Architis tenuis Simon, 1898,

Santos, Adalberto J., 2007, A revision of the Neotropical nursery-web spider genus Architis (Araneae: Pisauridae), Zootaxa 1578 (1), pp. 1-40: 7-11

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.1578.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F1CA1CAB-1E51-4029-B0E8-DA9A5D204C66

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B32614-4853-293A-6F98-50A99F1944D4

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Architis tenuis Simon, 1898
status

 

Architis tenuis Simon, 1898 

Figures 1View FIGURE 1, 2A–DView FIGURES 2, 4A, BView FIGURES 4, 6View FIGURE 6

Architis tenuis Simon 1898b: 12–13  . Simon 1898a: 292, fig. 301; Roewer 1954: 110; Bonnet 1955: 639; Carico 1981: 141–143, figs 4, 9, 16–17, 32–33 (mislabeled as A. nitidopilosa  in legend), map 1, tables 1–2; Platnick 1989: 394; Sierwald 1989: 8, figs 22–23; Sierwald 1990: 27, figs 22–23; Carico 1993: 202; Platnick 1993: 515; Platnick 1998: 594.

Architis nitidopilosa Simon 1898b: 13  . Roewer 1954: 110; Bonnet 1955: 639; Carico 1981: 143–144, figs 3, 12–15, map 1, tables 1–2; Platnick 1989: 394; Sierwald 1989: 8, figs 19–21, 25; Platnick 1993: 515. New Synonymy.

Architis nitidoplumosa Simon. Simon 1898a: 292  ; Bonnet 1955: 639 (lapsus).

Thanatidius proximus Mello-Leitão, 1921: 180  . Roewer 1954: 125. Synonymy with A. tenuis  established by Carico (1993).

Thanatidius proximatus Mello-Leitão. Carico 1993: 202  (lapsus).

Thanatidius parahybensis Mello-Leitão, 1924: 278  . Synonymy with T. proximus  established by Roewer (1954).

Type material. Lectotype of Architis tenuis Simon, 1898  (designated by Carico 1981): male, Cametá, state of Pará, Brazil, 2 o 14’S, 49 o 30’W or Pebas, Department of Loreto, Peru, 3 o 10’S, 71 o 46’W (MNHN 4093) (examined). Paralectotypes of Architis tenuis Simon, 1898: 3  males and 1 female, data as lectotype (MNHN 4093) (examined). Paralectotypes of Architis tenuis Simon, 1898: 3  females, data as lectotype (MNHN 4093) (misidentification, these three females are A. cymatilis  ; see remark section below) (examined). Holotype of Architis nitidopilosa Simon, 1898  : male, Orinoco, Venezuela, 10 o 12’S, 63 o 53’W, labeled “ Architis nitidoplumosa  ” (MNHN 9611) (examined). Holotype of Thanatidius proximus Mello-Leitão, 1921  and holotype of Thanatidius parahybensis Mello-Leitão, 1924  : male, Campina Grande, state of Paraíba, Brazil, 7º13’S 35º52’W T. Leitão ( MNRJ 214) (not examined).

