Parastictococcus multispinosus (Newstead)

Hodgson, Chris, 2020, A review of neococcid scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) based on the morphology of the adult males, Zootaxa 4765 (1), pp. 1-264: 120-125

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4765.1.1

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Parastictococcus multispinosus (Newstead)


Parastictococcus multispinosus (Newstead)   ( Figs 49 View FIGURE 49 , 50 View FIGURE 50 )

Stictococcus multispinosus Newstead 1908, 6   –7. Type data: Tanzania, Kilimanjaro, Kibonoto, 25/07/1905, by Dr. Sjostedt. Syntypes, female, Type depository: BMNH.

Stictococcus dimorphus Newstead 1910, 64   –66. Type data: Uganda, Langenburg, on Cacao   sp.,?/12/1909, by C.C. Gowdey. Syntypes, female, Type depository: BMNH. Junior synonym ( Richard 1971, 595).

Stictococcus diversiseta Silvestri 1915   , 379–388. Type data: Ghana, Aburi, on Annona   sp. Also BENIN, Cotonou, on undetermined host. Syntypes, female, Type depository: Dipartimento de Entomologia e Zoologia Agraria di Portici, Universita di Napoli Federico II, Portici, Italy. Junior synonym ( Richard 1971, 595).

Stictococcus aliberti Vayssière 1936, 282   –283. Type data: Togo, Daye, on unknown host,?/01/1934, by M. Alibert. Syntypes, female, Type depository: MNHN. Junior synonym ( Richard 1971, 595).

Stictococcus olivaceus Vayssière 1936, 285   –287. Type data: Sierra Leone, on Cola vera   , 24/12/1928, by E.E. Green. Syntypes, female, Type depository: MNHN. Junior synonym ( Richard 1971, 595).

Stictococcus (Parastictococcus) multispinosus (Newstead)   ; Richard 1971, 595. Change of combination.

Parastictococcus multispinosus (Newstead)   ; Richard 1976, 659. Change of combination.

Material examined. “ TYPE ”: Uganda, Kampala, on Markhamia platycalyx   ( Bignoniaceae   ), 2.ix.1915, C.C. Gowdey ( BMNH: IEE Coc.66): 1/1ad ♂ [but see discussion below description]. Non-types: Guinée Française ( Republic of Guinea),?Seridou, on?Sapotille, 20.i.1958, R. Rijal ( MNHN 6254; EAT 1243): 1/1ad ♂ #. Central

African Republic, La Maboke, ex legume, 11.xii.1965, R. Pusol, ( MNHN 7880/18): 1/1ad ♂. (Described from all 3 specimens. “ Type ” specimen fairly poor, poorly cleared and missing both antennae and wings, otherwise most structures visible; other 2 specimens, identified as P. multispinosus   by Richard, fair but also missing all antennae and all wings except one wing which is crumpled. However. see under Comment below.).

Note: unless otherwise stated all statements refer to both type and non-type specimens.

Mounted material: quite small, total body length about 1.31 mm (type) (1.0– 1.1 mm (non-type)); antennae missing; body setae few, type specimen with approximately three types of setae, although with gradations: (i) very large and quite thick Fig. 49 View FIGURE 49 ), with a hint of lateral fimbriations (about 45 μm long), (ii) hair-like setae (hs) almost as long (up to about 42 μm long but some much shorter) but thinner, without fimbriations, and (iii) fleshy setae (fs) with rounded apices and smaller; non-type ( Fig. 50 View FIGURE 50 ) apparently without type (i) setae but with medium-sized setae (clearly fs) and normal hs. Wings missing or crumpled.

