Selenophorus pumilus Messer and Raber, 2021

Rajab, Abubakarsidiq Makame, 2021, Indoor Radio Map localization WiFi fingerprint datasets, The Coleopterists Bulletin 75 (1), pp. 9-55 : 27-29

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Selenophorus pumilus Messer and Raber

new species

Selenophorus pumilus Messer and Raber , new species ( Figs. 8–11)

Type Material. Holotype male [deposited in CAS] labeled “ MEX. Sinaloa, / 26 mi N. Pericos, / VIII-13- 60 // P.H. ARNAUD, JH. / E.S. ROSS / D.C. RENTZ// Collection of the / CALIFORNIA ACADEMY / OF SCIENCES, San / Francisco, Calif.//CASTYPE 20039”; pinned with holotype label [red paper topmost] and genitalia in glycerin vial . Paratypes [yellow paper] as follows. USA: ARIZONA: Santa Cruz Co.: Duquense Road, on ground at night, WGS84 31.3658 — 110.7751, Elv. 1330m, 14 VII 2013 (1♀ PWMC) GoogleMaps . MEXICO: Jalisco: Mpio., LaHuerta, Chamela Biol. Sta., 27 VII 1996 (1♂ 1♀ TAMU) ; Chamela Biol. Sta. , 22–23 VI 2013 (1♀ CMNH) ; Nayarit: Acaponeta , 15 VIII 1960 (1♂ CAS) ; Oaxaca: 2.7 mi. nw. El Cameron, at light, 24 VII 1973 (1♀ TAMU) ; 6 km E

Pinatepa near river, 16 VIII 1986 (1♂ CMNH) ; Sinaloa: 6 mi S. Culiacan, blacklite, 29 VIII 1964 (1♀ MPM) ; Mazatlan, at blacklite, 17 VIII 1965 (2♂ MPM) ; Sonora: Alamos, 12 VIII 1960 (8♂ 22♀ CAS, 1♂ 1♀ BTRC, 1♂ DAHC, 2♂ 1♀ PWMC); 7.2 mi E. Alamos, 24 VIII 1964 (2♂ 1♀ UASM) ; Hermosillo, 9–16 VII 1953 (1♂ 1♀ CAS) ; San Bernardino, Rio Mayo , 27 VI 1935 (2♀ CAS) . NICARAGUA: Masaya Dist., Las Flores, “ Jun 1993 ” (5♂ 7♀ CMNH) . COSTA RICA: Guanacaste Prov. Est. Santa Rosa, Guanacaste Conservation Area , 300m, LN 313000 View Materials -359300, at lights, 1–4 V 1995 (1♀ CMNH) .

Description (Holotype). Adult male. Size: ABL 3.9 mm. Color/Luster: Dorsum shiny; head near black; pronotum, elytra, venter coppery dark brown. Mouthparts, antennomeres 1–3, proepipleura, elytral epipleura, pronotal lateral margins (very narrowly), and legs testaceous. Microsculpture: Dorsal mesh well impressed, open, transversely stretched (2:1) on pronotum disc and elytra. Mesh irregularly isodiametric on head, and basal and apical areas of pronotum. Head: HW/PW = 0.73. Pronotum: PL/PW = 0.64. Impunctate, glabrous. Sides narrowly rounded posteriorly to rather sharp obtuse hind angles. Base as wide as elytral base. Anterior angles weakly projected forward. Bilateral basal impressions linear, shallow, impunctate. Elytra: Impunctate, glabrous, widest behind the middle. Intervals flat to slightly convex. Seriate setigerous punctures in striae 2, 5, and 7 of moderate size. ABS1 absent. Venter: Prosternal process curved dorsally, immarginate. Ventrites with sparse, short pubescence. Ventrite 6 with 1 pair of anal setae. Legs: Male protarsi and mesotarsi only slightly dilated, otherwise typical of genus. Metatarsi long, dorsally with sparse, short pubescence. Median lobe: Ostium with an elongated, very thin lamina with spatulate distal end in dorsal view. Dorsoapical plate evenly narrowed to subacute apex, dorsal lip minute. The aedeagal sclerotic ring at its proximal end with a node-like projection. Endophallus unarmed.