Additional material examined. BRAZIL: Roraima: Caracaraí ( Estação Ecológica Niquiá ), 1 o 49’S, 61 o 7’W, October 2001, L. Mestre, 1♀ ( IBSP 43071View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Alto Alegre ( Estação Ecológica de Maracá ), 3 o 22’S, 61 o 22’W, May 1992, M. Nascimento, 1♂, 4♀, 2 juv. ( MCTP 1957View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Rondônia: Porto Velho , 8 o 52’S, 63 o 52’W, 16 April 1996, equipe IBSP/SMNK, 1♀ ( IBSP 16134View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Amazonas: ( Rio Atiniga ), 5º48’36”S, 61º18’0”W, 19 April 1996, equipe SMNK/IBSP, 2♀ ( SMNK 2005View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Borba ( Rio Mapiá ), 4 o 23’S, 59 o 35’W, 22 April 1996, equipe IBSP/SMNK, 3♀, 1 juv. ( IBSP 15981View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Maués (District of Cachoeirinha, Rio Madeira ), 5º26’S, 50º60’W, 13–14 December 1975, Exp. Perm. Amaz., 1♂ ( MZSP 12019View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Manaus ( Reserva Biológica de Campina ), 2º34’S 60º02’W, 1 March 1992, A.A. Lise, 1♀ ( MCTP 1486View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Manaus ( Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke ), 2º55’S, 59º59’W, 19–24 February 1992, A.A. Lise, 4♂, 4♀, 1 juv. ( MCTP 1704View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Manaus ( Mil Madeireira ), 2º43’S 58º31’W, July 2002, G.Q. Romero, 2♂ ( IBSP 35113View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Manaus , (PDBFF reserves, 80 Km. N. Manaus), 2º27´S, 59º45’W, 1990–1991, H.G. Fowler et al., 6♂, 17♀ ( MCZ)GoogleMaps  ; Manicoré ( Barreira do Matupiri ), 5º48’S, 61º17’W, 18 April 1996, equipe IBSP/SMNK, 1♂, 1♀ ( IBSP 15470View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; São Gabriel da Cachoeira ( District of Maturacá ), 0 o 7’S, 67º4’W, 13 October 1990, A.A. Lise, 2♂, 1♀ ( INPA)GoogleMaps  ; Novo Airão ( Parque Nacional do Jaú ), 2º37´S 60º57’W, 16 March 1999, S.H. Borges, 1♂, 1♀, 1 juv. ( IBSP 28483View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Presidente Figueiredo ( Usina Hidrelétrica de Balbina ), 2º3’S, 60º3’W, 1987–1988, Equipe IBSP, 1♀ ( IBSP 10871View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Pará: Belém ( Parque Ambiental do Utinga ), 1º27’S, 48º28’W, 15 July 1978, 1♀ ( MPEG)GoogleMaps  ; Melgaço ( Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã ), 1º46’S, 50º43’W, 11 August 1996, A.A. Lise et al., 4♂, 9♀ ( MCTP 9417View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Santarém ( Alter do Chão ), 2º22’S, 37º30’W, 26 January 1994, A.D. Brescovit, 8♂, 15♀ ( MCN 25060View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Santarém ( Serra da Piroca ), 9 February 1991, J. Vidal, 1♀ ( MCTP 1487View Materials)  ; Canindé (50 km E, Aldeia Araçu, Igarapé Gurupi-Uma , Rio Gurupi ), 1º22’S, 52º22’W, 2–30 May 1963, B. Malkin, 1♂ ( AMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Tucuruí ( Usina Hidrelétrica de Tucuruí ), 3º52´S, 49º37´W, August 1984, equipe IBSP, 1♀ ( IBSP 5422View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Juruti , 2º10’S, 56º4’W, 07 March 2006, D.R. Santos-Souza, 1♀ ( MPEG 2997View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Novo Progresso , 07º09’07”S, 55º18’20”W, 22 November 2005, D.F. Candiani, 1♂ ( MPEG 2928View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Mato Grosso: Sinop , 11º52’S, 55º37’W, October 1975, M. Alvarenga, 3♂, 1♀ ( AMNH)GoogleMaps  ; Vera , 12º46’S, 55º30’W, October 1973, M. Alvarenga, 2♂ ( AMNH)GoogleMaps  . Pernambuco: Recife ( Reserva Ecológica Dois Irmãos ), 8º3’S, 34º54’W, June–December 2000, M. Peres, 1♂ ( IBSP 27253View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 14 September 1999, 1♀ ( IBSP 38546View Materials)  . Alagoas: Murici ( Estação Ecológica de Murici ), 09º15’S, 35º51’W, 13–22 September 2003, 7♀, ( IBSP)GoogleMaps  ; Maceió (District of Ipioca, Serra da Saudinha ), 9º40’S, 35º43’W, 18 December 2004, G.Q. Correia & R.C.T. Aquino, 1♂ ( IBSP 63815View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; same data, 12 March 2005, 1♀ ( IBSP 63847View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Sergipe: Santa Luzia do Itanhy ( Mata do Crasto ), 11°23’S, 37°24’W, 9–13 September 1999, A.D. Brescovit et al., 2♀ ( IBSP)GoogleMaps  ; Itabaiana ( Parque Nacional da Serra de Itabaiana ), 10°40’S, 37°25’W, 14–20 September 1999, A.D. Brescovit