Prosphaerosyllis marmarae, Çinar & Dagli & Açik, 2011

Çinar, Melih Ertan, Dagli, Ertan & Açik, Sermin, 2011, Annelids (Polychaeta and Oligochaeta) from the Sea of Marmara, with descriptions of five new species, Journal of Natural History 45 (33 - 34), pp. 2105-2143: 2118-2124

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1080/00222933.2011.582966

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03A887C7-FFDD-FFDC-FE36-64AFFBA55B4E

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Prosphaerosyllis marmarae
status

sp. nov.

Prosphaerosyllis marmarae   sp. nov.

( Figures 2–4 View Figure 2 View Figure 3 View Figure 4 )

Material examined

Holotype. ESFM-POL / 2008-48, Sea of Marmara , Erdek, E 1, 40 ◦ 18 ′ 42 ′′ N, 27 ◦ 46 ′ 18 ′′ E, 9 August 2008, 17 m, muddy sand. GoogleMaps  

Paratype. ESFM-POL / 2008-49, Sea of Marmara , Erdek, E 1, 40 ◦ 18 ′ 42 ′′ N, 27 ◦ 46 ′ 18 ′′ E, 9 August 2008, 17 m, muddy sand, eight specimens GoogleMaps   .

Description

Holotype complete, small, 1.56 mm long, 0.32 mm width, with 21 chaetigers ( Figure 2A View Figure 2 ). Largest paratype complete 2.15 mm long, 0.26 mm wide, with 24 chaetigers. Pale yellow in colour. Prostomium somewhat rectangular, wider than long, partially covered by dorsal fold of peristomium, with four large eyes in trapezoidal arrangement, close to each other; two small anterior eyespots located anterior sides of lateral antennae ( Figure 2A,B View Figure 2 ). Antennae pyriform, with bulbous bases and short tips, all similar in shape and size; median antenna inserted between posterior eyes, lateral antennae inserted on anterior margin of prostomium ( Figure 2B View Figure 2 ). Palps short, stout, as long as prostomium, totally fused all along their length, with numerous, short, rounded (sometimes digitiform) papillae. Peristomium narrow, with two small, rounded papillae near tentacular cirri; ventral side of peristomium with five small papillae in a row ( Figure 4A View Figure 4 ); a pair of tentacular cirri similar to antennae, but slightly smaller. Dorsal cirri present on all parapodia; all dorsal cirri similar to antennae in shape and size; cirrophore globular to rectangular in shape, with a rounded, rectractile cirrostyle ( Figure 2C,D View Figure 2 ). Ventral cirri digitiform, shorter than parapodial lobe ( Figure 4A View Figure 4 ). Dorsal papillae large (max. 8.7 µm long), with rounded or pointed tip ( Figure 2C View Figure 2 ), only present at anterior part of dorsal cirri. Parapodia conical, provided with few small papillae; a large papilla on posterior ventral side and a small papilla on anterior dorsal side ( Figure 2C View Figure 2 ). Anterior parapodia with seven falciger chaetae, with short, unidentate, slightly hooked blades, with seven or eight large marginal spines; superior falciger chaeta with large, inequal spines; inferior falciger chaetae with one to three unequal spines; basal spine larger; 7.8–10 µm long ( Figures 3A View Figure 3 , 4B View Figure 4 ). Five falciger chaetae on middle parapodia, with blades of 7.5–8.75 µm long; blades with four or five spines, basal spine larger. Four falciger chaetae on posterior parapodia, with blades of 7.5–8 µm long; blades with two to four small spines, basal spine relatively longer; blades more strongly hooked ( Figures 3B View Figure 3 , 4C View Figure 4 ). Dorsal simple chaeta from chaetiger 1, unidentate, provided with short marginal spines ( Figure 3C View Figure 3 ). Ventral simple chaeta on last five posterior parapodia, sigmoid, smooth ( Figures 3D View Figure 3 , 4D View Figure 4 ). Acicula solitary, acuminate, with subdistal anlargement and rounded tip ( Figure 3E View Figure 3 ). Pharynx everted in holotype, 190 µm long, 100 µm wide; occupying four segments (210 µm long, 125 µm wide in paratype); pharyngeal tooth small, oval, located near anterior quarter of the pharynx. Proventricle larger than pharynx, occupying four or five segments, 275 µm long, 155 µm wide, with 22 muscle cell rows. Pygidium with two pyriform anal cirri.

Remarks

Prosphaerosyllis marmarae   sp. nov. is mainly characterized by the shape of antennae and cirri, the morphology of falcigers [short blade length (≤ 10 µm), strong, triangular long spines on superior falcigers of anterior parapodia], the location and size of the pharyngeal tooth and the arrangement of papillae. This species seems to be similar to Prosphaerosyllis campoyi (San Martín, Acero, Contonente and Gómez, 1982)   , Prosphaerosyllis isabellae ( Nogueira, San Martín and Amaral, 2001)   , Prosphaerosyllis brandhorsti ( Hartmann-Schröder 1965)   , Prosphaerosyllis brevicirra ( Hartmann-Schröder 1960)   , Prosphaerosyllis palpopapillata (Hartmann-Schröder 1992)   and Prosphaerosyllis magnoculata (Hartmann-Schröder 1986)   .