Head: appearing almost round in dorsal view; length 160 μm (non-type); width across genae about 228 μm (type) and 174 μm (non-type). Median crest (mc) broadest posteriorly and reticulated; postoccipital ridge (por) ab- sent (type), present (non-type), with reticulations just posterior to it; type with (on each side) 3 large (type i) setae + 1 fs dorsal head setae (dhs); non-type with 6–9 setae, mainly fs, on each side. Mid-cranial ridge: dorsal ridge (dmcr) present as a short ridge near lateral mid-cranial ridge (lmcr); ventral ridge (vmcr) with well-developed lateral branches (lmcr) and a long medial ridge extending almost to ocular sclerite; without reticulations or striations laterally; type with 2 large (type i) setae + 1 fs ventral mid-cranial ridge seta (vmcrs) on each side; non-type with 5–7 vmcrs, mainly fs, on each side. Genae (g) without reticulations; genal setae: type: 1 or 2 large (type i) setae, 4 large hs + 2 or 3 fs on each side posterior to dorsal part of postocular ridge; non-type with 8–11 genal setae, mainly fs. Eyes: with two pairs of round simple eyes; dorsal eyes (dse) near antennae, subequal in width to ventral eyes (vse) (near mouth), type each 23–30 μm wide; non-type 33–34 μm wide. Ocelli (o) small (type), about 12 μm wide, or unusually large (non-type), 16–18 μm wide. Ocular sclerite (ocs) without polygonal reticulations but non-type with raised spots. Preocular ridge (procr) very small or absent. Postocular ridge (pocr) strongly developed, extending dorsally past posterior margin of each ocellus almost to postoccipital ridge; interocular ridge present on non-type specimens. Dorsal ocular setae (docs) absent. Ventral head setae (vhs): type: 8–12 fs + 2–4 hs on each side and with 1 pair fs posterior to ventral eyes; non-type with 15–17 fs, with several between and laterad to ventral eyes. Preoral ridge (pror) and cranial apophysis (ca) not visible on type; non-type preoral ridge probably represented by a sclerotisation at base of cranial apophysis; cranial apophysis 50 μm long and blunt apically.

Antennae: probably 6-segmented and filiform but only scape and pedicel present. Scape (scp): type: 43 μm long, 51–55 μm wide, with 1 fs + 3 hs; non-type: 36–38 μm long, 30–32 μm wide, with 2 fs + 3 hs. Pedicel (pdc): type: length 28–37 μm, width 41–43 μm; possibly with a few concentric ridges; with 1 or 2 fs, 3 hs + campaniform pore; non-type: 29–31 μm long and 25–28 μm wide with 7 or 8 fs, 2 or 3 hs + campaniform pore; Johnstone’s organ clearly present between pedicel and segment III.

Thorax. Prothorax: pronotal ridge (prnr) well-developed but not fused dorsally; lateral pronotal sclerite (prn) narrow but well developed; without lateral pronotal (lpns) setae. Medial pronotal setae, post-tergites and post-tergital setae probably absent. Sternum (stn 1) not sclerotised and lacking a median sclerotised ridge; with a quite strong transverse ridge, which broadens medially on non-type specimens; type with 1 pair of large (type i) setae + 0 or 1 fs prosternal setae (stn 1 s) on each side; non-type with 5 or 6 fs on each side, extending anteriorly past procoxae. Anteprosternal (astn 1 s) and antemesospiracular setae (am 2 s) absent.

Mesothorax: prescutum (prsc): type more or less rectangular, about 53 μm long (but posterior margin indis- tinct) and about 150 μm wide; non-type oval, 58–83 μm long and 116–132 μm wide; with large reticulations/nodula- tions throughout; prescutal ridge (pscr) ill-defined; prescutal suture (pscs) absent; type with 4 or 5 large (types i–ii) setae + 1 fs near each lateral margin; non-type with 7 or 8 fs on each side. Scutum (sct) separated from prescutum by an area of narrow reticulations but with large reticulations more posteriorly; median area: type about 63 μm long; non-type 66–77 μm long; type with 2 or 3 large (type i) setae, 2–5 large hs + 1 or 2 fs scutal setae (scts) on each side; non-type with 8–14 fs on each side; lateral margins without setae: type not reticulated but non-type with some reticulation. Prealare ridge fairly weak. Scutellum (scl): type 116 μm wide and 35 μm long; non-type 124–142 μm wide and 36–38 μm long; possibly tubular, with a moderate-sized foramen; type with 2 type i setae + 0 or1 large hs scutellar setae (scls) on each side; non-type with 1 or 2 fs + 1–5 hs on each side. Basisternum (stn 2): type 197 μm wide, 93 μm long; non-type 174–290 μm wide, 86–113 μm long; without a median ridge (mdr), but bounded anteriorly by a strong marginal ridge (mr) and posteriorly by strong precoxal ridges (pcr 2); type with 1 type i seta, 6–9 large hs + 2 fs basisternal setae (stn 2 s); non-type with a total of 38 setae, mainly fs; lateropleurite (lpl) narrow with a weak extension (type) or strong extension (non-type) from marginal ridge anteriorly, extending around lateral margin; with 5 fs near margin of lateropleurite, mesepiternum and subepisternal ridge; furca (f) well developed, narrow-waisted, arms very divergent. Mesopostnotum (pn 2): type unclear and possibly damaged; non-type apparently normally developed; postnotal apophysis (pna) well developed. Area bounded anteriorly by scutellum and laterally and posteriorly by postalare not sclerotised. Mesepisternum (eps 2) not reticulated but each with a group of 3–5 fs; subepisternal ridge well developed. Postalare (pa) not reticulated anteriorly; without postalare setae (pas). Mesothoracic spiracle (sp 2): peritreme: type 30 μm wide; non-type 25 μm wide. Postmesospiracular setae (pm 2 s): type with 4 or 5 large hs posterior to each mesothoracic spiracle; non-type 8–12 fs covering full width of segment. Tegula (teg) present, with 2–4 fs + 0–3 hs tegular setae (tegs) on each side.