et al., 3♂, 14♀ ( IBSP)GoogleMaps  . Bahia: Caravelas , 17º45’S, 39º15’W, 11 October 1997, A.J. Santos, 1♂ ( IBSP 26920View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Ilhéus (Sapucaeira, Olivença ), 13º1’S, 40º1’W, 6 January 1999, M.F. Dias, 1♀ ( IBSP 35873View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Jussari ( Fazenda Teimoso ), 15º12’S, 39º31’W, 21 November 1998, M.F. Dias, 1♂, 1♀ ( IBSP 35166View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Mata de São João ( Fazenda Camurujipe ), 12º31’S, 38º16’W, May 2006, C.M.P. Leite, 2♂, 3♀ ( IBSP)GoogleMaps  ; Porto Seguro ( Parque Nacional do Monte Pascoal ), 16º25’S, 39º4’W, 21–23 April 1998, A.D. Brescovit et al., 1♀ ( IBSP 18489View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; Porto Seguro ( Parque Nacional do Pau Brasil ), 13–15 November 1998, M.F. Dias, 1♂, 2♀ ( IBSP 35988View Materials)  ; Una ( Reserva Biológica do Una ), 15º18’S, 39º4’W, 15–28 November 2000, A.D. Brescovit et al., 1♂ ( IBSP 47327View Materials)GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( IBSP 47329View Materials)GoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( IBSP 46332View Materials)  . Minas Gerais: Marliéria ( Parque Estadual do Rio Doce ), 19º48`S, 42º38`W, 01–10 September 2003, Equipe Biota, 2♂, 2♀ ( IBSP)GoogleMaps  . Espírito Santo: Pinheiros ( Reserva Biológica do Córrego do Veado ), 18º22’12”S, 40º08’12”W, 22 October 2005, A. Giupponi et al., 2♂, 1♀ ( IBSP)GoogleMaps  ; Conceição da Barra ( Parque Estadual de Itaúnas ), 18º25’S, 39º42’W, 15 December 2002 – 06 March 2003, 16♀ ( IBSP)GoogleMaps  ; Linhares ( Reserva Florestal da Companhia Vale do Rio Doce ), 19º12’S, 40ºW, A.D. Brescovit et al., 1♂, 8♀ ( IBSP 24373View Materials)  . São Paulo: Teodoro Sampaio ( Parque Estadual do Morro do Diabo ), 22º31’S, 52º18’W, 24–31 March 2003, Equipe Biota, 1♀ ( IBSP)GoogleMaps  . Rio Grande do Sul: Porto Alegre , 30º1’S, 51º12’W, 1989–1992, H.G. Fowler, 2♀ ( MCZ)GoogleMaps  . COLOMBIA: Antioquia: Remedios ( Hacienda San Martín ), 7 o 1’N, 74 o 31’W, 19 December 1984, M.A. Serna, 1♀ ( MCZ)GoogleMaps  . Casanare: Carimagua , 5 o 22’N, 71 o 1’W, October 1973, 1♀ ( MCZ)GoogleMaps  . Meta: Puerto Lleras, 03º18’N, 73º22’W, B.T. Carrol, 3♀ ( USNM); (Finca Chenever, ca. 20 km N Rio Muco, ca. 20 km S El Porvenir )GoogleMaps  , 1♂ ( MCZ)  ; Puerto Lopez, 15 km SW, 1979, W.G. Eberhard, 2♂, 1♀ ( MCZ)  ; Puerto Colombia ( Rio Negro ), 4 o N 73 o 13’W, August 1996, M. Tamayo, 2♀, 4 juv. ( ICN 1543View Materials)  . Santander: Campo Capote ( Región Forestal del Carare-Opón ), 6º38’N, 73º55’W, 28 July–4 August 1968, H. Sturm, 1♀ ( MCZ)GoogleMaps  . Valle: Buenaventura, 28 km E, 1♀ ( MCZ)  . FRENCH GUIANA: La Guyane: Charvein , 5 o 34’N, 53 o 54’W, December 1913, Benoist, 3♀ ( MNHN 2025View Materials - together with Staberius lemoulti Caporiacco, 1954  type material)GoogleMaps  . GUYANA: Cuyuni-Mazaruni: Kartabo ( Kartabo point), 6 o 24’N, 58 o 37’W, 27 December 1983, W. Steiner et al., 1♂ ( USNM)GoogleMaps  . Upper Takutu-Upper Essequibo: ( Essequibo River , 4.42 km. S Gunn’s Strip Bank), 1º36’45.7”N, 58º38’14.6”W, 6–15 July 1999, J.A. Coddington et. al., 6♂, 19♀, 1 juv.,1 eggsac ( USNM)GoogleMaps  . PANAMA: Colón: Barro Colorado Island , 9 o 16’N, 79 o 49’W, 2 July 1936, A.M. Chickering, 1♂ ( MCZ)GoogleMaps  , June 1950, 14♀ ( MCZ)  . PERU: Loreto: Iquitos ( Rio Momon ), 3 o 44´S, 73 o 14’W, 31 October 1993, R. West, 1♂ ( MCZ)GoogleMaps  ; Nauta (km 25), May 2005, A. Catenazzi, 1♀ ( MUSM)  . SURINAM: Saramacca: (Voltzberg- Raleighvallen Reserve ), 4º45’N, 56º10’W, April–May 1984, D. Smith, 1♀ ( MCZ)GoogleMaps  . VENEZUELA: Amazonas: La Esmeralda, 15 km W, 3º10’12”S, 65º32’24”W, 8 May 1999, T. Linderhaus, 1♂ ( SMNK 2961View Materials)GoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis. Architis tenuis  resembles A. cymatilis  by the presence of ventral cuspule-like spines on male coxae I ( Fig. 4EView FIGURES 4) and the prolaterally curved conductor in the male copulatory bulb ( Figs 4B–DView FIGURES 4). Architis tenuis  can be distinguished from all other species of the genus by the peculiar shape of the vRTA, which is large, curved and projected retrolaterally ( Figs 2A, BView FIGURES 2, 4AView FIGURES 4). Females differ from other species of Architis  by the combination of inconspicuous copulatory ducts and large, elongated spermathecae ( Figs 2C–DView FIGURES 2).

