Tityus columbianus ( Thorell, 1876 ),

Moreno-González, Jairo A., O, Ranulfo González & D, Eduardo Flórez, 2019, Taxonomic revision of the Colombian Tityus (Archaeotityus) (Scorpiones, Buthidae) species: a morphological and morphometric approach, with a description of a new species, Zootaxa 4660 (1), pp. 1-94: 29-38

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4660.1.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:DA70C158-7FB0-4B46-9A1D-EA32D24B19B6

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.4648584

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B387E6-3240-1011-FF3E-FA0EDBED3B96

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scientific name

Tityus columbianus ( Thorell, 1876 )
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Tityus columbianus ( Thorell, 1876) 

Figures 5C, DView FIGURE 5, 6B, EView FIGURE 6, 7C, DView FIGURE 7, 8C, DView FIGURE 8, 9C, DView FIGURE 9, 10C, DView FIGURE 10, 11View FIGURE 11 D–F, 14E, F, 15B, 16C, D, 17B, 18B, 19B, 20B, 21–23, 30, 46B, 47B, C, 48, 49; Tables 1–3, 6–9.

Phassus columbianus Thorell, 1876: 8  .

References after Fet & Lowe (2000: 239). Tityus columbianus: Lourenço 2000: 456  , 458, figure 13; Flórez 2001a: 58, 59; Flórez 2001b: 28; Lourenço 2002a: 133; Lourenço 2006: 56, 58, 60; Botero-Trujillo & Fagua 2006: 130; Kovarik 2007: 3; Lourenço 2008: 197, 199; Teruel & García 2008: 1, 2–10, figures 1–6, table 1–4; Teruel & Kovarik 2011: 7; Francke et al. 2014: 232.

Tityus erikae  (misidentification): Lourenço 2000: 456, figure 13.

Type material. Tityus columbianus  : Holotype: COLOMBIA: Cundinamarca department: one adult female, Bogotá (‘’ America merid., Columbia , Bogotá?’’) ( NMG-Scorp-42) ( Not examined). 

