Daphnia sinensis Gu, Xu, Li, Dumont et Han, 2013,

Popova, Ekaterina V., Petrusek, Adam, Kořínek, Vladimír, Mergeay, Joachim, Bekker, Eugeniya I., Karabanov, Dmitry P., Galimov, Yan R., Neretina, Tatyana V., Taylor, Derek J. & Kotov, Alexey A., 2016, Revision of the Old World Daphnia (Ctenodaphnia) similis group (Cladocera: Daphniidae), Zootaxa 4161 (1), pp. 1-40: 11-24

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http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4161.1.1

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scientific name

Daphnia sinensis Gu, Xu, Li, Dumont et Han, 2013
status

 

Daphnia sinensis Gu, Xu, Li, Dumont et Han, 2013 

( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 C, 5–13)

Daphnia similoides sinensis Gu, Xu, Li, Dumont & Han 2013  : p. 309–311, figs 1–6; Ma et al. 2016: figs. 1–2.

Daphnia psittacea Baird  and D. psittacea var exilis  nov. comb. in Uéno 1927: p. 276–277, Pl. 22, figs 4, 4–4h, 5, 5a –5c.

Daphnia carinata King in Mashiko 1953  : p. 49, fig. 2 a –b; Manujlova 1964: p. 141–143, fig. 46; Chiang & Du 1979: p. 107– 109, fig. 71; Dumont & Van de Velde 1975: p. 192, fig. 2.

? Daphnia carinata King in Michael & Sharma 1988  : p. 59–62, figs 14–15.

Daphnia similis Claus in Fernando et al. 1987  : p. 112, figs 35–47.

? Daphnia similis Claus in Uéno 1966  : p. 288–289, fig. 1(1–11).

? Daphnia hodgsoni Sars in Brehm 1935  : p. 146–147, Fig. 1–2View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2.

? Daphnia madhuriae Rane & Jafri 1990  : p. 62–66, figs 1–23.

Type locality. A pond on the campus of South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou, China (N23.146°; E113.360°). The type specimens were obtained from a pond in Jinan University, Guangzhou, where they were hatched from the mud taken from the South China Agricultural University (Y.G. Gu, personal communication).

Type material. Holotype and paratypes. Parthenogenetic females in collection of Jinan University, Guangzhou, China. 

Material studied here. China. A shallow temporary pond without vegetation (N24.93°, E102.71°), Yunnan Province, coll. in 13.05.2012 by Q.Q. Lin & A.A. KotovGoogleMaps  . Mongolia. Population 13 in Table 1. South Korea. Rice paddies near Gwangju city (N35.2°, E126.9°), coll. by S. Lee. A swampy area near Hongyang Lake (N36.5899°, E126.7112°), coll. in 21.04.2016 by K.S. Kim, H.M. Yang & A.AGoogleMaps  . Kotov. Gagok Lake (N36.6396°, E126.5853°), coll. in 21.04.2016 by K.S. Kim, H.M. Yang & A.A. Kotov. A ricefield (N36.6222°, E126.5859°), coll. in 21.04.2016 by K.S. Kim, H.M. Yang & A.A. Kotov. Ricefield near O-Bong Lake (N36.8716°, E126.7354°), coll. in 21.04.2016 by K.S. Kim, H.M. Yang & A.A. KotovGoogleMaps  . Russia (Asian). Populations 15–26 in Table 1; A cow pond (N48.38131°, E134.8559°)GoogleMaps  , Island of Bol'shoy Ussurijsky, Khabarovsk Territory, coll. in 0 1.09.2007 by A. A. Kotov & N. M. Korovchinsky. Puddle near the abandoned farm, flood of the Sosua river (N46.9516°, E142.7028°), Yuzhno SakhalinskGoogleMaps  , Sakhalin Area, coll. in 11.09.2008 by A. A. Kotov & N. M. Korovchinsky. Puddle 1 on the ground road near the Sosua river (N46.9473°, E142.6948°)GoogleMaps  , Yuzhno Sakhalinsk, Sakhalin Area, coll. in 11.09.2008 by A. A. Kotov & N. M. Korovchinsky. Puddle 5 on the ground road near the Sosua river (N46.9489°, E142.7009°)GoogleMaps  , Yuzhno Sakhalinsk, Sakhalin Area, coll. in 11.09.2008 by A. A. Kotov & N. M. Korovchinsky. Lake Khanka (N44.76767°, E132.0924°)GoogleMaps  , Primorski Territory, coll. in 11.09.2009 by N. M. Korovchinsky. Puddle on the road, Lake Khanka region (N44.9409°, E131.9532°)GoogleMaps  , Primorski Territory, coll. in 11.09.2009 by N. M. Korovchinsky. Lake Khanka 5 (N44.76182°, E132.0662°), Primorski Territory, coll. in 11.09.2009 by N. M. Korovchinsky. Russia (European). Population 14 in Table 1GoogleMaps  . Azerbaijan. Puddle in a pasture, Adzhinaur, coll. in 0 6. 27.1986. by M. Černý  . Iran. Population 34 in Table 1. Ethiopia. Populations 29–33 in Table 1. Namibia. End lake of the Tsauchab-Rivers (S24.7457°, E15.2888°), Sossus Vlei, coll. in 2002 by B. Scharf.GoogleMaps 

