Beesonia dipterocarpi Green

Hodgson, Chris, 2020, A review of neococcid scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) based on the morphology of the adult males, Zootaxa 4765 (1), pp. 1-264: 108-112

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4765.1.1

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Beesonia dipterocarpi Green


Beesonia dipterocarpi Green  

( Fig. 46 View FIGURE 46 )

Beesonia dipterocarpi Green 1926   , 55. Type data: Burma, forests of Burma, on the smaller branches of Dipterocarpus tuberculatus   . Syntypes, female and first instar, by subsequent designation. Type depository: BMNH.

Material examined. Type. Burma, no other location, from galls on Dipterocarpus tuberculatus   ( Dipterocarpaceae   ), no date, col. C.F.C. Beeson ( BMNH: 1940: 180): 1/6ad ♂♂ (in fairly poor condition and none complete. All specimens missing wings and very squashed so that dorsal and ventral structures hard to separate; many setae represented only by basal sockets, but these broken setae are considered here to be mainly fs; otherwise most structures visible).

Mounted material: moderate in size, total body length 1.62–1.88 mm. Antennae 3 segmented, 3rd segment elongate with numerous setae. Body setae very abundant, perhaps mainly fs but many setae broken off close to basal socket; fs short and rather thick, very clearly different from hs (frequency of setae very difficult to count). Wings missing.

Head: rather broadly oval in dorsal view; width across genae about 207 μm. Median crest (mc) not greatly dif- ferentiated from rest of head and not reticulated but perhaps slightly ridged; postoccipital ridge (por) present and heavily sclerotised, with a pair of heavily sclerotised posterolateral arms and a pair of less sclerotised anteromedial arms; with several fs + hs dorsal head setae (dhs) laterad to longitudinal ridge. Mid-cranial ridge: dorsal ridge (dmcr) absent or perhaps represented by two lightly sclerotised longitudinal ridges; ventral ridge (vmcr) apparently absent; without any reticulations or striations laterally; with several fs + hs ventral mid-cranial ridge seta (vmcrs) on each side. Genae (g) without reticulations; genal setae: about 8 fs + 6 hs on each side laterad to postoccipital ridge. Eyes: with two pairs of partricularly large, round, simple eyes; dorsal eyes (dse) near antennae, subequal in width to ventral eyes (vse) (placed posteriorly near mouth), each 58–64 μm wide. Ocelli (o) moderately large, oval, each 23 μm at widest point. Ocular sclerite (ocs) sclerotised, without polygonal reticulations. Preocular ridge (procr) very short or absent ventrally; dorsally extending posteriorly to each ocellus, with arms extending a short distance on each side of ocelli (but see under Comment below). Postocular ridge (pocr) strongly developed, extending dorsally past posterior margin of each ocellus and dorsal simple eye and almost reaching postoccipital ridge. Dorsal ocular setae (docs) absent. Ventral head setae (vhs) abundant throughout ocular sclerite, including between and posterior to ventral eyes and with a group just anterior to mouth. Preoral ridge (pror) and cranial apophysis (ca) apparently absent.

Antennae: 3 segmented and very unusual, length 365 μm (ratio of total body length to antennal length 1:0.21); segment III elongate, with bunches of fleshy setae. Scape (scp): 48–52 μm long, 68 μm wide, with perhaps 3 hs. Pedicel (pdc): length 28–34 μm, width 53–55 μm; with a few reticulations; with 3–5 small hs; campaniform pore not noted. Segment III: 289–300 μm long, greatest width 58 μm; apex constricted; surface covered throughout in fs (each 18–25 μm long) + hs (each 30–34 μm long) + 4 bunches of longer fleshy setae, each bunch arising from a common base: proximal bunch about halfway along segment, with 4–6 fs; second bunch about 3/4 along segment, with 3–6 fs; third bunch slightly nearer apex, with 3 or 4 fs and distal bunch near apex, with 3 or 4 fs; some of these setae fuse and then separate once more; length of fs about 55 μm; each antenna with 5 capitate setae on apex.

Thorax. Prothorax: pronotal ridge (prnr) well-developed; dorsally nearly touching but not fused; lateral pronotal sclerite (prn) probably narrow; without lateral pronotal (lpns) setae. Medial pronotal setae (mpns): possibly 2–4 fs + 0–4 hs; post-tergites and post-tergital setae probably absent. Sternum (stn 1) not sclerotised and lacking a medial sclerotised ridge; with a quite strong transverse ridge, which broadens slightly medially; with abundant fs + hs prosternal (stn 1 s) and anteprosternal (astn 1 s) setae. Antemesospiracular setae (am 2 s) absent.

