm long. Clypeolabral shield about 90–100 µm long. Spiracles small, width of each peritreme 18–20 µm. Legs well developed; dimensions of hind leg (µm): coxa 90–94, trochanter + femur 115–117, tibia 66–70 and tarsus 60–66; claw 10. Tarsal digitules slightly longer than claw digitules, with capitate apices; claw digitules both broad but one possibly narrower than other; claw without a denticle; setal distribution: coxa 5 or 6; trochanter 1, moderately long; femur 2; tibia 2 and tarsus 3.

Comments. Paralecanium maritimum   belongs to a group of species that has radial sclerotised dashes as marginal ornamentation. The adult females can be distinguished from those of the other species by the possession of the following character-states: (i) fine, rather setose dorsal setae; (ii) large dorsal pores each about 4–6 µm wide, common in a broad submedial band; (iii) rather elongate anal plates; and (iv) marginal ornamentation in the form of 2 or 3 spear-head-shaped markings between marginal setae. Adult female P. maritimum   are perhaps most similar to those of P. planum   but the latter has much larger marginal sclerotisations, with 7 or 8 between marginal setae, and much smaller dorsal pores.

Host-plants. Carissa   ( Apocynaceae   ); Piper nigrum   ( Piperaceae   ); Ixora coccinea   ( Rubiaceae   ).


Serengetti Research Institute














Paralecanium maritimum (Green)

Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams 2018

Lecanium maritimum

Cockerell & Parrott 1899

Lecanium planum maritimum

Green 1896