Short diagnosis. Parthenogenetic female. Body subovoid, body depth/length (without shell spine) = 0.39– 0.55, caudal spine relatively short, a very shallow or no depression between head and rest of body ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A). Rostrum short and rounded, head without pre-ocular and post-ocular depressions, eye capsule located below the level of anteriormost point of head; ocellus present, but very small. Head shield with slightly projected fornices, projection from valves penetrates to about 1/3–1/2 of head shield length ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 B). First abdominal segment with relatively short (as long as postabdominal claw) process, strongly bent anteriorly; second segment with a curved process (somewhat shorter than postabdominal claw), third segment with a very low, curved process; fourth segment lacking any process. Preanal angle of postabdomen not expressed, postanal angle ill-defined. On outer side of postabdominal claw, first and second (proximal) pectens consisting of relatively strong teeth, longest approximately two times shorter than claw diameter; third pecten consisting of numerous fine setules not reaching tip of claw ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 J, H). Body of antenna I well-developed, tips of aesthetascs not projected beyond tip of rostrum, antennular sensory seta small, arise from base of mound of antenna I and doesn`t reaching tip of mound ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 C). On limb I anterior setae 1–3 long, bearing short setules, seta 4 shorter than the former, with short setules ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A). Limb II –IV ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 B –E) as in other species of this group. Limb V with exopodite supplied with a single small distal setae and a long, curved lateral seta ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 F).

Ephippium. "D"-shaped, anterior margin of ephippium fluently turned to anterior projection; two eggs with axes located at a very acute angle to dorsal margin, anterior process short, postero-dorsal portion of valves (with shell spine) not incorporated into ephippium ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 C, 5J).

Adult male. Body elongated, body depth/length (without shell spine) = 0.56–0.58, rectangular-rounded, dorsal margin of valves almost straight, postero-dorsal angle distinct, with a short caudal spine having a wide basal portion ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 A). Head with a very short rounded rostrum, post-ocular depression well-developed. Compound eye very large, occupies almost whole anterior portion of head, which projected anteriorly ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 B). Anterior part of valve ventral margin with a slight depression, densely covered by relatively long setae ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 A). Abdomen with a shallow mound on each segment. Postabdomen with distal portion as a short cone, dorsal margin almost straigh in preanal region, gonopore opens subdistally, on a reduced genital papilla. Anal teeth at basal protuberances ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 E), they reduced in postanal and distal part of anal portion. On outer side of postabdominal claw, the first and second (proximal) pectens consisting of relatively strong teeth, longest teeth shorter than claw diameter; third pecten consisting of numerous fine setules not reaching the tip of claw ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 D –G). Antenna I long, with group of minute denticles distally, antennular sensory seta thin, located distally on end of antenna I body; length of flagellum about half body length of the antenna I, the former bisegmented, its distal segment setulated ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 C). IDL of limb I with a bent copulatory hook with a narrowing tip, and two setae of very different size; anterior setae 2, 3 and 4 smaller that these in female and supplied with longer setules, additional seta 2' on endite 4. ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 H). On distalmost endite of limb II, anterior seta slightly curved, unilaterally setulated by short and fine setules ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 I, J). Limb V without additional small seta on distal portion of exopodite ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 K). Size. Adult females 1.83–2.04 mm in our material (1.0–3.0 mm according to Gu et al. 2013), adult males 1.23–1.31 mm in our material (1.15–1.3 mm according to Gu et al. 2013).