Description

Male (based on IBSP 63815 from Maceió, Brazil)

Carapace brown, with paler lateral longitudinal stripes and sparsely covered with white setae. Posterior margin densely covered with dark setae. Anterior eye row procurved, lateral eyes strongly projected ventrally and almost twice as large as medians. Posterior eyes of similar size. Clypeus brown, chelicerae dark brown, labium and endites red-brown. Sternum brown, sparsely covered with dark setae. Pedipalpi and legs brown, legs darker on tibia, metatarsus and tarsus. Opisthosoma dark gray, paler laterally and ventrally. Spinnerets pale brown, circled by a black pigment ring. Total length 4.6. Carapace 1.8 long, 1.6 wide. Tibia I length 5.2, II 5.4, III 3.1, IV 3.9. Opisthosoma 2.7 long, 1.2 wide.

Female (based on IBSP 46332 from from Reserva Biológica do Una, Brazil)

Carapace brown, with a median and a pair of lateral cream-coloured stripes. Lateral stripes with small lateral extensions close to leg bases. Eye configuration as in male. Clypeus, chelicerae and endites creamcoloured, labium dark brown. Sternum cream-coloured, with lateral black spots close to leg bases. Pedipalpi and legs cream-coloured. Legs with apical dark rings on femur, tibia and metatarsus. Opisthosoma dark gray, paler laterally and ventrally. Sides suffused with black spots. Venter with a median black stripe. Spinnerets pale brown, circled by a black pigment ring. Total length 6.3. Carapace 2.0 long, 1.8 wide. Tibia I length 3.8, II 4.3, III 2.8, IV 3.4. Opisthosoma 4.2 long, 2.6 wide.

