Luzulaspis caricis (Ehrhorn)

Hodgson, Chris, 2020, A review of neococcid scale insects (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha: Coccomorpha) based on the morphology of the adult males, Zootaxa 4765 (1), pp. 1-264: 238-241

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.4765.1.1

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Luzulaspis caricis (Ehrhorn)


Luzulaspis caricis (Ehrhorn)   ( Fig. 93 View FIGURE 93 )

Exaeretopus caricis Ehrhorn 1902, 193   . Type data: USA, California, Mt. Shasta, on Carex breweri   . Syntypes, female. Type depository: USNM.

Luzulaspis caricis (Ehrhorn)   ; Koteja 1978, 323. Change of combination.

Material examined: USA, California, Mt. Shasta (10,000 ft), ex Carex breweri   ( Cyperaceae   ), 30.viii.2006, T. Kondo ( USNM, BMNH): 4/8ad ♂♂ + a pupa (mainly good).

Mounted material. Of moderate size, 1150–1250 μm long, width across triangular plates (tp) 270–280 μm; body slender; antennae about 3/4 total length of body; body with relatively few setae, mostly fleshy setae (fs), hair-like setae (hs) present but few; fs also most abundant type of seta on limbs; fs fairly easily differentiated from

hair-like setae. Head strongly reticulated, each reticulation without inner microridges. Pores (other than those in glandular pouches) absent. Wings slightly shorter than total body length and rather narrow.

Head. About 250 μm long; width across genae 290–300 μm. Median crest (mc) strongly reticulated dorsally, broadening posteriorly; dorsal head setae (dhs): 2 or 3 fs + 2–4 hs on each side. Dorsal mid-cranial ridge absent; ventral mid-cranial ridge (vmcr) present, short, extending to ocular sclerite (ocs), vmcr with a pair of short lateral arms (lmcr) at anterior end; with 0–3 fs ventral median ridge setae (vmcrs) on each side. Genae (g) strongly reticulated, each with 3 or 4 fs + 0 or 1 hs genal setae (gs). Eyes: with two pairs of simple eyes, subequal in size, each 26–29 μm wide; anterior pair dorsad to scape, posterior pair near posterior margin of head. Ocelli (o) distinct, each 15–17 μm wide. Ocular sclerite (ocs) strongly reticulated. Preocular ridge short or absent dorsally; fairly short ventrally, only extending about halfway to ventral mid-cranial ridge. Postocular ridge (procr) strongly developed, extending almost to median crest dorsally; not touching ocelli; with a strong interocular ridge (ior). Dorsal ocular setae (docs): 1 or 2 on each side. With 6–8 fs + 0–2 hs ventral head setae (vhs) on each side, distributed anterior, laterad and between vse. Tentorial bridge (tb) well developed. Cranial apophysis (ca) well developed, more or less with a pointed apex, perhaps 35–45 μm long.

Antennae: 10-segmented, filiform. Each scape 860–1225 μm long (several malformed), subequal to body length; scape (scp) 40–50 μm long, 45 μm wide, with one hs on ventral surface and 2 hs near antero-dorsal mar- gin; pedicel (pdc) 50–54 μm long, 32–34 μm wide, polygonally reticulated on distal half; with 4 fs, all ventral, + 1 campaniform pore. Segments III–X rather narrow, width about 25 μm; lengths of segments (μm): III 91–100; IV 145–150; V 135–150; VI 100–105; VII 90–95; VIII 75–80; IX 70–75 and X 50–55; setae: fs each about 33 μm long, hs absent; approximate number per segment: III: 0–5 fs + 1–3 sensilla basiconica; IV 17–21 fs; V 20–25 fs; VI 13 fs; VII 10–12 fs; VIII 10–16 fs; IX 10–13 fs; X 80–82 μm long, with 11–12 fs + 3 capitate setae (caps); antennal bristles hard to differentiate; segment X not constricted apically; one sensilla basiconica on apex.

Thorax: Prothorax: pronotal ridge (prnr) strong but not fused medially; pronotal sclerite (prn) well developed; post-tergite probably present, small and mildly sclerotised, without lateral pronotal setae. Prosternum (stn 1) with a strong transverse ridge, each with a small apophysis; median ridge short, but with some lateral, non-reticulated, sclerotisation; with at least 3 or 4 fs pronotal setae on each side; anteprosternal setae (astn 1 s): 4 or 5 fs on each side. Proepisternum + cervical sclerite (pepcv) well developed; propleural ridge (plr 1) quite large; propleural apophysis (pla 1) well developed. Antemesospiracular setae absent.

Mesothorax: prescutum (prsc) large, about twice as wide as long, length 65–75 μm, width 105–120 μm; with faint reticulations or nodulations; probably rather convex in life; prescutal setae absent; prescutal ridge (pscr) and prescutal sclerite (pscs) well developed. Prealare (pra) and triangular plate (tp) well developed. Scutum (sct): median membranous area large, about twice as wide as long, length 55–70 μm, width 100–115 μm, with 1 or 2 pairs hs scutal setae (scts); scutum laterally without scutal setae, showing a few faint nodulations laterad to scutellum; prealar ridge (prar) distinct, terminating in a well-developed anterior notal wing process (anp). Scutellum (scl) rectangular and tubular, with a small foramen, length 40–45 μm, width 115–130 μm; without scutellar setae. Mesopostnotum (pn 2) normal; postnotal apophysis (pna) well developed; area within mesopostnotum membranous. Mesepisternum (eps 2) well developed, without ridges or reticulations. Basisternum (stn 2): length 90–110 μm, width 190–210 μm; median ridge (mdr) strong but not complete anteriorly; bounded by strong marginal (mr) and precoxal (pcr 2) ridges; without basisternal setae; lateropleurite (lpl) large, with a short extension from marginal ridge along anterior border; furca (f) waisted, with long furcal arms extending about 2/3rds to marginal ridge (mr). Postalare (pa) well developed; postalare setae absent. Mesothoracic spiracle (sp 2) about 17 μm wide. Postmesospiracular setae absent. Tegula (teg): well developed, with 1–3 hs tegular setae (tegs). Wing sclerites apparently normal.

