KERMESIDAE Signoret 1875b,

Hodgson, Chris, 2020, A review of neococcid scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) based on the morphology of the adult males, Zootaxa 4765 (1), pp. 1-264: 152-154

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.4765.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C442D94C-0EB4-4509-B762-913707214819

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3796843

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B2EA64-0AB8-46CB-2CFC-F9D3FC9AD26A

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

KERMESIDAE Signoret 1875b
status

 

KERMESIDAE Signoret 1875b 

Kermes Boitard 1828, 171  . Type species: Coccus variegatus Gmelin  by subsequent designation Fernald 1903, 60. (= Chermes roboris, Fourcroy  ).

Introduction. The family Kermesidae  currently includes 10 genera with 93 species ( García Morales et al. 2019). However, the inclusion of some genera (e.g., Eriokermes  ) is still somewhat controversial. Most species are found on oaks or other fabaceous plant species, although Eriokermes  is restricted to junipers ( Cupressaceae  ). Kermesid adult males are unusual within the neococcoids in having 5 pairs of simple eyes. In their molecular phylogenetic study, Gullan and Cook (2007) found the Kermesidae  to be part of a polytomy with all other neococcoids bar the Pseudococcidae  , while Yokogawa and Yahara (2009) found the kermesids sister to the Cerococcidae  and Asterolecaniidae  . Hodgson and Hardy (2013), based on adult male morphology, found the Kermesidae  to be sister to the Kerriidae  , Lecanodiaspidae, Cerococcidae  , Asterolecaniidae  , Aclerdidae  and Coccidae  , while Vea and Grimaldi (2016) found the Kermesidae  to be sister to the Asterolecaniidae  , Cerococcidae  , Kerriidae  and Lecanodiaspididae  . Males of the following species have been described previously: K. quercus  (L.) ( Koteja & Zak-Ogaza 1972), K. bytinskii Sternlicht ( Sternlicht 1969)  (now K. nahalali Sternlicht 1969  ), Eriokermes gillettei (Tinsley) ( Miller & Miller 1993)  and 4 species from China by Hu (1986). The following family diagnosis is based on the adult males of K. quercus  , K. nahalali  and Eriokermes gillettei  plus the 3 species described below.

Family diagnosis based on adult male morphology ( Figs 62–64View FIGURE 62View FIGURE 63View FIGURE 64). Body: moderate sized, with abdomen tapering slightly or parallel-sided; with both fs and hs (unclear on E. gillettei  ), mostly ventral; loculate pores absent (apart from in glandular pouch). Head: preocular ridge well developed, apparently fusing medially on venter in some species; with a group of setae on each membranous area laterad to ventral mid-cranial ridge (few on E. gillettei  ); ocular sclerite well developed and almost forming a complete band; with 5 pairs of simple eyes, dorsal and ventral pairs large, lateral 3 pairs smaller; ocellus close to postocular ridge; postoccipital ridge well developed; genae lacking setae; antennae 10 segmented, with both hs and fs; segment X with 4 capitate setae (number uncertain on E. gillettei  ). Thorax: prothoracic setae absent; postmesospiracular setae absent; prescutal setae present; scutum with a membranous area, without setae; basisternum without a median ridge; basisternal setae absent; alar setae present or absent; alar sensoria absent; hamulohalteres present; legs setose, with both fs and hs; trochanter with 3 sensoria in a line; tibia with two tibial spurs (unclear on E. gillettei  ); tarsi 1 or 2 segmented; tarsal digitules capitate; claws with capitate digitules and a denticle. Abdomen: abdominal segments each usually with sternites; glandular pouches present on segment VIII, each deep; penial sheath composed of a broad segment IX (with anus) fused to a narrower style, latter about 1–2 times longer than segment IX, narrowing to a blunt apex; penial sheath setae only present on segment IX.

The preocular ridge does not appear to actually meet medially on the venter on any of the three species described below. Nonetheless, the above combination of characters immediately separates all known members of this family from those of other families.