Examined material. COLOMBIA: Bolívar department: one adult male, Zambrano, Santuario de Flora y Fauna Los Colorados , 9°57’24’’ N 75°5’12’’ W, 390 masl, collected inside a dry forest, vii.1996, F. Escobar ( ICN-As- 188) (misidentified as T. erikae  by W. R. Lourenço, xii.1998)GoogleMaps  . Boyacá department: three adult females, eight juvenile females and one juvenile male, Arcabuco, Vereda Montesuárez , 5°45’0’’ N 73°26’0’’ W, 2500 masl, under rock near an oak forest, 1–3.viii.2000, A. Sabogal ( ICN-As-364)GoogleMaps  ; one adult male, Chita, Vereda Chipa , 6°11’22’’ N 72°28’36’’ W, 2700 masl, under rock inside a crop, iv.1991, L. G. Baptiste ( ICN-As-130)GoogleMaps  ; three adult females and one adult male, Firavitoba, Vereda El Alcaparral , 6°11’22’’ N 72°28’36’’ W, 2500 masl, 7.i.2000, R. Alvarado ( ICN-As-288)GoogleMaps  ; two adult females, five juvenile males and three juvenile females, Iza , 5°36’48’’ N 72°58’51.93’’ W, 2590 masl, 10.vii.2000, E. Flórez ( ICN-As-388)GoogleMaps  ; two adult females, Susacón, Vereda San Ignacio , 6°13’58.2’’ N 72°42’0.23’’ W, 2315 masl, inside a rotten log, 21.v.2010, H. Gasca ( ICN-As-846)GoogleMaps  ; three adult females and one adult male, Villa de Leyva , 5°38’0’’ N 73°31’59.99’’ W, 2128 masl, 25.viii.2002, E. González ( ICN-As-739)GoogleMaps  ; two adult females, two adult males and one juvenile female, Villa de Leyva, Santuario de Flora y Fauna de Iguaque , Sector de Chaina , 5°41’0’’ N 73°29’0’’ W, 2600 masl, under rocks and logs inside a paddock, 9.vi.1991, F. Quevedo ( ICN- As-524)GoogleMaps  ; 24 adult females and eight adult males, Villa de Leyva , El Roble , 5°38’19’’ N 73°31’42’’ W, 2200 masl, x.1985, R. González ( ICN-As-352)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Villa de Leyva , near river Cebada and river Cene , 5°38’19’’ N 73°31’42’’ W, 2200 masl, collected inside a pastureland, iv.2000, E. Hernández ( ICN-As-314)GoogleMaps  ; one adult male, Villa de Leyva , 5°38’1.9’’ N 73°31’24.67’’ W, 2200 masl, inside a house, 1.viii.2000, H. Schultz ( ICN-As-419)GoogleMaps  ; one juvenile male, Villa de Leyva , 5°38’0’’ N 73°31’59.99’’ W, 2200 masl, manual capture inside leaf litter, 19.ii.2004, M. Porras ( ICN-As-570)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Chiquinquirá, Monte Batallón Sucre , 5°37’0.81’’ N 73°48’59.47’’ W, 2580 masl, 24.v.1979, C. Hernández ( ICN-As-129)GoogleMaps  ; one adult male, Tinjacá , 5°34’0.13’’ N 73°38’59.89’’ W, 2100 masl, 20.viii.2010, J. Iglesias ( ICN-As-851)GoogleMaps  . Cundinamarca department: three adult females and one juvenile female, Bogotá, Suba , 4°45’13.13’’ N 74°5’19.36’’ W, 2600 masl, 7.v.1961, J. M. Idroba ( ICN-As-088)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Bogotá, Parque de San Rafael , Cerros Orientales , 4°37’5.9’’ N 74°3’20.36’’ W, 2850 masl, under a rock, ix.2000, D. Tobar ( ICN-As-432)GoogleMaps  ; two adult females, Bogotá, rural zone Usme , 4°28’23.05’’ N 74°6’57.93’’ W, 2600 masl, under rocks, 27.iv.2001, M. Ramírez ( ICN-As-409)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Bogotá, Cerro Juan Rey , near Barrio La Fiscala in Usme , 4°28’23.05’’ N 74°6’57.93’’ W, 2600 masl, night manual capture, 4.v.2003, T. Vivas ( ICN-As- 525)GoogleMaps  ; four adult females and one adult male, Carmen de Carupa, Vereda San José , 5°21’01.01’’ N 73°54’19.06’’ W, 2971 masl, diurnal manual capture, under rocks, 25.vi.2011, J. Cabra ( ICN-As-995)GoogleMaps  ; six adult females, Carmen de Carupa, Vereda San José , 5°21’01.01’’ N 73°54’19.06’’ W, 2971 masl, diurnal manual capture, under rocks, iv.2010, J. Cabra ( ICN-As-996)GoogleMaps  ; six adult females, Facatativá, highway from El Rosal-Faca , 4°48’53.95’’ N 74°21’23.31’’ W, 2700 masl, collected on a hill with bushes, 24.viii.2003, F. Fernández ( ICN-As-512)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Guasca , 4°51’56.87’’ N 73°52’59.78’’ W, 2600 masl, without any other data available ( ICN-As-134)GoogleMaps  ; one adult male, Medina, Vereda Miralindo , 4°36’33.54’’ N 73°25’18.65’’ W, 1500 masl, manual capture, vi.1997, F. Escobar ( ICN- As-194) (misidentified as T. erikae  by W. R. Lourenço, xii.1998)GoogleMaps  ; two adult females and 11 juvenile females, Mosquera, Mondoñedo , Zabrinsky desert, 4°40’4.96’’ N 74°15’45.95’’ W, 2600 masl, pitfall, ii-iv.2002, C. Niño, G. Mora & J. Martínez ( ICN-As-499)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Mosquera, Km 7- road to Cota , 4°35’56’’ N 74°4’51’’ W, 2600 masl, 19.ii.1988, P. Ruiz ( ICN-As-016)GoogleMaps  ; one adult female, Nariño , 4°24’2’’ N 74°50’9’’ W, 263 masl, inside a house, 1.xi.1998, R. Jaramillo ( ICN-As-347)GoogleMaps  ; five adult females, Soacha, Hacienda Terrenos , Hoya de la Quebrada , Tibanica , 4°32’59.66’’ N 74°10’59.83’’ W, 2600 masl, 13.v.1961, J. Hernández ( ICN-As-083)GoogleMaps  ; two adult females and one adult male, Susa, Finca Bermejales , Vereda La Fragua , 5°25’0’’ N 73°49’0’’ W, 2710 masl, 30.xii.2006, J. Pinzón & G. Alarcón ( ICN-As-727)GoogleMaps  ; two juvenile females, Tabio , 4°45’13.13’’ N 74°5’19.36’’ W, 2690 masl, 1.vii.2002, G. Stiles ( ICN-As-498)GoogleMaps  ; two adult females and one adult male, Ubaté , 5°18’42.86’’ N 73°49’5.56’’ W, 2600 masl, xii.2001, A. Uribe ( ICN-As-100)GoogleMaps  . Nariño department: seven adult females, two adult males and one juvenile female, Reserva Natural La Planada , 1°13’10.52’’ N 77°59’2.6’’ W, 1800 masl, vi.1992, A. Calixto ( ICN- As-712)GoogleMaps  . Tolima department: one adult female, Ibagué, Boquerón , Tigre Cave , 4°24’26.83’’ N 75°15’53.94’’ W, 1490 masl, 6.vii.1972, P. García ( ICN-As-131)GoogleMaps  ; two adult females, Ibagué, Botanical Garden San José , 4°26’26.36’’ N 75°14’38.91’’ W, 1200 masl, 20.v.2007, C. Samudio ( ICN-As-743)GoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis. This species can be readily recognized from other Tityus (Archaeotityus)  species by the following combination of character states: Total length: 28.16–39.11 mm (males) and 28.16–39.11 mm (females). General body coloration ( Figure 21View FIGURE 21) dark yellow background moderately covered with dark brown variegated spots; metasomal segment V completely dark reddish-brown with three ventral black stripes and with a dorsomedian area without spots ( Figure 6B, EView FIGURE 6). Metasomal segments II–III ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16C, DView FIGURE 16) each has a distoterminal small acute granule on the DL carinae. Metasomal segment IV ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16C, DView FIGURE 16) with a distoterminal medium-sized blunt, and coarse granule on the DL carinae. Metasomal segment V with the VSM2 macrosetae slightly distal or at the same level of the VL2 macrosetae ( Figures 17BView FIGURE 17, 18BView FIGURE 18). Subaculear tubercle medium-sized pyramidal, flat, and triangle-like with an acute and coarse apex in lateral view ( Figures 19BView FIGURE 19, 20BView FIGURE 20). Dorsal margin of the subaculear tubercle with a pair of ventrodistal small rounded granules with apices pointing to the middle portion of the aculeus. Vesicle and subaculear tubercle with VM carina composed of coarse granules and strongly crenulate in lateral view ( Figures 19BView FIGURE 19, 20BView FIGURE 20). Telson  with well-marked (female) ( Figure 19BView FIGURE 19) or moderately marked (male) carinae ( Figure 20BView FIGURE 20). Metasomal intercarinal areas densely covered with coarse granules ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16C, DView FIGURE 16). Pectinal tooth counts and movable finger oblique rows of denticles: 11–15/ 11–13 (females) and 13–15/ 12–14 (males) ( Table 2, 3). Metasomal segments II–V ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16C, DView FIGURE 16), female pedipalp ( Figure 11View FIGURE 11 D–F), and male pedipalp femur and patella  ( Figure 10C, DView FIGURE 10) short and of a medium-width. Chela  ( Figure 22View FIGURE 22 A–C) and metasomal segment V ( Figure 16C, DView FIGURE 16) incrassate in large males.