Metathorax: metapostnotum (pn 3) present, small; with 1 pair of hs metatergal seta (mts). Dorsospiracular setae (dss) absent. Metapleural ridge (plr 3) short, absent dorsally. Metepisternum (eps 3) generally unsclerotised, with 4–7 fs + 0 or 1 hs postmetaspiracular setae (eps 3 s). Metepimeron (epm 3) short, without setae. Antemetaspiracular setae absent. Metathoracic spiracle (sp 3): peritreme about 17 μm wide. Metasternum (stn 3) lightly sclerotised. Anterior metasternal setae (amss): 15–25 fs; posterior metasternal setae (pmss): 10–15 fs. All structures associated with hamulohalteres absent.

Wings: rather narrow, length 1000–1150 μm long, width 350–375 μm (ratio of total body length to wing length 1:0.9). Without alar lobes, alar setae or alar sensilla. Hamulohalteres (h) absent.

Legs: metathoracic legs marginally longest. Fairly setose, mainly with fs or spur-like setae. Coxae (cx) lengths (μm): I 100; II 93–100; III 95–100; procoxae without coxal bristles; metacoxae (cx 3) with 14 or 15 fs + 4–8 hs; apical seta 50–65 μm long. Lengths (μm): trochanter (tr) + femur (f) I 198–220; II 195–210; III 190–215; each tro- chanter with oval campaniform pores in a line on each side; trochanter III with about 7 fs + 3–5 hs; long trochanter seta 60–70 μm long; each femur III with 11–30 fs + 8–15 hs. Tibia (ti) I 220–250; II 235–260; III 245–260; tibia III with many setae, mostly spur-like on distal half; tibial spur (tibs) 20–26 μm long. Tarsi (ta) lengths (μm): I 80–95; II 70–100; III 80–100; tarsus III with mostly spur-like setae; tarsal spurs (tabs) barely differentiated, each about 25 μm long; tarsal campaniform pore (tcp) absent; tarsal digitules (tdt) longer than claw, capitate. Claws (c) 25–32 μm long, longer than width of tarsi, slightly curved, rarely with a minute denticle; claw digitules (cdt) a little longer than claw and capitate.

Abdomen. Segments I–VIII: sternites (as) well developed on all segments, tergites (at) less sclerotised; pleurites present only on caudal extensions of segments VII and VIII; sternites of segments II, III and IV each with a large membranous area in posterior intersegmental membrane. Dorsal abdominal setae (ads) few, segment I–VI each with 1–6 fs + 0 or 1 hs on each side; segment VII with 1 hs and segment VIII without ads. Ventral abdominal setae (avs) slightly more abundant, each segment with 2–7 fs + 0 or 1 hs on each side. Dorsal pleural setae (dps) few, with 1 or 2 fs + 0 or 1 hs on segment V & VI and probably VII; ventral pleural setae (vps) unclear but perhaps with 0–2 hs on segments V and VI, and 10–15 fs on caudal extension VII. Segment VIII: tergite (at) only lightly sclerotised; caudal extension small but distinct, sclerotised, pointing laterally, with 3 hs on base on dorsal surface; with 2 pairs of fs ante-anal setae. Sternite VIII sclerotised, forming anterior border of basal membranous area (bma); without setae. Glandular pouch (gp) present and deep; glandular pouch setae (gls) each 95–100 μm long.

Genital segments: segment IX and style intimately fused; penial sheath (ps) stout, about 200 μm long and 70 μm wide at base; rather parallel-sided, gradually tapering to a blunt apex. Anus (an) with a sclerotised dorsal mar- gin; about 17 μm wide. Basal rod (bra) long, significantly longer than aedeagus, length 75 μm, not nearly reaching basal membranous area (bma) anteriorly; without an extension posteriorly down aedeagus. Aedeagus (aed) short and broad, length 35 μm; approximately parallel-sided; not nearly reaching apex of penial sheath. Style with 6 or 7 minute setae on each side and a group of sensory pores on apex.

Comment. The adult male of L. caricis   is clearly similar to that of L. luzulae (Dufour)   described by Giliomee (1967a), but differs as follows (character-states for L. luzulae   in brackets): (i) dorsal ocular setae and genal setae present (absent); (ii) with rather more dorsal abdominal setae and ventral abdominal setae (sometimes absent on dorsum and fewer on venter); (iv) presence of glandular pouches and glandular pouch setae (both absent); (v) shape of caudal extension on abdominal segment VIII, strongly sclerotised and pointing more or less laterally (weak and membranous); and (vi) basal rod distinctly longer than aedeagus (subequal in length).

Luzulaspis   has been previously included in the Eriopeltinae ( Hodgson, 1994), one of two subfamilies that produce a woolly test and an ovisac which envelopes part or all of the adult female. The other subfamily is the Filippiinae. T. Kondo and L.G. Cook (unpublished data based on a Bayesian phylogenetic analysis of the family Coccidae   using DNA sequences based on 18S, 28S and partial CO1 data) only included one species currently in the Eriopeltinae, Luzulaspis caricis (Ehrhorn)   and this was sister to the Ceroplastinae and only distantly related to the species included in the Filippiinae.


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Luzulaspis caricis (Ehrhorn)

Hodgson, Chris 2020

Exaeretopus caricis

Exaeretopus caricis Ehrhorn 1902, 193

Luzulaspis caricis (Ehrhorn)

Koteja 1978, 323