Paraulax Kieffer, 1904

Nieves-Aldrey, José Luis, Liljeblad, Johan, Nieves, María Hernández, Grez, Audrey & Nylander, Johan A. A., 2009, Revision and phylogenetics of the genus Paraulax Kieffer (Hymenoptera, Cynipidae) with biological notes and description of a new tribe, a new genus, and five new species, Zootaxa 2200, pp. 1-40: 5-6

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.189597

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:AC41ACF9-2D19-45A2-96DE-16470E7D9C7F

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5681147

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03ADE415-FFCA-FF9B-FF58-9064FA75B9D3

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Plazi

scientific name

Paraulax Kieffer, 1904
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Type genus Paraulax Kieffer, 1904   .

Diagnosis. Differs from all other cynipids by the presence of the following autapomorphies: modified flagellomere of male antenna always F 2, F 3 or both (never F 1 as in other Cynipidae   ) ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 E, 4 G, 4 I & 5 A); presence of a structure of 4–5 rows of sharp, closely spaced and deep costulae on swelling of basal one-third of profemur ( Figs. 3 View FIGURE 3 B & 3 C); presence of 5-9 vertical carinae in the ventral region of the gena ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 B). The tribe can also be distinguished by a combination of the following characters: female antenna with 10 flagellomeres, F 10 clavate ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 C & 2 D); ventral part of clypeus not or only slightly projecting over mandibles; dorsolateral margin of pronotal plate projecting laterally ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 H & 2 I); genal occipital carina present; scutellar foveae almost absent ( Figs. 6 View FIGURE 6 D & 9 A) or, if present, always shallow or indistinct ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 I & 4 C), while the area posterior to the transscutal fissure always is concave; round, distinctly margined posteromedian scutellar impression absent; mesopleural impression present ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 G, 4 B & 5 C).

Description. Predominantly black, sometimes brown to red-brown, with weakly shining or dull sculpture. Relatively small (1.7–2.9 mm). Female antenna with 10 flagellomeres, male with 13. Face usually with a distinct median vertical carina and facial strigae radiating from clypeus laterally ( Figs. 6 View FIGURE 6 A & 8 A). Pronotal plate conspicuous with dorsolateral margins projected laterally. Notauli complete. Scutellar foveae faint or indistinct. Mesopleural impression present, more or less extended. Claws bifid, with a relatively long basal lobe or tooth ( Figs. 3 View FIGURE 3 D & 4 D), or, if simple, sometimes with an acute tiny lobe ( Fig. 9 View FIGURE 9 D). Forewing with radial cell closed along anterior margin; R 1 tubular albeit slightly depigmented along radial cell ( Figs. 3 View FIGURE 3 E & 4 H); vein Rs+M and M, directed towards lower half of median vein ( Figs. 3 View FIGURE 3 E, 4 K, 7 F & 8 H). Female metasoma laterally compressed. Abdominal petiole smooth dorsally, ventrally with deep longitudinal grooves. T 2 smooth and shining, covering about 2 / 3 of metasoma. Projecting part of hypopygial spine relatively short, 3–4 times longer than wide ( Fig. 3 View FIGURE 3 G).

Diversity and distribution. Includes two genera occurring in the South of the Neotropical Region, in temperate Nothofagus   forests of Argentina   and Chile, one of them associated with galls of Aditrochus   ( Pteromalidae   ) on Nothofagus   .

Remarks. A recent morphological phylogenetic study found Paraulax   to be closely related to the Pediaspidini   (Liljeblad et al. 2008). We justify the erection of a new tribe as follows: with several members, including a new genus, the new tribe itself is strongly supported by the molecular data of the present analysis (100 % bootstrap) whereas the grouping with Pediaspis   is only recovered with a 75 % of bootstrap support; the new group is morphologically distinct and supported by several synapomorphies; the erection of a new tribe for the cynipids associated with Nothofagaceae   is congruent with the traditional tribal classification of the Cynipidae   , which to a large degree is based on biological associations such as higher level systematics of the host plants.

The tribe Paraulacini   , as here defined, share with the Pediaspidini   , among other character states, a relatively long pronotum medially, the pronotal plate being extended dorsally, a mostly smooth mesopleuron, usually with a visible mesopleural impression, and the scutellar foveae faint or absent. The two tribes can, however, be readily distinguished as follows:

1. Female antenna with 12 or more flagellomeres ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 A); last flagellomere not wider than the penultimate; male antenna with modified F 1 ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 B). Ventral area of gena without vertical carinae. Ventral part of clypeus broadly projecting over mandibles ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 C); genal carina absent. Dorsolateral margin of pronotal plate not projecting laterally ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 D). Scutellar foveae absent ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 E); area behind transscutal fissure flat or convex. A round, distinctly margined posteromedian scutellar impression present ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 E). Mesopleural impression absent or faint ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 F). Profemur not modified. Includes one Palaearctic genus inducing galls on Acer   and another genus from the Himalayan region with biology unknown ............................................................................................................ Pediaspidini  

- Female antenna with 10 flagellomeres ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 C); last flagellomere wider than the penultimate; male antenna with either F 2, F 3 or both modified ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 F & 4 G). Ventral area of gena with 5–9 vertical carinae ( Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 B); genal carina present. Ventral part of clypeus at most slightly projecting over mandibles ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A). Dorsolateral margin of pronotal plate strongly projecting laterally ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 H & 2 I). Scutellar foveae absent or present, always shallow or indistinct, while the area posterior to the transscutal fissure always is concave ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 G & 2 I). Round, distinctly margined posteromedian scutellar impression absent ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 I). Mesopleural impression present ( Figs. 2 View FIGURE 2 G & 7 A). Profemur ventrally with a swelling composed of 4–5 rows of sharp, closely spaced, deep costulae ( Figs. 3 View FIGURE 3 B & 3 C). Includes two neotropical genera associated with galls of Aditrochus   ( Pteromalidae   ) on Nothofagus   ........................... Paraulacini