Affinities with other Colombian species. Tityus columbianus  is most similar to T. parvulus  , sharing with it the presence of a subaculear tubercle that is medium-sized pyramidal, flat, and triangle-like with an acute and coarse apex in lateral view ( Figures 19BView FIGURE 19, 20BView FIGURE 20). Tityus columbianus  can be readily distinguished by the presence of a general body coloration with a dark yellow background moderately covered with dark brown spots ( Figure 21View FIGURE 21); metasomal segment V completely dark reddish-brown with three ventral black stripes, a dorsomedian area without spots ( Figure 6B, EView FIGURE 6) and with the VSM2 macrosetae; metasomal segments II–III each with a distoterminal small and acute granule on the DL carinae ( Figure 15BView FIGURE 15, 16C, DView FIGURE 16) and metasomal segment IV with a medium-sized blunt, and coarse granule on the DL carinae ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16C, DView FIGURE 16); metasomal intercarinal areas densely covered with coarse granules ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16C, DView FIGURE 16); subaculear tubercle with VM carina composed of coarse granules and strongly crenulate in lateral view ( Figures 19BView FIGURE 19, 20BView FIGURE 20); metasomal segments ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16C, DView FIGURE 16) and male pedipalp femur and patella  short and of a medium-width ( Figure 10C, DView FIGURE 10).