Variation. ABL 3.7–5.0 mm. ABS1 absent to short. In nine males from northwestern states in Mexico the character states of small spines in the endophallic midsection varied greatly: no spines (n = 3, including holotype); 1 right-sided spine (n = 1); 1 spine in each half (n = 1); packed spines in bilateral bands of variable length (n = 4). A single male from Oaxaca in southern Mexico had long bilateral bands of small spines densely packed. In all Nicaraguan males (n = 3) the endophallus was unarmed. Females are with tarsi unmodified and 2 pairs of anal setae .

Etymology. The species name is derived from Latin masculine adjective pumilus , in reference to the dwarfed body size.

Diagnosis. Among the Nearctic Celiamorphus , S. pumilus is distinguished by the following combination: prosternal process dorsally curved and immarginate; small size (ABL <5 mm); coppery luster; transverse microsculpture of pronotum and elytra; known range southern Arizona to Central America.

Type Habitat. The holotype was collected in seasonal dry tropical forest within the western foothills of the Sierra Madre Occidental in Sinaloa, Mexico. This area, ca. 26 miles north of Pericos, is characterized by woody vegetation (e.g., Bursera , Lysiloma , Jatropha , Juliania , Ceiba ) typical of this region and semiarid conditions including extended dry periods averaging 7.6 months and average annual rainfall of 450 mm ( Trejo and Dirzo 2002). The holotype was collected during the peak of the rainy season.

Remarks. Selenophorus pusio Putzeys (1878a: 53) , known only by the male holotype (MNHN) from Venezuela, is similarly small and coppery but it differs from S. pumilus by being shorter (3.7 mm); pronotal base wider; hind angles sharply rectangular; presence of punctules uniformly distributed across pronotal base and elytral intervals; elytra widest before the middle. The aedeagus was not available for study. Lorenz (2005) listed S. pusio under subgenus Celiamorphus likely on the basis of the typographical error “ C. pusio ” by Putzeys, well before Casey established Celiamorphus in 1914. Nevertheless, based on the original descriptive account and our study of a dorsal habitus image of the type specimen, we are provisionally treating S. pusio as a member of the S. pumilus species group.

Using phylogenetic methods, Ball and Maddison (1987: 307) analyzed a character state matrix for three laminate groups in subgenus Celiamorphus . They are the seriatoporus group, the ellipticus group, and the amaroides group, which have in common an elongated plate (lamina) in the median lobe ostium. The authors examined representatives of “ S. nr. amaroides Dejean ” among the taxa studied. The amaroides group was characterized (in part) as follows: smallest body size (SBL <6.2 mm), elytral microsculpture stretched transversely, prosternal process ridged, endophallus unarmed with a broad lamina. The first two stated characters fit S. pumilus , but its prosternal process is not ridged and the endophallus has a narrow lamina with spines sometimes present. With those differences in mind, we propose that S. pumilus be placed in its own species group under Celiamorphus . True Selenophorus amaroides Dejean (1829: 89) is a little known Celiamorphus limited to French Guiana (type locality: Cayenne), Surinam, and the Amazon. It does have the marginate prosternal process as required by the amaroides group, but it is uncharacteristically large with ABL 9 1 / 3 mm ( Putzeys 1878a). Despite its epithet, this species may not have been the intended name bearer for the amaroides group sensu Ball and Maddison (1987).

Danny Shpeley (UASM, personal communication, 2017) initially treated S. pumilus as an undescribed Celiamorphus of the S. amaroides group (sensu UASM specimens determined by G. Ball) during his early stage of a beetle survey of Sonora, Mexico. Accordingly, we encountered Mexican specimens of S. pumilus in some institutional collections that were determined by D. Shpeley or G. Ball to be either “ Selenophorus amaroides ” or “ Selenophorus amaroides sp. grp.” It was not clear to us whether “ amaroides ” had been a provisional name for these specimens based on their superficial resemblance to small Amara , or whether the specimens had been given a deeper connection to the amaroides group described by Ball and Maddison (1987).


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