Prosphaerosyllis marmarae   sp. nov. differs from P. campoyi   in having a small, oval pharyngeal tooth located anteriorly (large, rhomboidal in P. campoyi   ), serrated dorsal simple chaeta (smooth in P. campoyi   ), densely papillated palps (scarcely papillated in P. campoyi   ), lacking papillae in mid-dorsal part of segments (present in P. campoyi   ), small, pyriform dorsal cirri on all parapodia (large, rectangular on posterior parapodia in P. campoyi   ).

Prosphaerosyllis isabellae   was originally described from the western Atlantic (Brazilian coast) by Nogueira et al. (2001) and subsequently found along the Australian coast ( San Martín 2005). This species also has a pair of papillated palps and a small pharyngeal tooth, but differs from P. marmarae   in having dorsal cirri with long basal part (globular in P. marmarae   ), cirrophores of dorsal cirri with several iridescent glands (no glands in P. marmarae   ), pharynx with glands on chaetiger 1 (without glands in P. marmarae   ), small spines on cutting edge of blades of falcigers (large spines in P. marmarae   ), lack of spines on blades of posterior falcigers (present in P. marmarae   ), numerous small papillae on dorsum of segments (absent in P. marmarae   ) and proventricle with 32–36 muscle cell rows (22 rows in P. marmarae   ).

Prosphaerosyllis brandhorsti   differs from P. marmarae   in having palps not densely papillated (densely papillated in P. marmarae   ), a large pharyngeal tooth (small in P. marmarae   ) and acicula only slightly bent (acuminate with subdistal enlargement in P. marmarae   ).

Prosphaerosyllis brevicirra   , which was originally described from the Red Sea ( Hartmann-Schröder 1960), is very similar morphologically to P. marmarae   . However, it differs from P. marmarae   in having palps not densely papillated (densely papillated in P. marmarae   ), a large pharyngeal tooth (small in P. marmarae   ), acicula slender with rounded tip (acuminate with subdistal enlargement in P. marmarae   ) and papillae in mid-dorsal part of body (absent in P. marmarae   ).

Prosphaerosyllis palpopapillata   is another species with numerous papillae on palps; however, its antennae and dorsal cirri are longer and not pyriform in contrast to P. marmarae   .

The Australian species Prosphaerosyllis magnoculata   is similar to P. marmarae   but differs from it in having a large pharyngeal tooth (small in P. marmarae   ), palps not densely papillated (densely papillated in P. marmarae   ), scattered small papillae on dorsum of segments (absent in P. marmarae   ), inferior falciger chaetae without spines on blades (with spines in P. marmarae   ) and proventricle as long as pharynx (proventricle longer than pharynx in P. marmarae   ).

Etymology

This species name makes reference to the type locality, the Sea of Marmara   .

Distribution

Sea of Marmara, at 17 m depth.

Key to species of Prosphaerosyllis   recorded from the Mediterranean Sea

1. Dorsum without rows of distinct papillae................................. 2

Dorsum covered with rows of distinct papillae............................ 4

2. Dorsal cirri truncated.......................... P. adelae (San Martín, 1984)  

Dorsal cirri pyriform.................................................... 3

3. Dorsal cirri distinctly shorter than parapodial lobes; palps densely papillated; blades of superior falciger chaetae with coarse spines... S. marmarae   sp. nov.

Dorsal cirri longer than parapodial lobes; palps scarcely papillated; blades of superior falciger chaetae with minute spines....... S. tetralix (Eliason, 1920)  

4. Two papillae located in midline of dorsum of middle segments distinctly longer than others.................... P. longipapillata (Hartmann-Schröder, 1979)  

Papillae on dorsum similar in shape and size.............................. 5

5. Papillae on dorsum small; pharyngeal tooth large, rhomboidal; blades of falciger chaetae long (max. 20 µm), with a distinct dorso-ventral gradation.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ........ P. xarifae ( Hartmann-Schröder, 1960)  

Papillae on dorsum large; pharyngeal tooth small; blades of falciger chaetae short (max. 15 µm), without a dorso-ventral gradation.. ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ... ..... P. campoyi San Martín, Acero, Contonente and Gómez, 1982  

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Annelida

Class

Polychaeta

Order

Phyllodocida

Family

Syllidae

Genus

Prosphaerosyllis

Loc

Prosphaerosyllis marmarae

Çinar, Melih Ertan, Dagli, Ertan & Açik, Sermin 2011
2011
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Prosphaerosyllis marmarae

Çinar & Dagli & Açik 2011
2011
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Prosphaerosyllis marmarae

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P. marmarae

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P. marmarae

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P. marmarae

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P. marmarae

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P. marmarae

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P. marmarae

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P. marmarae

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P. marmarae

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P. marmarae

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