Nomada bethunei Cockerell,

Droege, Sam, Rightmyer, Molly G., Sheffield, Cory S. & Brady, Seán G., 2010, New synonymies in the bee genus Nomada from North America (Hymenoptera: Apidae), Zootaxa 2661, pp. 1-32: 6-7

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.199027

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Nomada bethunei Cockerell


Nomada bethunei Cockerell 

Figures 4–6, 15, 16View FIGURES 13 – 18, 21

Nomada bethunei Cockerell 1903: 607  [Holotype: U.S. National Museum of Natural History, ♂; label data: “Cana [ Canada] 2174 [ Baker collection No. 2,174]// N. M. 3 // TYPE No. 13159 U.S. N.M. [red label]// Nomada bethunei Ckll  TYPE // USNM ENT 0 0 533894 [yellow barcode label]”].

Nomada (Xanthidium) pseudops Cockerell 1905: 189  –190 [Holotype: University of Colorado, Boulder, Ψ, label data: “Collected by S. Graenicher, [ USA] Milwaukee, Wis [Wisconsin], 6-8 -03 [8 June 1903]// Holotype [red label]// Type 1. pseudops, Ckll  // FROM COLLS UNIV OF COLO MUSEUM [blue label]// UCMC 0 0 0 0 107 [barcode label]”] new synonymy.

Diagnosis. Nomada bethunei  has more prominent yellow and red integument than in many other species, particularly in the males ( Figs. 5, 6). Females are differentiated by the following combination of characters: face with integument color pattern grading from red near the vertex to orange-yellow near the mandible except for restricted black regions immediately surrounding the ocelli and between the antennal bases ( Fig. 4); preoccipital margin carinate on gena; mesoscutum with integument more than fifty percent red ( Fig. 5); posterior surface of propodeum midlaterally with large yellow maculation extending from ventral margin dorsally, either joining or not joining yellow maculation laterally on propodeal triangle (Fig. 21); hind tibia with four to eight short, thick, red, spine-like hairs that line the outer apical margin (these hairs often difficult to detect as they are shorter than the surrounding white hairs) ( Fig. 15View FIGURES 13 – 18); for specimens from the eastern part of the species’ distribution, the scutellum is red; the propodeal triangle is red with two round, yellow, lateral spots; and T 2 –T 3 have transverse yellow maculations that are clearly medially-interrupted (specimens from the midwestern part of the species’ distribution with the scutellum yellow to orange, propodeal triangle with a lateral, quadrate, yellow maculation; and T 2 –T 3 each with a solid, or rarely medially-interrupted, transverse maculation). Nomada bethunei  is similar to N. augustiana  , but can be differentiated from that species by the long, white, spine-like hairs on the outer apical margin of the hind tibia that clearly extend beyond the surrounding white hairs in N. augustiana  ( Fig. 13View FIGURES 13 – 18). It is also similar to N. obliterata  , but in that species there are only two submarginal cells on the forewing (rarely three, but in such cases, usually only one wing with three cells), and the hind tibia has usually three to four, relatively long, stout setae on the outer apical margin, these setae clearly bent posteriorly at their apical tips. Finally, N. armatella  differs from N. bethunei  by the presence of long, thin, white or transparent, stout, spine-like hairs on the outer apical margin of the hind tibia. Males of N. bethunei  are among the few species of Nomada  , of this sex, with greater than fifty percent red on the integument of the mesoscutum ( Fig. 6). Males are differentiated from N. articulata Smith  and N. australis Mitchell  by the lack of a small spine present on the posterior surface (when the antennae is projected dorsally) of the third flagellar segment in both those species; it is separated from all other species by the combination of extensive red integument on the mesoscutum and by the very short, spine-like hairs on the outer apical margin of the hind tibia: these hairs are white, clear, or pinkish and are difficult to see among the surrounding white hairs in this region ( Fig. 16View FIGURES 13 – 18) (often most visible when the specimen is inverted and the tibia is examined from underneath). Other species have stout spine-like hairs on the hind tibia that project beyond or are level with the surrounding white hairs in this area.

Molecular results. We obtained DNA barcoding data from four female specimens and one male specimen ( Table 1) that were morphologically similar to the two holotypes representing each gender. The sequences from all five specimens were completely identical (0% sequence divergence), even though they were sampled from several different localities (e.g., Ontario, Connecticut, New York), further supporting the synonymy of N. pseudops  with N. bethunei  .

Variation. Both males and females have greater amounts of yellow on the propodeum and metasoma in the Midwest than the East. The metasomal terga have transverse yellow maculations that vary from mediallyinterrupted to complete.

Distribution. Nomada pseudops  , as previously understood, is an uncommon, northern species, flying in late spring (most specimens from late May to Early June). Mitchell lists Michigan and Ohio for N. bethunei  and Wisconsin to Massachusetts under N. pseudops  . Based on Mitchell’s records and personal observation, N. bethunei  ranges from Virginia north to Massachusetts, west to Kansas and Ontario.

Material examined. We examined 23 specimens from ON, CT, NY, NJ, VA, MI, PA, IA, WI, KS, and IL (Appendix).

Comments. Nomada bethunei  , while uncommon, appears to be regularly collected throughout its range.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History


Ministry of Natural Resources


University of Colorado Herbarium


University of Colorado Museum


Department of Natural Resources, Environment, The Arts and Sport














Nomada bethunei Cockerell

Droege, Sam, Rightmyer, Molly G., Sheffield, Cory S. & Brady, Seán G. 2010

Nomada (Xanthidium) pseudops

Cockerell 1905: 189

Nomada bethunei

Cockerell 1903: 607