Redescription. Adult parthenogenetic female. General. Body almost transparent, body depth/length (without shell spine) = 0.37–0.55, subovoid in lateral view, with maximum height in middle of valves, a very shallow or no depression between head and rest of body. Postero-dorsal angle in adults with a relatively short caudal spine projected postero-dorsally, ventral margin regularly convex ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 A).

Head with a short, rounded or somewhat angled rostrum ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 B –C); posterior margin of head with a low mound in the basal part and second smaller mound between antennae I, pre-rostral fold not expressed; head without any pre-ocular and post-ocular depressions. In lakes, this species may have morphs with relatively long recurved helmets ( Ma et al., 2016). Dorsal contour of the head lies at the same level with dorsal margin of carapace; eye capsule located below the level of anteriormost point of head. Compound eye relatively small (specially in helmeted morphs), ocellus distinct, but very small, located closer to the compound eye than to base of antenna I. Head shield with slightly projected, sharp fornices, a projection from valves penetrates to about 1/3–1/2 of length of the former.

Carapace in general semi-ovoid, the free edge uniformly convex. Spinules ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 D) present on whole dorsal margin and on posterior half of ventral margin. A group of relatively long setae in middle of ventral margin ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 E), short setae at postero-ventral margin of valve, with setules between them ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 F).

Abdomen relatively short, consisting of four segments, the first (basal most) abdominal segment with a relatively short (as long as postabdominal claw) process, strongly bent anteriorly; the second segment with a smaller process (somewhat shorter than postabdominal claw) bent backward, the third segment with a very low, curved process, covered by transverse rows of minute setules; the fourth segment lacking any process.

Postabdomen elongated, tapering distally, with S-formed ventral margin. Preanal margin long, almost straight, with series of minute setules. Preanal angle not expressed, postanal angle ill-defined. About eight small anal spines of subequal size on anal portion. Postabdominal seta slightly longer than preanal margin, its distal and basal segments of similar length. Postabdominal claw regularly bent, with a pointed tip. On outer side, three successive pectens along the dorsal margin the first and second (proximal) pecten consisting of relatively strong teeth, longest approximately two times shorter than claw diameter; the third pecten consisting of numerous fine setules, somewhat shorter than those in the second pecten, not reaching tip of claw ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 H –I).

Antenna I as a conical tubercle with nine terminal aesthetascs, tips of aesthetascs not projected beyond tip of rostrum, antennular sensory seta small, arise from base of mound of antenna I and doesn`t reaching tip of mound ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 C). Antenna II relatively long, length of apical setae approximately equal to the length of the branches. Antenna formula: setae 1–1–3 / 0–0–1–3 ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 G).

Limb I without accessory seta; outer distal lobe ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A: ODL) cylindrical, with a long seta distally armed with short setules, and a short second seta; inner distal lobe (or endite 5, Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A: e5) with a single, long anterior seta 1, unilaterally armed distally with short setules. Endite 4 ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A: e4) with a long anterior seta ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A: 2) and two posterior setae (a –b). Endite 3 ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A: e3) with a long and thin anterior seta ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A: 3), with distal segment bilaterally armed with short setules, and two posterior setae (c –d). Endite 2 ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A: e2) with a long anterior seta ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 a: 4), armed with long, fine setules distally, and four posterior setae (e –h). Endite 1 (gnathobase) fully absent. Two ejector hooks of different length ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 A: eh).

Limb II with a subovoid epipodite ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 B: ep); exopodite as an elongated lobe ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 B: ext) bearing a soft, distal seta, and a large, soft, lateral seta. Four endites ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 B: e5–e2) bearing five setae, among them, a stiff anterior seta ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 B: 1) with length 3/4 of soft seta length, armed with short setules distally. Gnathobase ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 B: gn=e1) with two rows of setae: four anterior setae ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 B: 1–4), the longest seta 2 as long as a 'filter plate' seta and numerous (16–19) posterior setae of gnathobasic filter plate.

Limb III with a setulated pre-epipodite ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 C: pep), ovoid epipodite and a flat exopodite bearing four distal setae ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 C: 1–4=dis), among them seta 2 distally with short setules, and two lateral setae ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 C: 5–6=lat).