Mesothorax: prescutum (prsc) almost square, 140–166 μm long (although posterior margin hard to define) 169–211 μm wide; not reticulated; prescutal ridges (pscr) well developed; prescutal suture (pscs) poorly developed or absent; with about 10 prescutal setae (prscs) (possibly mainly hs) near each lateral margin. Scutum (sct) without a median membranous area, this area sclerotised but not reticulated and homogenous with lateral margins of scutum; median area 12–25 μm long, perhaps 160 μm wide, without setae; lateral margins not reticulated, with a group of fs + hs scutal setae (scts) just laterad to median area. Prealare ridge rather indistinct. Scutellum (scl) 186–224 μm wide, 62–79 μm long; possibly tubular, with a large foramen; with 1 pair of hs scutellar setae (scls). Basisternum (stn 2) 252–281 μm wide, 153–195 μm long; without any signs of a median ridge (mdr), but bounded anteriorly by a fairly strong marginal ridge (mr) and posteriorly by strong precoxal ridges (pcr 2); lightly reticulated, with numerous fs + hs basisternal setae (stn 2 s) in a broad band around margin but also with a few medially; lateropleurite (lpl) well developed, triangular in shape, lightly reticulated near basisternum and lacking an extension from marginal ridge anteriorly; furca (f) well developed, narrow-waisted, arms very divergent and extending almost to marginal ridge. Mesopostnotum (pn 2) well developed; postnotal apophysis (pna) very elongate (length about 85 μm). Area bounded anteriorly by scutellum and laterally and posteriorly by mesopostnotum not sclerotised. Mesepisternum (eps 2) not reticulated but with a group of about 10 setae, mainly hs; subepisternal ridge well developed, each with a group of setae laterally (about 7 hs + 2 fs). Postalare (pa) not reticulated anteriorly; without postalare setae (pas). Mesothoracic spiracle (sp 2): structure rather unusual, muscle plate heavily sclerotised; peritreme with a rather serrate margin, 23–26 μm wide; ventral valve rather large and apparently protruding from peritreme. Postmesospiracular setae (pm 2 s): with 14–20 fs + 36–45 hs plus about 4 fs + 1–3 hs laterad to each mesothoracic spiracle. Tegula (teg) present; with 9 hs tegular setae (tegs) on each side.

Metathorax: metatergal setae (mts): with a group of about 7 hs + 1 fs on each side (but tending to run into dorsospiracular setae). Dorsospiracular setae (dss): about 8 hs + 2 fs on each side. Dorsal part of metapleural ridge (plr 3) absent, without a suspensorial sclerite (ss). Ventral part of metapleural ridge well developed; episternum (eps 3) sclerotised, with about 8 fs + 2 hs postmetaspiracular setae (eps 3 s) on either side. Metepimeron (epm 3) sclerotised, without setae. Antemetaspiracular setae (am 3 s): about 6 fs + 3 hs on each side. Metathoracic spiracle (sp 3) similar in structure and size to mesothoracic spiracle. Metasternum (stn 3) membranous; anterior metasternal setae (amss) and posterior metasternal setae (pmss) abundant, with probably more fs than hs.

Wings: missing. Hamulohalteres absent.

Legs: metathoracic legs possibly marginally longest; hs and fs setae about equally frequent. Coxae (cx): I 103–121; II 115–129; III 124–140 μm long; setae of coxa III: total 18–24; long apical seta on each coxa not differ- entiated. Trochanter (tr) + femur (fm): I 235–252; II 227–250; III 244–275 μm long; trochanter III with total 14–18 setae; long trochanter seta not differentiated; femur III with (total) 58–64 setae. Tibia (ti) and tarsus (ta) fused, forming a tibio-tarsus but with a slight constriction medially: lengths: I 265–295; II 260–290; III 270–295 μm; with a total of 85–95 setae, mainly fs and hs but some on distal part of tarsus peg-like; without tibial spurs (tibs); tarsal campaniform pore very large and pronounced (width 5 μm); each tarsus with perhaps 2 distinct tarsal spurs, each 30–36 μm long; tarsal digitules (tdt) possibly absent or represented by two thin flagelate setae. Claws (c) elongate and rather narrow, with a very indistinct denticle; length: III 43–45 μm, subequal in length to width to tarsus; claw digitules (cdt) distinctly longer than claw with small apical knobs.

Abdomen: segments I–VII: tergites (at) probably mildly sclerotised; sternites (as) probably slightly more heav- ily sclerotised. Caudal extension (ce) of segment VII absent. Dorsal setae (ads), pleural setae (dpl + vpl) and ventral setae (avs) abundant and hard to separate, appearing to form a continuous band around each segment.