Conversely, in T. parvulus  the general body coloration is with a dark yellow background slightly covered with dark brown variegated spots ( Figure 31View FIGURE 31); the metasomal segment V is dark yellow slightly covered with dark brown variegated spots and a pair of distal VL dark brown spots, but does not have dorsal spots neither the VSM macrosetae ( Figure 33A, CView FIGURE 33); the metasomal segments II–IV do not have conspicuous distoterminal granules on the DL carinae ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40A, BView FIGURE 40); the metasomal intercarinal areas are densely covered with fine granules ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40AView FIGURE 40); the subaculear tubercle has a VM carina composed of fine granules and is feebly crenulate in lateral view ( Figures 19DView FIGURE 19, 20DView FIGURE 20); the metasomal segments are slender in both sexes ( Figures 39AView FIGURE 39, 40A, BView FIGURE 40) and the male pedipalp femur and patella  are slightly elongated and slender ( Figure 10G, HView FIGURE 10).

Remarks. Lourenço (2000) provided records for Tityus erikae  from Vereda Miralindo, Medina, Cundinamarca department (ICN-As-194) and Santuario de Flora y Fauna Los Colorados, Bolívar department (ICN-As-188). These specimens were examined and we consider that they correspond to adult males of Tityus columbianus  . Also, we examined two adult males, seven adult females and one juvenile female from Reserva Natural La Planada, Nariño department (ICN-As-712); and they also correspond to Tityus columbianus  .

The records from Santuario de Flora y Fauna Los Colorados, Bolívar, and Reserva Natural La Planada, Nariño are unusually far away from the known distribution range of T. columbianus  which is in the Eastern Cordillera in Cundinamarca and Boyacá departments. However, only new collections from these localities could explain whether these records are due to mislabeling errors or introduced populations.

Redescription. Based on an adult female (ICN-As-739) and an adult male (ICN-As-524). For female live habitus see Figure 46BView FIGURE 46.

Total length. Female: 35.22 mm; male: 40.29 mm.

Coloration. General body coloration (in ethanol 70%) ( Figure 21View FIGURE 21) with a dark yellow background moderately covered with dark brown variegated spots. Carapace ( Figure 5C, DView FIGURE 5) moderately covered with dark brown variegated spots, except for the anterior margin that is dark yellow; lateral and median eyes surrounded by black spots; median ocular tubercle surrounded by a lateral black stripe on each side; posterior area to the median ocular tubercle with an inverted ‘’Y’’-shaped spot. Chelicerae ( Figure 7C, DView FIGURE 7) coxa and hand with a light yellow background; hand with dark brown reticulated spots on the anterior half and a small areas without spots on the adjacent area to the movable finger articulation; movable and fixed fingers with dark brown spots along their lengths; teeth dark reddish-brown. Pedipalps ( Figure 21View FIGURE 21) moderately covered with dark brown variegated spots and yellow spots; trochanter, femur, and patella  ventrally yellow; trichobothrial pits yellow. Legs With all the segments having a light yellow background moderately covered with dark brown variegated spots on their prolateral surfaces. Coxosternal region ( Figure 21B, E, FView FIGURE 21) coxae I–IV, sternum, genital operculum, and pectines (teeth) light yellow; basal pectinal piece with an anterior white area (female); coxaphophyses I–II, pectines (marginal lamellae, middle lamellae, fulcra), and basal pectinal piece with a light yellow background moderately covered with dark brown variegated spots. Mesosoma  ( Figure 21View FIGURE 21) tergites I–VII each with a dark yellow background moderately covered with dark brown variegated spots and with four posterior dark brown spots (two submedian and two lateral); sternites III–VII each densely covered with dark reddish-brown variegated spots; spiracles yellow. Metasoma ( Figure 6B, EView FIGURE 6) with a dark yellow background moderately covered with dark brown variegated spots and with ventral yellow spots; each segment progressively darker towards segment V; segment V completely dark reddish-brown with three ventral black stripes and with a dorsomedian area without spots ( Figure 6B, EView FIGURE 6). DL intercarinal areas of segments I–IV each with an anterior median arrow-shaped brown spot and a posterior median brown spot; ML, VSM, and VM intercarinal areas of segments I–IV each with a pair of distal brown spots. Telson  ( Figure 21View FIGURE 21) almost completely dark reddish-brown with a lateral light reddish-brown stripe; subaculear tubercle and aculeus dark reddish-brown.

