Rhiginia crudelis Stål, 1862, Stal, 1862

Forthman, Michael & Gil-Santana, Hélcio R., 2021, Two new species of Rhiginia Stål, 1859, with taxonomical notes on species in the “ cruciata-group ” of this genus and an updated key to the New World genera of Ectrichodiinae (Heteroptera, Reduviidae), Zootaxa 4952 (2), pp. 201-234: 213-214

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Rhiginia crudelis Stål, 1862


Rhiginia crudelis Stål, 1862  

( Figs. 44–51 View FIGURES 44–47 View FIGURES 48–51 )

Morphological remarks. Males of Rhiginia crudelis   ( Figs. 44–47 View FIGURES 44–47 ) are relatively small (11–14 mm) compared to most other members of the cruciata   -group. The dorsal surface of the head, most of the pronotum, scutellar processes, base of the hemelytra and a stripe continuing along the M vein of the corium that ends in an irregular spot adjacent to the outer membranal discal cell (M+Cu cell), and dorsal surface of the connexivum are sanguineous. The ocellar tubercle and margins of the antennifers may be dark brown-black. The pronotum may have a dark brown-black medial longitudinal sulcus on the anterior lobe, as well as two paramedial spots on the transverse sulcus varying from small to moderately large. In some specimens, the scutellar processes are dark red, almost appearing dark brown. The legs are invariably dark brown-black. Ventrally, the head and thoracic sterna are dark brown-black or dark red and infuscated. Abdominal sternite II can be partially or completely dark brown-black medially. An area on sternite VII bordering the pygophore, as well as the latter, is also dark brown-black. The remainder of the abdominal sternites are sanguineous or have a wide longitudinal dark brown-black lateral band that narrowly extends medially along the intersternite furrows. The head is more ovate and globular in lateral view than in most other species of the cruciata   -group, and the species has a strongly convex frons and small eyes ( Fig. 46 View FIGURES 44–47 ). The ocelli are separated by a distance subequal to the diameter of an ocellus and occupy approximately half of the relatively shallow ocellar tubercle ( Figs. 44, 46 View FIGURES 44–47 ). The anterior pronotal lobe is about two-thirds the length of the posterior lobe, the anterior margin is relatively straight and not distinctly notched medially, and the anterolateral pronotal protuberances are indiscernible or slightly prominent and blunt ( Fig. 44 View FIGURES 44–47 ). The hemelytra surpass the apex of the abdomen, the Cu+1A cell in the membrane is subrectangular, and the proximal margin of the Cu+1A membranal cell is about twice that of the M+Cu membranal cell ( Fig. 44 View FIGURES 44–47 ). Sternite II has shallow longitudinal ridges medially. The slightly smaller female ( Figs. 48–50 View FIGURES 48–51 ) is brachypterous, with the hemelytra not reaching or surpassing the posterior margin of tergite III. The dorsal coloration is similar as in the male, except the pronotum has reduced to absent dark brown-black markings. The visible tergites are dark brown-black. The ventral surface of the female is entirely dark brown-black, except for a relatively large posterolateral sanguineous spot on sternites II and III. The head is more globular, the frons is much more convex, and the eyes are smaller than in the male. The anterior pronotal lobe is subequal in length to the posterior lobe. The scutellum is less depressed medially, and the apical processes are much shorter.

Discussion. Stål (1862) described R. crudelis   based on males and brachypterous female specimens from Mexico, with a total length of 11–19 mm. Stål (1862) recognized three variants (“var. a”., “var. b.” and “var. c.”) based strictly on color differences. However, during the present study, it became clear that Stål’s (1862) “var c” is another specific entity, which is here described as a new species, Rhiginia nicholsae   sp. nov. ( Figs. 71–74 View FIGURES 71–74 ). The morphological remarks given above for the males correspond well with Stål’s (1862) “var. a” description and one of his type specimens ( Figs. 44–47 View FIGURES 44–47 ), while the remarks given for the female correspond to his “var. b” description and a type specimen ( Figs. 48–51 View FIGURES 48–51 ).

Stål (1872) used a new name for R. crudelis   : Ectrichodia ruficollis   . Although the name crudelis   had been preoccupied in Ectrichodia   (lato sensu), the latter became restricted to a few American forms, and by consequence the alteration became unnecessary ( Champion 1899; Maldonado 1990). Although Lethierry & Severin (1896) maintained E. ruficollis   as the valid name for R. crudelis, Walker (1873)   , Champion (1899), and Fracker (1912) cited the species as Ectrichodia crudelis   .

Champion (1899) argued that E. crudelis   had a wide range of variation in coloration and size (from almost 13 mm to 21 mm in length), and by consequence included E. crucifera   as its junior synonym, which seemed to him to represent a variety of the species.

The synonym of Ectrichodia fervida Walker, 1873   with E. crudelis   was first established by Champion (1899) and also proposed as original by Distant (1902) in a revised list of Ectrichodiinae   species described by Walker (1873), and accepted by subsequent authors (e.g., Fracker 1912; Baena & Susín 2007). Maldonado (1990) wrongly attributed the priority in establishing this synonymy to Distant (1902). Uhler (1878) and Banks (1910) stated R. crudelis   as a junior synonym of Ectrichodia cruciata   , which Maldonado (1990) considered Banks’ (1910) synonymy an error.

Rhiginia crudelis   was only recorded from Mexico by Stål (1872), Lethierry & Severin (1896), Fracker (1912), and Wygodzinsky (1949) and also from Ecuador by Maldonado (1990). Champion (1899) and Baena & Susín (2007) additionally included Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Panama, while Dougherty (1995) did not mention Nicaragua and Ecuador but included Honduras. Carpintero (1980) recorded the occurrence of this species in forests of Ecuador and Argentina, while Carpintero & Maldonado (1996) stated that R. crudelis   “is known from the United States to Argentina ”. However, considering that the concept of R. crudelis   became stricter in the present study (e.g., Stål’s “var. c” is treated as a separate species [ Rhiginia nicholsae   sp. nov.]), it is possible that some of these country records may or may not include one or both of these species.

Material examined. Type material: Mexico // Sallé // crudelis Stål   // Typus // 48 / 78 // NHRS-GULI   / 000000174 (1 ♂) ( NHRS). Mexico // Sallé // Paratypus // 49 / 78 // Ectrichodia   / crudelis   / Stål // NHRS-GULI / 000008179 (1 ♀) ( NHRS). Other specimen material: MEXICO   : Sinaloa / 38 mi. NE Concordia / nr. Loberas VII-3-82   / Fred G. Andrews / coll. at blacklight // Rhiginia crudelis   / Stål, 1862 / det. M. Forthman 2020 (3 ♂) ( CSCA)   .


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