Variation. Males, total length 3.3–4.6, carapace width 1.3–1.6. Females, total length 4.6–6.3, carapace width 1.6–1.8.

Remarks. The type series of A. tenuis  included three females of A. cymatilis  , labeled as A. nitidopilosa  by J.E. Carico. These specimens were not listed in the material examined of A. cymatilis  here because the locality was not specified in the original label, being either Cametá (state of Pará, Brazil) or Pebas (department of Loreto, Peru). Carico (1981) based the distinction between A. tenuis  and A. nitidopilosa  on male genitalic characters. These characters are not specified, and the only apparent differences between both species are size and shape of the RTA. After examining several specimens, I have found intermediate conditions between those illustrated by Carico (1981), which lead me to conclude that these forms constitute variations of the same species. Therefore I consider A. nitidopilosa  a junior synonym of A. tenuis  . The females described by Carico are actually A. cymatilis  (see remarks under A. cymatilis  below). In all material I examined I did not find any females like those described by Carico (1981) associated with males here considered as A. tenuis  , thus I presume he mismatched the sexes in those species.

Thanatidius proximus  was described by Mello-Leitão (1921) based on a male from Campina Grande, Brazil. Three years later ( Mello-Leitão 1924), the same specimen, with the same collection number, was mistakenly designated as type specimen for T. parahybensis  . This was first noticed by Roewer (1954), who considered T. parahybensis  an objective junior synonym of T. proximus  . The holotype, deposited in MNRJ, has an additional label displaying “ Architis parahybensis  ”, although this combination was never published.

The illustration of the ocular area of A. tenuis  provided by Carico (1981; fig. 9) is probably mislabed. This species shares with A. cymatilis  the strongly procurved anterior eye row with large anterior lateral eyes (see Carico 1981; fig. 11).

Natural history. This is the most abundant and widely distributed species of the genus, occurring in areas of humid forest all over South America. Females build large webs consisting of a dense sheet of silk connecting branches and leaves of bushes and trees. The spider remains in a hole in the middle of the web close to a branch ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1; Nentwig 1985). Females stay in their webs during the reproductive period, holding the eggsac in the chelicerae and keeping spiderlings in the sheet of silk ( Nentwig 1985). Some females examined presented hard, brown material fixed over the copulatory openings, possibly copulatory plugs deposited by males during or after copulation.

Distribution. Panama to southern Brazil ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6).

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

MCZ

Museum of Comparative Zoology

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

MPEG

Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

IBSP

Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pisauridae

Genus

Architis

Loc

Architis tenuis Simon, 1898

Santos, Adalberto J. 2007
2007
Loc

Thanatidius proximatus Mello-Leitão. Carico 1993: 202

Carico, J. E. 1993: 202
1993
Loc

Thanatidius parahybensis Mello-Leitão, 1924: 278

Mello-Leitao, C. F. 1924: 278
1924
Loc

Thanatidius proximus Mello-Leitão, 1921: 180

Roewer, C. F. 1954: 125
Mello-Leitao, C. F. 1921: 180
1921
Loc

Architis tenuis Simon 1898b: 12–13

Platnick, N. I. 1998: 594
Carico, J. E. 1993: 202
Platnick, N. I. 1993: 515
Sierwald, P. 1990: 27
Platnick, N. I. 1989: 394
Sierwald, P. 1989: 8
Carico, J. E. 1981: 141
Bonnet, P. 1955: 639
Roewer, C. F. 1954: 110
Simon, E. 1898: 13
Simon, E. 1898: 292
1898
Loc

Architis nitidopilosa

Platnick, N. I. 1993: 515
Platnick, N. I. 1989: 394
Sierwald, P. 1989: 8
Carico, J. E. 1981: 143
Bonnet, P. 1955: 639
Roewer, C. F. 1954: 110
Simon, E. 1898: 13
1898
Loc

Architis nitidoplumosa Simon. Simon 1898a: 292

Bonnet, P. 1955: 639
Simon, E. 1898: 292
1898