Morphology. Carapace ( Figure 8C, DView FIGURE 8) densely covered with coarse granules and a few fine granules; anterior margin with a shallow median notch; carinae (anterior median, lateral, and posterior median) and furrows (anterior, lateral, median ocular, posterior median, posterior marginal, and posterior lateral) well-marked (female) or feebly marked (male); median ocular tubercle well-marked and located on the anterior half of the carapace; median eyes separated by about 1.6 (female) and 1.3 (male) ocular diameters. Lateral eye pattern type 4A: three pairs of major ocelli present (PLMa, MLMa and ALMa  ) and one pair of minor ocelli (ADMi).

Chelicerae ( Figure 7C, DView FIGURE 7) dentition characteristic of the family Buthidae ( Vachon 1963)  ; hand and fingers densely covered with setae on internal and ventral surfaces.

Pedipalps. Chela  short and of a medium-width (female) (Cl/Cw= 4.9) or incrassate (male) (Cl/Cw= 3.1). Trichobothriotaxic pattern Type A with alfa configuration (hand: Eb3:Eb2:Eb1:Esb:Est:Et, fixed finger: eb:esb: est:et:db:dt:it) (e.g., Figure 3View FIGURE 3). Femur ( Figures 9CView FIGURE 9, 10CView FIGURE 10) with five well-marked and complete carinae: VI, DI, and DE crenulate; VE and IM serratocrenulate; intercarinal areas moderately covered with coarse granules and densely covered with fine granules ( Figures 9CView FIGURE 9, 10CView FIGURE 10). Patella  ( Figures 9DView FIGURE 9, 10DView FIGURE 10) with seven carinae: VI, VE, DI, DE, and EM complete and crenulate; DM incomplete and crenulate; IM complete and serratocrenulate with a spur near the segment base; intercarinal areas densely covered with fine granules. Chela  (Tibia) ( Figures 11View FIGURE 11 D–F, 22A–C) with eight carinae: VI, VE, D, DS, DMA, and ES complete and crenulate; DI complete and feebly crenulate (female) ( Figure 11View FIGURE 11 D–F) or obsolete (male) ( Figure 22View FIGURE 22 A–C); SA incomplete and crenulate, only present on the anterior half of the hand. Pedipalp movable and fixed fingers with an obsolete basal lobe (male) ( Figure 22AView FIGURE 22) or without a basal lobe (female) ( Figure 11DView FIGURE 11); dorsal surface of the movable finger with 13–13 oblique rows of denticles.

Coxosternal region. Covered with fine granules and a few setae, except for the coxapophyses I–II which are smooth. Sternum with posterior depression, outer ridge, and apical button well-marked. Genital operculum longitudinally divided and composed of two subtriangular plates.

Pectines. Basal piece sexually dimorphic (e.g., Figure 2View FIGURE 2) sub rectangular-shaped with an anterior elevated glandular area (female) (e.g., Figure 2AView FIGURE 2) or flat, shield-shaped with an anterior median notch well-marked (male) (e.g., Figure 2BView FIGURE 2); pectinal tooth counts: 13–14 (female) and 14–14 (male). Intermediate plate, marginal plate, and fulcra moderately covered with setae ( Figure 14EView FIGURE 14). Pectinal teeth peg sensillae flattened with a slightly spatulate apex ( Figure 14FView FIGURE 14).

Legs. Carinae present; intercarinal areas with a few fine granules; telotarsus covered by numerous ventrosubmedian setae; claws short and symmetrical.

Mesosoma  . Tergites I–VI densely covered with coarse granules and a few fine granules; pre-tergite well-marked with the median carina visible on the posterior margin of the post-tergite; tergite VII with DSM and DL carinae complete and crenulate; median carina of the tergite VII composed of an anterior median crenulate eminence located on the anterior half of the post-tergite. Sternites densely covered with coarse granules and a few fine granules; sternites III–VI each with a longitudinal median hyaline suture and a pair of elliptic spiracles on the posterior half; spiracles progressively larger towards sternite VI; posterior margin of the sternite V with a subtriangular glandular area; sternite VI with VSM carinae crenulate occupying the posterior half of the sternite; sternite VII with VSM carinae crenulate occupying the posterior 2/3 of the sternite and VL carinae crenulate occupying the anterior half of the sternite.