Inner-distal portion of limb with four endites: endite 5 with a single, large anterior seta ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 D: 1), armed distally with short setules and a large posterior seta, bearing long setules ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 D: a); endite 4 with a single anterior seta ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 D: 2) and a single posterior ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 D: b) seta somewhat smaller than anterior seta, both with long setules; endite 3 with a large anterior seta ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 D: 3) and two posterior setae (not illustrated in Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 D); endite 2 with an anterior seta ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 D: 4) and four posterior setae. The rest of the limb inner-distal portion as a singular large lobe ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 D: e5=gn), modified gnathobase (Kotov 2013), bearing numerous posterior soft setae, a single, short anterior seta in its distal corner ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 D).

Limb IV with a large, setulated pre-epipodite, ovoid epipodite (not illustrated) and a wide, flat exopodite, bearing four distal ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 E: 1–4=dis) and two lateral ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 E: 5–6=lat) setae. Inner-distal portion of this limb with completely fused endites, distally with two setae of unclear homology, the most part of limb inner margin is a gnathobase filter plate consisting of numerous posterior setae ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 E).

Limb V with a small, setulated pre-epipodite (not illustrated), large, subovoid epipodite, triangular exopodite supplied with one distal seta ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 F: dis), and a large, slightly curved lateral seta ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6 F: lat). Inner limb portion as an ovoid flat lobe, with setulated inner margin and a single, large seta.

Ephippial female. Ephippium "D"-shaped ( Figs 4View FIGURE 4 C, 5J), anterior margin of ephippium fluently turned to anterior projection; two eggs with axes located at a very acute angle to dorsal margin, anterior process short, postero-dorsal portion of valves (with shell spine) not incorporated into ephippium.

Adult male. General. Body elongated, body depth/length (without shell spine) = 0.56–0.58, in general rhomboid-ovoid, dorsal margin of valves almost straight, not elevated above head, no distinct depression between head and valves, postero-dorsal angle distinct, as a triangular projection fluently turned to a short caudal spine having a wide basal portion ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 A).

Head with a very short, rounded rostrum, anteriormost extremity completely occupied with optic vesicle ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 B: ov), a post-ocular depression ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 A –B: pod) posteriorly to it, a very shallow depression between first and second bunches of muscles of antenna II. Compound eye very large, ocellus minute ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 B).

Valve with anterior margin almost straight, supplied with exactly marginal, relatively short setae; anteroventral angle prominent anteriorly, supplied with specially long setae; then ventral margin with a slight depression, densely covered by relatively long setae; whole ventral margin with numerous setae located submarginally on inner face of valve. Postero-ventral portion of valve with marginal denticles, and short setae located submarginally on inner face of valve, no setules between these setae ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 A).

Abdomen with a shallow mound on each segment. Postabdomen with distal portion as a short cone, dorsal margin almost straight in preanal region, gonopore opens subdistally, on a reduced genital papilla. Anal teeth at basal protuberances, they are present only in basal portion of anal margin while in distal portion they are substituted by fine setules ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 E –G). On outer side of postabdominal claw, the first and second (proximal) pectens consisting of relatively strong teeth; longest teeth shorter than claw diameter; third pecten consisting of numerous fine setules not reaching the tip of claw ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 E –G).

Antenna I long, with a group of minute denticles distally near aesthetascs. Nine aesthetascs short; antennular sensory seta located distally, shorter than aesthetascs. Length of flagellum about half body length of the antenna I. The distal segment of flagellum covered with short setules ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 C).

Antenna II ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 A) relatively larger as compared with female.

Limb I. ODL large, bearing a rudimentary seta and a very large seta supplied with minute setules distally; IDL with a bent copulatory hook, and one seta ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 H), endites 2–4 with anterior seta ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 H: 2–4) shorter than in female and supplied with long setules, additional seta 2' on endite 4.

Limb II. Distalmost endite with seta 1 slightly bent and asymmetrically setulated ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 I, J). Limb II and V as in female ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 K).

Size. Adult females 1.83–2.04 mm in our material (1.0–3.0 mm according to Gu et al. 2013), adult males 1.23– 1.31 mm in our material (1.15–1.3 mm according to Gu et al. 2013).

