Xerochlamys itremoensis, Hong-Wa, 2009

Hong-Wa, Cynthia, 2009, Endemic families of Madagascar. XII. Resurrection and taxonomic revision of the genera Mediusella (Cavaco) Hutchinson and Xerochlamys Baker (Sarcolaenaceae), Adansonia (3) 31 (2), pp. 311-339: 330-332

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5252/a2009n2a7

persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Xerochlamys itremoensis


7. Xerochlamys itremoensis  

Hong-Wa, G.E.Schatz & Lowry, sp. nov. ( Fig. 5 View FIG )

Arbuscula prostrata   , caulis rubris, ramis junioribus pilosis, foliis ellipticis glabris ad apices acutis et ad bases attenuatis, floribus axillaribus solitariis.

TYPUS. — Madagascar. Prov. Fianarantsoa, Itremo, Massif de l’Itremo, Antsirakambiaty, végétation basse à Pachypodium brevicaule   dominée par Xerochlamys   , sol sommaire sur quartzite, 20°35’34”S, 46°34’18”E, 1830 m, 27.III.1999, fr., Labat et al. 3057 (holo-, P!, iso-, G, K, MO!, P!, TAN!).

PARATYPES. — Madagascar. Prov. Fianarantsoa, Itremo , [20°32’S, 46°33’E], 1500-1685 m, I.1964, Bosser 18879 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   ; Bosser 18879bis ( MO, P, TAN)   ; Bosser 18879ter ( P)   . — 27. I.1975, Croat 29827 ( MO, TAN)   ; Croat 29851 ( MO, TAN)   . — 12. I.1973, Guillaumet 4259 ( P)   . — Massif de l’Itremo, Ianasana , 20°34’40”S, 46°35’11”E, 1558 m, 25. VI.2005, Hong-Wa et al. 359 ( MO, P, TAN) GoogleMaps   . — Idem , [20°36’S, 46°39’E], 1500- 1700 m, 17.I-22.IV.1955, Humbert 28175 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   . — [20°32’S, 46°33’E], 1.XII.1970, Keraudren-Aymonin 25788 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   ; Keraudren s. n. ( MO, P)   . — 1300- 1600 m, XI.1970, Morat 3655 ( P, TAN)   . — 20°36’47”S, 46°34’44”E, 1710 m, 23.III.1996, Rakotomalaza et al. 671 ( MO) GoogleMaps   . — [20°36’S, 46°32’30”E], 1700 m, 6.VII.1992, A. Randrianasolo 237 ( MO) GoogleMaps   Idem, eastern margin of the Itremo Massif, c. 19 km west of Ambatofinandrahana , 20°34’21”S, 46°34’54”E, 1580-1700 m, 10.III.2000, Schatz et al. 3959 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   . — Idem , [20°36’S, 46°34’E], 1600-1700 m, 27.XI.1969, Service Forestier 28898 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   . — Mt. Ambatomenaloha (Itremo massif), [20°37’S, 46°33’E], 17. I.1955, Service Forestier 11558 ( MO, P) GoogleMaps   .


Shrubs prostrate; young twigs tomentose, older twigs glabrous. Leaf blades glossy green above, green to yellowish beneath, narrowly elliptic, 1-2 × 0.3- 0.6 cm, chartaceous, glabrous, base cuneate, margin plane, apex acute, midrib red, slightly sunken above, distinctly raised beneath, secondary veins conspicuous, 7-9 per side, 2-2.5 mm apart, looping c. 0.7 mm from the margin; petiole 1.8-2.1 mm long, glabrous. Flowers solitary, axillary; peduncle 2-6 mm long, with short indumentum, pedicel 1-2 mm long, short tomentose; involucre brown, urceolate, 3.5-5 × 4-5 mm, glabrous (with sparse white trichomes), teeth 11-17, 1- 2 mm long; flowers 15-20 mm long at anthesis from apex of pedicel to apex of petals; sepals oblong, 6-10 × 3-5 mm, slightly emarginate, exserted 3-4 mm beyond the involucre; petals pink to white, oblong, 12-13 × 5-6.5 mm, exceeding the involucre by 8-9 mm; disc 2 mm tall; stamens 30, 6- 10 mm long; ovary globose to ovoid, 3 mm high, style 7-10 mm long, basally pubescent, stigma 1-2 mm wide. Fruits subglobose to ovoid, 5-8 × 4.5-6 mm, exserted 1-2 mm beyond the accrescent involucre; seeds black, ellipsoid, 2-4 mm long, 4-7 per fruit.


Flowering and fruiting from November to April.


Woodland at 1300-1800 m elevation, on quartzite, marble, and metamorphic and igneous rocks in the subhumid bioclimatic zone.


Known only from the Itremo massif ( Fig. 1 View FIG ).


This species can be recognized by its prostrate habit, its glabrous, narrowly elliptic leaf blades less than 1 cm across with an acute apex, and its solitary, pink to white flowers. Observations in the field indicate that this species grows in close proximity with X. diospyroidea   but differs by its prostrate (vs. erect) habit, its glabrous (vs. pubescent), narrowly elliptic (vs. ovate) leaf blades and its solitary flowers (vs.flowers borne in inflorescences).It likewise differs from X. bojeriana   and X. elliptica   , which are erect shrubs with wider leaf blades that are respectively pubescent and glabrous. Unlike X. diospyroidea   , the latter two species have not been seen growing in the same habitat as X. itremoensis   , although they occupy the same general area.


With an area of occupancy of 54 km 2, an extent of occurrence no larger than that, and two subpopulations, neither occurring within a protected area, Xerochlamys itremoensis   is assigned a preliminary status of Endangered [EN B1ab(i,ii,iii,iv)+2ab (i,ii,iii,iv)].

Xerochlamys itremoensis   and X. diospyroidea   are known only from the Itremo massif in central Madagascar. This massif, characterized by quartz and marble outcrops, harbours many locally endemic plants (e.g., succulents, palms, and orchids) that are regularly affected by bush fires, intensive exploitation and marble mining. Because of its unique vegetation and the high level of threat, the Itremo massif has been identified as a top priority for conservation ( Birkinshaw et al. 2004), and is now being represented among the “Système d’Aires protégées de Madagascar ” (SAPM).


"Alexandru Ioan Cuza" University


Missouri Botanical Garden


Museum National d' Histoire Naturelle, Paris (MNHN) - Vascular Plants


Parc de Tsimbazaza


Mykotektet, National Veterinary Institute


Harvard University - Arnold Arboretum