Key to known adult males of Kermesidae  species

1. Tarsi 1 segmented.................................................................................... 2

- Tarsi 2 segmented.................................................................................... 4

2. Alar seta present. Prosternal setae abundant.......................................... Kermes  sp. ( USA) ( Fig. 64View FIGURE 64)

- Alar setae absent. Prosternal setae absent or only 1 pair present................................................ 3

3. Only 2 dorsal abdominal pleural setae present on each side of abdominal segments I–VII. Simple pores present on head and loculate pores present ventrally on metathorax............................................ K. bytinskii Sternlicht  *

- With at least 4 or 5 dorsal abdominal pleural setae present on each side. Simple pores and loculate pores absent............................................................................... Allokermes galliformis (Riley)  ( Fig. 62View FIGURE 62)

4. Metasternal setae absent............................................................................... 5

- Metasternal setae present............................................................................... 7

5. All thoracic setae (except tegular setae) absent. Pleural setae absent on abdominal segments I and II................................................................................................. Eriokermes gilletei (Tinsley) 

- Some thoracic setae present, at least on scutellum. Pleural setae present on segments I and II......................... 6

6. A small group of metapleural setae present just posterior to metapleural ridge......... K. hermonensis Spodek & Ben-Dov 

- Metapleural setae absent just posterior to metapleural ridge............................... K. echinatus Balachowsky 

7. With 3 ventral pleural setae on each side of each abdominal segments II–VI. Body size small, about 1 mm long... Nidularia balachowskii Bodenheimer 

- With only 1 ventral pleural seta on each side of each abdominal segments II–VI. Body size larger, about 1.5–2 mm long... 8

8. Three or fewer dorsal pleural setae on each side of abdominal segment I......................................... 9

- More than 4 dorsal pleural setae present on each side of abdominal segment I.................................... 10

- With 4 prosternal setae on each side of median sternal ridge. Antennal setae mostly shorter than width of antennal segments..................................................................................... K. qingdaoensis Hu 

10. Propleural setae present in a small group of 4 setae. With about 10 prosternal setae present associated with median ridge on each side. With about 10 pleural setae on each side of abdominal segment I............................ K. taishanensis Hu 

- Propleural setae absent. Other characters not in this combination.............................................. 11

11. Sternite of abdominal segment VIII with strong sclerotised ridges on either side of sternite. Preocular ridge fusing medially on venter. Most abdominal segments with 2 pairs of dorsal abdominal setae............................. K. quercus  (L.)

- Sternite of abdominal segment VIII without strong sclerotised ridges on either side of sternite. Other characters not in this combination........................................................................................ 12

12. Abdominal segments II–VII each with mainly 2 dorsal pleural setae.................................................................................................... K. greeni  Bodenheimera & K. nahalali Bodenheimer  **

- Abdominal segments II–VII infrequently with 2 dorsal pleural setae........................................... 13

13. Median ridge of prosternum with perhaps 7 prosternal setae on each side. Abdominal segment I with about 12 pleural setae on each side............................................................................ K. nigronotatus Hu 

- Median ridge of prosternum with only 3 prosternal setae on each side. Abdominal segment I with about 8 or 9 pleural setae on each side.......................................................................................... 14

14. Setae on most antennal segments short, less than width of each segment........................ K. miyasakii Kuwana  - Setae on most antennal segments as long as or longer than width of each segment........ K. spatulatus Spodek & Ben-Dov 

*Note: K. bytinskii Sternlicht  was synonymised with K. nahalali Bodenheimer  by Spodek and Ben-Dov (2014). However, the description of the morphology of the adult males described by Spodek and Ben-Dov differ in a few possibly significant features from those in Sternlicht (1969). Sternlicht clearly illustrates one of the tarsi as being 1 segmented, whereas Spodek and Ben-Dov state that it is 2 segmented. In addition, Sternlicht clearly states and illustrates “disc-pores” (simple pores) present on both the dorsal and ventral surfaces of the head, and also states that some trilocular pores are present on the metasternum (although he illustrates these and the setae in the wrong place!). Spodek and Ben-Dov looked but did not find these pores on their specimens. As the adult males of K. bytinskii  and K. nahalali  key out in quite different places in the above key, they are being kept separate here although this is not suggesting that the synonymy is incorrect but perhaps material of adult male K. bytinskii  and K. nahalali  need to be studied further.

** Note. The taxonomic value of the character-states from 12 onwards is uncertain.

Also note that Hu (1995) referred to the dorsal pleural setae on abdominal segment I as being on the metathorax whereas they are clearly on abdominal segment I in his figure.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hemiptera

Family

Kermesidae

Loc

KERMESIDAE Signoret 1875b

Hodgson, Chris 2020
2020
Loc

Kermes

Kermes Boitard 1828, 171
Fernald 1903 , 60
Fernald 1903