Metathorax: metatergal setae (mts): type: area damaged; non-type with 1 or 2 fs + 1 or 2 hs. Dorsospiracular setae (dss): type with 5–7 large (type i–ii) setae on each side; non-type 7–11 larger setae. Dorsal part of metapleural ridge (plr 3) and suspensorial sclerite (ss) absent. Ventral part of metapleural ridge well developed; episternum (eps 3) with some sclerotisation on both anterior and posterior halves; type without postmetaspiracular setae (eps 3 s) on either side; non-type with 3 fs. Metepimeron (epm 3): type possibly unsclerotised; non-type well developed; without setae. Antemetaspiracular setae (am 3 s) absent. Metathoracic spiracle (sp 3): width of peritreme: type uncertain; nontype 15–19 μm; non-type without spiracular disc-pores. Metasternum (stn 3) membranous; anterior metasternal setae (amss): type with 1 large hs medially and 1 pair of fs laterally; non-type with 8 setae; posterior metasternal setae (pmss): type with 4 large hs medially; non-type with 3–7 setae.

Wings: missing (one present on a non-type, very crumpled—almost certainly without anal lobe, alar setae and alar pores); size unknown; hamulohalteres absent.

Legs: metathoracic legs possibly slightly longest. Coxae (cx): type: I 86–95; II 83; III 91–96 μm long; nontype: I 57–63; II 55–58; III 57–67 μm; setae of coxa III: type: 0 or 1 fs + 5 or 6 hs; non-type: 3 fs + 4 hs; long apical setae on each coxa not differentiated. Trochanter (tr) + femur (fm): type: I 207–216; II 211; III 215–220 μm long; non-type: I 174; II 149–172; III 153–187 μm; trochanter III setae: type with 0 fs + 1 hs, non-type 1 or 2 fs + 2 or 3 hs; long trochanter seta not differentiated or up to 25–42 μm; femur III setae: type with 3 or 4 fs + 14 hs; non-type 13 fs + 6 hs. Tibia (ti): type: I 169–174; II 186; III 182–187 μm; non-type: I 172; II 153–174; III 160–183 μm; tibia III setae: type with a total of 12–17 setae, non-type 28–31 fs and hs; with two distinct apical spurs (tibs), length type: 23–25 μm; non-type 23 μm. Tarsi (ta): type: I 99–100; II 108; III 103–108 μm long (ratio of length of tibia III to tarsus III 1:0.57); non-type: I 83; II 74–85; III 74–90 μm (ratio 1:0.52); tarsus III setae: type with 11–13 setae, non-type 17 or 18 setae; tarsal campaniform pore present; each tarsus with 2 distinct tarsal spurs, type each 21–24 μm long, non-type 20 μm; tarsal digitules (tdt) unusual as in family diagnosis. Claws (c) also of unusual shape, see family diagnosis; length: III: type 37 μm, non-type 26–30 μm; claw digitules (cdt) subequal in length to claw, type apparently without a capitate apex, non-type with capitate apices.

