Paralecanium frenchii (Maskell)

Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams, 2018, Revision of the soft scale genus Paralecanium (Hemiptera: Coccomorpha: Coccidae) with the introduction of three new genera and twenty new species, Zootaxa 4443 (1), pp. 1-162: 94-97

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4443.1.1

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Paralecanium frenchii (Maskell)


Paralecanium frenchii (Maskell)  

( Fig. 38 View FIGURE 38 )

Lecanium frenchii Maskell, 1891   , 17. Type data: AUSTRALIA: Melbourne, on Banksia australis   . Syntypes, female. Type depository: New Zealand Arthropod Collection, Landcare Research, Auckland, New Zealand.

Lecanium (Paralecanium) frenchii   ; Cockerell & Parrott, 1899, 227.

Paralecanium frenchii   ; Fernald, 1903b, 199. Change of combination.

Material examined. Lectotype, designated by Hodgson (1994), AUSTRALIA: a slide labelled: " Lecanium frenchii   / adult female / Aug. 1890 W.M.M." (ANIC). Australia, Maskell coll. #131 (USNM): 1/1adf, labelled Lecanium frenchii Maskell   ). Australia, location not stated, adult female 1890, W.M.M. (NZAC): 1/1adf, labelled Lecanium frenchii Maskell.   Australia, as previous but labelled ‘antenna of female’ (NZAC) 1/1adf. Australia, mounted from dried material from Maskell collection, simply labelled Lecanium frenchii   (NZAC): 9/9adff & (BMNH) 2/2adff. Australia, ex Banksia australis   , ex Maskell coll. (BMNH): 1/3adff (fp - mainly missing venter).

Other material. AUSTRALIA, Victoria, Sandringham , on Banksia integrifolia   , no date, C. French #112 ( BMNH): 4/16adff (f-g but mainly heavily sclerotised)   . Victoria, on Banksia marginata, Sept.   12, 1915, C. French ( USNM, ex E.E. Green Coll.): 1/1adf (f-g); same data ( BMNH): 2/4adff (vg-p). Sydney, G. Compere coll, # 49 ( USNM): 1/1adf + 2 imm. (p)   . Victoria, Dimboola , no host, Nov. 1900, C. French ( BMNH): 1/2adff (p, no venters)   . South Australia, Kangaroo Is. , on upper surface of leaves of Banksia ornata   , 18.ii.1990, J.H. Martin #5661 ( BMNH): 1/4adff (mainly g)   . New South Wales, Blandville, no other data but labelled VPI & SU collection, R. Wilkey , 1963, S.R. #66 ( USNM): 1/2adff (fg, 1 old, 1 young). Brisbane, Ringwood, on Banksia marginata   , 12.ix.1915, C. French ( BMNH): 2/4adff (f, but mostly damaged).  

Note. Because the type series is poor, the description is taken mainly from the least-sclerotised non-type specimens on slides from Victoria in the BMNH collection.  

Unmounted material. Derm black (J. Martin, pers. com.).

Slide-mounted adult female. Body oval, slightly pointed at both ends. Length 3.3–4.2 mm, width 2.3–2.9 mm.

Dorsum. Derm becoming fairly evenly sclerotised at maturity, particularly submedially and medially; derm with abundant minute pale spots and with large, slightly darker areolations with smaller pale spots, perhaps most obvious near margin but present throughout. Marginal radial lines indicated by darker derm (which look like cracks on older adults), with 11 anteriorly on head between stigmatic clefts, a short line from each cleft, each side with 3 lines between clefts and 11 on abdomen. Abdominal clear areas present but often obscure. Setae and pores probably showing a sparse polygonal pattern. Dorsal setae each elongate and setose, 12–19 µm long, most frequent posteriorly, absent medially; possibly arranged in a sparse polygonal pattern. Large dorsal pores, each about 5 µm wide, present in loose submedial bands extending anteriorly from anal plates to about metathorax, probably with each pore associated with a polygonal pattern; with 15–30 pores in each band. Minute simple pores sparse, apparent as small open pores within the sclerotised dorsum. Anal plates elongate, each plate with a rounded outer margin, 1–3 minute pores medially and 1 or 2 small setae near posterior apex; length of plates 117–168 µm, combined width 42–65 µm. Anogenital fold with 2 pairs of minute setae along anterior margin and 0–2 pairs of setae laterally.

Margin. Marginal ornamentation present as small shallow sclerotised spots, with mostly 1 between marginal setae. Marginal setae fan-shaped but with a flattish top; almost triangular; width of each fan about 20–25 µm, length 12–22 µm; with about 88 along anterior margin of head between anterior stigmatic clefts, each side with 25– 37 setae between stigmatic clefts and about 78–84 on abdomen. Stigmatic clefts quite deep, each with a sclerotised inner margin and 3 slightly clavate stigmatic spines; median spine longest, length 32–45 µm, each lateral spine 21– 30 µm long. Eyespots each more or less round; greatest width of socket about 45 µm, diameter of lens 15–20 µm.

Venter. Derm membranous apart from a darker marginal band about 125 µm wide (indistinct on younger specimens), with short radial pale lines or fingers extending from margin; also with a more sclerotised area just posterior to anal plates on each side of ano-genital fold. Multilocular disc-pores abundant around genital opening and on preceding segment only, each side with about 20–22 on abdominal segment VII and 30–37 on segment VI. Spiracular disc-pores present in a narrow band between margin and each spiracle, with 15–30 pores in each band. Ventral microducts only noted near labium. Ventral setae: 1 or 2 pairs of long setae present between antennae; with pairs of long pregenital setae in segments VII and VI and slightly shorter setae medially in other abdominal segments; with a group of 6–8 setae on each side of anal plates in segment VII; small setae very sparse elsewhere, and submarginal setae small and scarce. Antennae well developed, each with 6 (or possibly 7 segments when pseudoarticulation present in segment III); total length 19 0–305 µm; apical segment about 50 µm long; apical setae each about 23 µm long; setal distribution normal. Clypeolabral shield 115–125 µm long. Spiracles small, width of each peritreme 23–33 µm. Legs well developed; dimensions of hind leg (µm): coxa 94–100; trochanter + femur 101–150, tibia 69–100, tarsus 65–93, claw 13; tarsal digitules alike with small apices and longer than claw digitules; claws without a denticle; claw digitules both broad.

Comments. Adult female P. frenchii   are characterised by: (i) dorsal setae long and pointed; (ii) larger dorsal pores restricted to submedial bands on abdominal segments only, (iii) dorsal setae only present in submargin, absent submedially and medially; (iv) marginal radial lines clear and distinct, and (v) marginal setae rather flattopped. Paralecanium frenchii   is currently only known from eastern Australia. It is somewhat similar to P. macrozamiae   , also from Australia, but the latter species has much shorter, blunt dorsal setae, and the large dorsal pores extend onto the thorax and head.

Host-plants. Banksia australis   , B. integrifolia   , B. marginata   , B. ornata   ( Proteaceae   ). Unconfirmed host plant: Macrozamia fraseri   ( Zamiaceae   ), (this almost certainly refers to P. macrozamiae   ).


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University














Paralecanium frenchii (Maskell)

Chris J. Hodgson & Douglas J. Williams 2018

Lecanium frenchii

Maskell 1891