Segment VIII: tergite (at) distinctly sclerotised, with a group of loculate pores extending across segment + 1–4 fs/hs dorsal abdominal setae near anterior margin and with 2 or 3 hs ante-anal setae posteriorly; sternite (as) equally sclerotised; with about 8 fs ventral abdominal setae (avs); caudal extension (ce) absent but with 4–6 fs + 2 hs pleural setae. Glandular pouches (gp) present, shallow with numerous loculate pores, which also extend out of pouch laterally and medially; length of glandular pouch setae 91–150 μm.

Genital segments: segment IX: apparently clearly separate from penial sheath (ps): quite heavily sclerotised; length IX 115–125 μm, greatest width 198–207 μm; anus rather large, surrounded anteriorly and laterally by an area of heavy sclerotisation which extends anterior-laterally as two arms which form anterior margin of segment IX medially; with a few fs + hs dorsally and many more ventrally. Style rather broad anteriorly, gradually narrowing posteriorly before broadening into a spatulate apex, length 315–328 μm, width at base 82–92 μm; quite heavily sclerotised; with a dorsal group of 0–2 hs + 2–7 fs on anterior end. Aedeagus quite broad anteriorly, extending from posterior part of segment IX; bulbous anteriorly, quickly narrowing to a narrow needle-like proximal part, much narrower than penial sheath, length 302–319 μm; basal rod broad, extending a short distance down aedeagus, length 45–55 μm. Spatulate apex of penial sheath with 8–9 pores extending radially.

Comment. The structure of the preocular ridge was not very clear and it is possible that the ridge extending posteriorly to each ocellus from near the antennae is, in fact, an interocular ridge.

Whilst the basic structure of B. dipterocarpi   appears to be very similar to that of B. napiformis ( Hu et al. 1995)   , it differs in a few particulars, namely (characters of B. napiformis   in brackets): (i) body and limbs covered with numerous fleshy setae (apparently few or absent); (ii) antennae with 4 groups of fleshy setae, each group arising from a common base (fleshy setae represented by 4 or 5 single fleshy setae); (iii) scape and pedicel with few setae (with many setae); (iv) prosternum without a median ridge (median ridge present); (v) prosternal and anteprosternal setae present (absent); (vi) antemetaspiracular setae present (absent); (vii) long tochanter setae not differentiated from other setae (differentiated); (viii) penial sheath with a spatulate apex (finely pointed), and (ix) penial sheath with a distinctly separate segment IX (segment IX apparently fused with style).

On the other hand, both share: (i) 3-segmented antennae, 3rd segment rather long and of irregular shape; (ii) antennae with two types of fleshy setae, one type very large; (iii) each antenna with 5–6 capitate setae; (iv) a group of setae present laterad to median area of scutum; (v) postmesospiracular setae present across segment; (vi) long postnotal apophysis; (vii) tibia and tarsus fused, forming a tibio-tarsus; (viii) claw long and narrow and not held at an angle to leg; (ix) presence of peg-like fleshy setae distally on all tarsi; (x) tarsal digitules either absent or setose; (xi) tarsal campaniform pore unusually large; (xii) glandular pouches present, each with long setae; (xiii) loculate pores present in glandular pouch and across abdominal segment VIII; (xiv) aedeagus bulbous at anterior end and then needle-like; (xv) penial sheath with setae at anterior end only, all short; (xvi) anal opening obvious dorsally on IX, probably surrounded by a sclerotised area.

The male of Mangalorea hopeae ( Takagi 1992b)   ( Fig. 44 View FIGURE 44 ) shows some similarities to B. dipterocarpi   , most particularly in the abundant fleshy setae throughout the body, although those on B. dipterocarpi   are rather longer. However, M. hopeae   differs from both Beesonia   species in having: (i) only one size of fleshy setae on the antennae (two); (ii) numerous setae laterodorsally on prothorax (few or absent); (iii) legs with a separate tibia and tarsus (fused); (iv) abdomen elongate (not unusually elongate); (v) segment VIII not very sclerotised (distinctly sclerotised); (vi) penial sheath short, less than 1/4th length of abdomen (very elongate, about as long or longer than abdomen); (vii) penial sheath with some longish setae (only short setae present); (viii) loculate disc-pores associated with glandular pouches not extending either medially or laterally (extending medially across segment VIII) and (xi) in lacking capitate setae on the antennal apex (present).

According to Hu et al. (1955), Green (1926) indicated that males of B. dipterocarpi   had hamulohalteres. These are definately absent, as are all the supporting structures, on all species here included in Beesoniidae   .