Abdomen: segments I–VII: tergites (at) all slightly sclerotised, non-type most obvious posteriorly; sternites (as): type unsclerotised, non-type all sclerotised, most obvious on posterior segments; without obvious oval membranous areas in inter-segmental membranes. Caudal extension (ce) of segment VII absent. Dorsal setae (ads) (on each side): segments I–VII: type each with 2 or 3 large hs; non-type each with 0–2 fs + 1 or 2 hs. Pleural setae: dorsopleural + ventropleural setae (on each side): I–VII: type each with 2 or 3 large + 1–4 smaller hs; non-type each with 2–4 fs + 0–2 hs. Ventral setae (avs) (on each side): II–VII: type each with 1–3 large hs, becoming smaller laterally; non-type each with 2 or 3 fs + 1 or 2 hs.

Segment VIII: tergite (at) distinctly sclerotised, type with 1 large + 1 small hs dorsal abdominal seta on each side, non-type with 1 pair fs; sternite (as): type sternites more lightly sclerotised than tergites, non-type about equally sclerotised; type with 2 small hs ventral abdominal setae (avs), non-type with 2 medium + 1 small hs; caudal extension (ce) rounded but with 2 small hs pleural setae. Glandular pouches (gp) present and shallow, with some loculate pores around margin of pouch; length of glandular pouch setae: type: 170–225 μm, non-type 186–210 μm.

Genital segments: segment IX broad and heavily sclerotised; length: type 72 μm, non-type 71–76 μm, width at anterior margin: type 125 μm, non-type 75–80 μm; anus present medially on dorsum, almost round, non-type 41 μm wide and 37 μm long; type with 3 pairs of long hs ventro-laterally, non-type with 2 pairs. Segment IX separated from style by a moderately wide (type) or narrow (non-type) unsclerotised area which narrows and fuses with penial sheath proper; style rapidly narrowing to a fine needle-like posterior shaft, which is more than half total length of penial sheath; total length of style: type 183 μm, non-type 133 μm; width of style at base of membranous band: type 65 μm, non-type 41–45 μm; with 2 pairs of very long hs dorso-laterally on anterior part (non-type each 60–70 μm long), and with 2 pairs of small pores on narrow posterior part of style, one pair apically and other about half-way. Aedeagus extending from posterior part of segment IX, bulbous anteriorly, quickly narrowing to a narrow needlelike distal part but slightly wider and longer than style; type 190 μm long, non-type 160 μm long; basal rod broad distally but extending posteriorly and fading down length of aedeagus length: type 50–60 μm.

Comment. The specimen labelled “ type ” from Uganda is clearly not part of the type series, despite the label. In having been collected from Uganda, it might have been part of the type series of Stictococcus dimorphus Newstead   (a junior synonym of P. multispinosus   ) but the above specimen was collected 5 years after S. dimorphus   was described and the collection data is quite different. The non-type material ( Fig. 50 View FIGURE 50 ) differs from the “ type ” material ( Fig. 49 View FIGURE 49 ) mainly in the absence of the very large setae. However, there are a number of other smaller differences and it is possible that these 3 specimens actually represent 2 species. The genital area was almost identical on the three lots of material although the structures on the type were significantly larger.

The males of P. multispinosus   and P. brachystegiae   (described above) are very similar but differ in that the former (i) lacks reticulations laterally on the scutum (present on P. brachystegiae   ); and (ii) P. multispinosus   is less hirsute on the head ( P. brachystegiae   has many more dorsal and ventral head setae).


Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle














Parastictococcus multispinosus (Newstead)

Hodgson, Chris 2020

Stictococcus multispinosus

Stictococcus multispinosus Newstead 1908, 6

Stictococcus dimorphus

Stictococcus dimorphus Newstead 1910, 64
Richard 1971 , 595

Stictococcus diversiseta

Richard 1971, 595

Stictococcus aliberti Vayssière 1936, 282

Stictococcus aliberti Vayssière 1936, 282
Richard 1971, 595

Stictococcus olivaceus Vayssière 1936, 285

Stictococcus olivaceus Vayssière 1936, 285
Richard 1971, 595

Stictococcus (Parastictococcus) multispinosus (Newstead)

Richard 1971, 595

Parastictococcus multispinosus (Newstead)

Richard 1976, 659