Gracillariidae, Stainton, 1854

Pohl, Greg, Anweiler, Gary, Schmidt, Christian & Kondla, Norbert, 2010, An annotated list of the Lepidoptera of Alberta, Canada, ZooKeys 38 (38), pp. 1-549: 58-59

publication ID 10.3897/zookeys.38.383


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16. Gracillariidae  – gracillariid moths

Minute to small (8–15 mm wingspan) moths, often with colorful forewings. Both pairs of wings are narrow, and the hindwings have prominent wing fringes much wider than the wing itself. Th ey have long antennae, at least 0.9 times the length of the forewing. Adults of

Gracillariinae  rest with the anterior part of the body raised off the substrate on the forelegs and midlegs. Larvae of most species are leafminers; a few are stem miners or gall miners.

Approximately 1800 species of gracillariids are known, from all parts of the world. De Prins and De Prins (2005) published a world catalog. Two hundred and ninety-five species are known from North America, including 25 species reported from AB. Many species likely remain undescribed, and the family is in need of revision. Braun (1908), Opler and Davis (1981) and Davis and Deschka (2001) collectively have covered most species in the subfamily Lithocolletinae  , which includes the species-rich genera Phyllonorycter  and Cameraria  . Few recent works have dealt with species in the subfamily Gracillariinae  , which includes the species-rich genus Caloptilia  . The latter includes several common species that are occasional pests of ornamental trees. Many species of gracillariids are difficult to identify without information about the host plant. Forbes (1923) provided excellent keys and synopses organized by host plant, covering many species of gracillariids that occur in western Canada.