Geometra smaragdus ( Butler, 1880 )

Han, H-X., Galsworthy, A. C. & Xue, D-Y., 2009, A survey of the genus Geometra Linnaeus (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Geometrinae), Journal of Natural History 43 (13 - 14), pp. 885-922: 911-912

publication ID 10.1080/00222930802702472

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Geometra smaragdus ( Butler, 1880 )


Geometra smaragdus ( Butler, 1880)   ( Figure 1L View Figure 1 )

Tanaorhinus smaragdus Butler, 1880   , Ann Mag Nat Hist (5)6:128. Syntype (s), „, northeast Himalayas. (BMNH)

Hipparchus (Loxochila) smaragdus: Prout, 1912   , in Wysman, Genera Insectorum 129:71.

Geometra smaragdus: ICZN, 1957   , Opin Decl ICZN 15(Opinion 450):254.


Antennae in male bipectinate, filiform at end, the longest ramus about 2.5 times diameter of flagellum. Frons green. Labial palpus green and brown at apex. Vertex green-white. Dorsal side of thorax green. Hind tibia dilated, with hair-pencil and short terminal extension.

Wing pattern. Length of forewing „ 26–27 mm; ♀ 26–31 mm. Wings dark green. Outer margin of both wings without crenellations, and lacking tail process on hindwing; inner margin of forewing strongly curved. Forewing with apex slightly falcate; antemedial line white, wavy, edged with dark green distally. Postmedial line on both wings white, slightly wavy on forewing, straight, edged with dark green inside. Submarginal line composed of white patches between veins. Discal spot dark green, dot-like. Fringes green basally and white terminally. Underside greenish white, postmedial line and discal spot on forewing visible.

Male genitalia ( Figures 2L View Figure 2 , 3L View Figure 3 ). Uncus sclerotized, triangular. Socii sclerotized, tapered. Gnathos developed, with median process expanded, with a pair of pointed processes. Valva with basal half broad, end narrowly rounded. Setose patch present, not spinose as in G. fragilis   and G. sinoisaria   . A pointed harpe located on a transverse sclerotized ridge near costa. Saccus highly developed, protruding, narrow, well-sclerotized and tapering to a slightly rounded point. Transtilla undeveloped. Juxta membranous. Aedeagus very slender, needle-like, sclerotized posteriorly.

Segment 8 ( Figure 5L View Figure 5 ) with tergite sclerotized posteriorly, with posterior margin depressed at middle; sternite small, sclerotized posteriorly, with a rounded process, broken by a V-shaped notch at middle.

Female genitalia ( Figure 4L View Figure 4 ). Weakly sclerotized area around ostium. Lamella postvaginalis sclerotized, forming a pair of wrinkled processes. Ductus bursae long and slender, membranous, without antrum. Corpus bursae large, membranous, with a bicornute signum.

Materials examined

IZCAS: 1♀, Tibet: Mêdog Hanmi , 2100 m, 23 August 1974, coll. Huang Fusheng.  

BMNH: 1 „, syntype, northeast Himal. , 79.57 ( Tanaorhinus smaragdus Butler   type; red type label); 1 „ 1♀, Collectio H. J. Elwes, Rothschild Bequest, B.M. 1939-1   ; 1♀, Sikkim, 4 July 1889, J.G.Pilcher, Rothschild Bequest, B.M. 1939-1   ; 1♀, Darjiling , Sikkim, Rothschild Bequest, B.M. 1939-1; 1   2♀, Darjeeling , July 1886, H.J. Elwes, Collectio H.J. Elwes, Rothschild Bequest, B.M. 1939-1   .

ZFMK: 1 „ 1♀, Indien WB, 2400 m, Darjeeling Tigerhill, 3 July 1986, leg. W. Thomas.  

ZSM: 1 „, NEPAL, Phul Chowki , 2000/ 2500 m, Vallée de Kathmandu, J. Plante leg. 6–12 June 1977, Collection Jacoues Plante   .


China (Tibet), Japan, India, Sikkim, Nepal.


It should be noted that Butler’s description does not allow a holotype to be certainly identified, but there is only one specimen from the appropriate area (northeast Himalayas) deposited in the BMNH, and it is therefore likely that this is the specimen on which Butler based his description   .


Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences


Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig


Bavarian State Collection of Zoology














Geometra smaragdus ( Butler, 1880 )

Han, H-X., Galsworthy, A. C. & Xue, D-Y. 2009

Geometra smaragdus:

ICZN 1957

Hipparchus (Loxochila) smaragdus:

Prout 1912

Tanaorhinus smaragdus

Butler 1880