Population from European Russia. A population from Krasnodar Area, European Russia, population 14 in Table 1 ( Figs 8–13View FIGURE 8View FIGURE 9View FIGURE 10View FIGURE 11View FIGURE 12View FIGURE 13) was studied in detail with aim to find possible differences from Asian populations of D. sinensis  . Morphology of parthenogenetic females from Krasnodar is basically similar to that from Far East, but in the former: (1) there is a small projection on posterior head margin dorsally to antenna I ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 B –C, arrow); (2) the first tooth in the first pecten on postabdominal claw is especially strong ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8 G, arrow). These two “fine scale” characters are very consistent in the studied population. Any separation of European and Asian populations of D. sinensis  is not supported by mitochondrial genes, but morphological data suggest that they are isolated. Only studies of sufficiently variable nuclear markers could support or reject this hypothesis.

Distribution. We identified D. sinensis  (based on male characters) from China, Mongolia, South Korea, many localities in Far East of Russia, a single poplation in European Russia, Azerbaijan, Ethiopia and Namibia and Kenya (from Mergeay et al. 2005a, b). Therefore, D. sinensis  is widely distributed in the Old World. We confirmed this broad Old World distribution using molecular markers for specimens from Taiwan, Iran, Ethiopia, Far East of Russia and the south of European part of Russia. Gu et al. (2013) made sequences from several water bodies in China, but they were not deposited to the GenBank, also sequences of Ma et al. (2016) from China were not yet publicly available.

In several countries of Africa and Asia D. sinensis  is usually misidentified as " D. carinata  ". Probably, it is present in India together with D. similoides  (this preliminary opinion is based on the illustrations by Michael & Sharma 1988). Also Marrone et al. (2007) represented illustrations of an adult male of " D. similis  " from Southern Italy with reduced anal teeth in distal portion of postabdomen. It could possibly be also a population of D. sinensis  , although the female (according to illustrations of Marrone et al. 2007) has no ocular dome.

Comments. Only two species groups of Daphnia  ( Ctenodaphnia  ) have been reported from lowlands of tropical and subtropical Asia, namely D. simili  s-group and D. carinata-cephalata group. D. cephalata  is evidently present in Sri Lanka ( Bär 1924; Fernando 1980) and in South India ( Daday 1911, as D. hypsicephala  ). But all previous identifications of D. carinata  and D. cephalata  from other territories of Asia and Africa, which were extremely numerous ( Manujlova 1964; Dumont & Van de Velde 1975; Chiang & Du 1979), probably dealt with D. sinensis  .

There is a chance that this taxon was previously described as Daphnia madhuriae Rane & Jafri, 1990  . Rane & Jafri (1990) illustrated a male with a head strongly prominent anteriorly, but in other details their illustrations and descriptions are of insufficient quality for taxonomic conclusions.

Some other taxa were previously described from Africa, but they are not major synonyms of D. sinensis  . For example, D. monacha Brehm, 1912  described from Lake Albert (Border of Congo and Uganda) ( Brehm 1912) is most probably a junior synonym of D. lumholtzi Sars, 1875  . D. carinata deserti Gauthier, 1937  was initially described from Algeria and Mauritania ( Gauthier 1937) and then regarded as a valid species ( Hudec 1993). We agree with its independent status, and regard it as a possible relative of the D. similis  group, but this preliminary conclusion needs to be checked by more accurate study of D. deserti  (i.e. limb V of female and morphology of males need to be described adequately) or molecular phylogenetic analyses.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Branchiopoda

Order

Diplostraca

Genus

Daphnia

Loc

Daphnia sinensis Gu, Xu, Li, Dumont et Han, 2013

Popova, Ekaterina V., Petrusek, Adam, Kořínek, Vladimír, Mergeay, Joachim, Bekker, Eugeniya I., Karabanov, Dmitry P., Galimov, Yan R., Neretina, Tatyana V., Taylor, Derek J. & Kotov, Alexey A. 2016
2016
Loc

Daphnia similoides sinensis

Gu, Xu, Li, Dumont & Han 2013
2013
Loc

Daphnia madhuriae

Rane & Jafri 1990
1990
Loc

Daphnia carinata

King in Michael & Sharma 1988
1988
Loc

Daphnia similis

Claus in Fernando et al. 1987
1987
Loc

Daphnia similis Claus in Uéno 1966

Claus in Ueno 1966
1966
Loc

Daphnia carinata

King in Mashiko 1953
1953
Loc

Daphnia hodgsoni

Sars in Brehm 1935
1935