Milnesium granulatum Ramazzotti, 1962,

Michalczyk, Łukasz, Wełnicz, Weronika, Frohme, Marcus & Kaczmarek, Łukasz, 2012, Redescriptions of three Milnesium Doyère, 1840 taxa (Tardigrada: Eutardigrada: Milnesiidae), including the nominal species for the genus, Zootaxa 3154, pp. 1-20: 9-11

publication ID 10.5281/zenodo.214356

persistent identifier

treatment provided by


scientific name

Milnesium granulatum Ramazzotti, 1962


Milnesium granulatum Ramazzotti, 1962  , bona species

( Figs 7–11View FIGURES 7 – 9View FIGURES 10 – 11, Table 2)

Material examined. One paratype, female, slide labelled as follows: “Tipo 145. 1 H. baumanni, 1 M.  tardigradum granulatum Ramazzotti; Fray Jorge ( Cile) a m 620, 22.5. 62, Lichene su parmo (Polivinil).”

Description (measurements in Table 2). Body colour unknown, eyes present according to the original description ( Ramazzotti 1962), but now are no longer visible ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 7 – 9). Dorso-lateral cuticle or only caudo-dorsal cuticle covered with a reticular design (diameter of polygons 0.5–1.5 μm) ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 7 – 9). The design better developed on the caudal cuticle. Ventral cuticle smooth. Granulation or pores in cuticle absent. Two lateral and six peribuccal papillae present(ventral papilla smaller than other papillae).

Buccal apparatus of the Milnesium  type ( Fig. 9View FIGURES 7 – 9). Six peribuccal lamellae around the mouth opening present. Buccal tube slightly funnel-shaped, wider anteriorly (posterior diameter 87 % of the anterior diameter). Pharyngeal bulb elongated, pear-shaped and without placoids or septulum.

Claws of the Milnesium  type, slender ( Figs 10–11View FIGURES 10 – 11). Primary branches on all legs with small, but distinct accessory points detaching from the branch near its end. Secondary branches with rounded basal thickenings. All secondary branches on all legs with three points (i.e. claw configuration: [3 - 3]-[3 - 3]). Single, long transversal, cuticular bars under claws I –III present ( Fig. 10View FIGURES 10 – 11).

Although eggs were not described by Ramazzotti (1962), we should probably expect them to be oval, smooth and deposited in exuvium as in all other known Milnesium  species.

Remarks. Maucci (1973 – 74) reported M. tardigradum granulatum  also from the Trieste Kras, but we have not had an occasion to examine those animals. However, given the locus typicus of M. granulatum  lies on a different continent and in a different zoogeographical region, we hypothesise that Maucci could have found a different species of the Milnesium granulatum  group. Until the record is re-examined, we suggest this report should be considered dubious.

Locus typicus. Coquimbo Region, Bosque de Fray Jorge National Park, Ovalle, ca. 420 km to the North from Santiago de Chile, ca. 30 ° 40 'S and 71 ° 40 'W, ca. 600 m asl, temperate hygrophilous forest surrounded by steppe, mosses and lichens growing on shrubs.

Distribution. Currently confirmed is only the type locality in Chile (but see also Remarks above).

Etymology. Giuseppe Ramazzotti named the species ‘ granulatum  ’ most likely because he interpreted the reticular design on the cuticle as granulation. In fact, ‘granules’ are shallow depression in the shape of rounded polygons (see Fig. 8View FIGURES 7 – 9).

Type depositories. The type material is preserved at the Natural History Museum of Verona, Italy.

Differential diagnosis. Apart from M. granulatum  there are four other described Milnesium  species with sculptured cuticle (see Table 1). M. granulatum  differs specifically from:

M. alabamae Wallendorf & Miller, 2009  by having accessory points on the primary branches.

M. katarzynae Kaczmarek, Michalczyk & Beasley, 2004  by a different claw configuration ([3 - 3]-[3 - 3] in M. granulatum  and [2 - 2]-[2 - 2] in M. katarzynae  ), a wider buccal tube (pt ca. 39 % in M. granulatum  and pt ca. 21– 26 % in M. katarzynae  ) and stylet supports inserted in more anterior position (pt ca. 66 % in M. granulatum  and pt. ca. 73–78 % in M. katarzynae  ).

M. krzysztofi Kaczmarek & Michalczyk, 2007  by a different claw configuration ([3 - 3]-[3 - 3] in M. granulatum  and [2-3]-[3 - 2] in M. krzysztofi  ).

M. reticulatum Pilato, Binda & Lisi, 2002  by the absence of gibbosities, having six peribuccal lamellae (four in M. reticulatum  ) and a different claw configuration ([3 - 3]-[3 - 3] in M. granulatum  and [2-3]-[3 - 2] in M. reticulatum  ).














Milnesium granulatum Ramazzotti, 1962

Michalczyk, Łukasz, Wełnicz, Weronika, Frohme, Marcus & Kaczmarek, Łukasz 2012

M. alabamae

Wallendorf & Miller 2009

M. krzysztofi

Kaczmarek & Michalczyk 2007

M. katarzynae

Kaczmarek, Michalczyk & Beasley 2004

M. reticulatum

Pilato, Binda & Lisi 2002