Hemispermatophore. General morphological characteristics as in other Tityus (Archaeotityus)  species. Capsule ( Figure 23View FIGURE 23 A–C) with a straight distal carina ending in a 70° angle; sperm duct reduced not overpassing the basal carina level and with a translucent area between the base of the basal hook and the base of the basal carina; trans- lucent area basally wide but progressively narrower towards the distal region ( Figure 23B, CView FIGURE 23); basal carina with a rounded apex ( Figure 23CView FIGURE 23); basal hook semi ovate-shaped with anterior margin straight in lateral view ( Figure 23BView FIGURE 23), and slightly curved in anterior and posterior views; basal hook forming a ‘’U’’-shaped curve with the stem ( Figure 23A, CView FIGURE 23); basal hook elongated with a thick and rounded apex and approximately 1.2 longer than its basal width in anterior view ( Figure 23CView FIGURE 23).

Metasoma. Segments II–V short and of a medium-width in both sexes (Msl/Msw ratio= female/ male: II=1.4/ 1.5; III= 1.6/ 1.7; IV= 1.8/ 1.9; V= 2.0/ 1.7). Segment V short and of a medium-width (female) ( Figure 15BView FIGURE 15) or incrassate (male) ( Figure 16CView FIGURE 16). Segments I–II ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16CView FIGURE 16) with 10 complete, parallel and crenulate carinae (paired DL, ML, LIM, VL, and VSM; DL carinae serratocrenulate on segment II); LIM on segment II composed of coarse granules almost along all its length; intercarinal areas densely covered with coarse granules. Segment III–IV ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16CView FIGURE 16) with eight complete, parallel, and crenulate carinae (paired DL, ML, VL, and VSM; DL carinae serratocrenulate); intercarinal areas densely covered with coarse granules. Segment V with five complete and crenulate carinae (VM, paired DL, and VL); lateral and ventral intercarinal areas densely covered with coarse granules and a few fine granules ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16CView FIGURE 16); intercarinal areas with granules irregularly distributed on the middle of each area. Segment II–IV with DL carinae composed of granules which slightly increase in size towards the distal region of each segment; DL carinae ending in a distoterminal acute and small granule (II–III) or a blunt and coarse granule (IV) which increase in size towards the segment IV ( Figures 15BView FIGURE 15, 16CView FIGURE 16).

Metasomal macrosetation. Segments I–IV each with two pairs of VSM macrosetae (2/2) and two pairs of VL macrosetae (2/2); pair VSM1 is located in the anterior third, and pair VSM2 is located near the posterior margin of the segment; pair VL1 is located near the anterior margin of the segment, and pair VL2 is located on the posterior third of the segment (e.g, Figure 1View FIGURE 1). Segment V ( Figures 17BView FIGURE 17, 18BView FIGURE 18) with three pairs of VSM macrosetae (3/3), three pairs of VL macrosetae (3/3), and a single pair of DL macrosetae; pair VSM1 is located near the anterior margin of the segment; pair VSM2 is located distal or at same level of pair VL2 ( Figures 17BView FIGURE 17, 18BView FIGURE 18), and pair VSM3 is located on the anal arch; pair VL1 is located near the anterior margin of the segment; pair VL2 is located on the posterior second third of the segment, and pair VL3 is located on the anal arch; pair DL1 is located near the posterior margin of the segment.

Telson  . Vesicle not elongated and suboval (Vl/Vh= 2.0) ( Figures 19BView FIGURE 19, 20BView FIGURE 20) with dorsal surface smooth and with a lateral longitudinal furrow on each side; VM, paired VSM, VL, and DL carinae composed of coarse granules; carinae well-marked (female) ( Figure 19BView FIGURE 19) or feebly marked (male) ( Figure 20BView FIGURE 20); paired DL carinae located dorsally with respect to the lateral longitudinal furrow; VM carina well-marked along its length ( Figures 19BView FIGURE 19, 20BView FIGURE 20). Subaculear tubercle medium-sized pyramidal, flat, and triangle-like with an acute and coarse apex in lateral view ( Figures 19BView FIGURE 19, 20BView FIGURE 20); dorsal margin of the subaculear tubercle with a pair of ventrodistal small rounded granules with apices pointing to the middle portion of the aculeus; VM carina composed of coarse granules and strongly crenulate in lateral view ( Figures 19BView FIGURE 19, 20BView FIGURE 20); aculeus strongly curved shorter than vesicle and with a ventral groove.

Variability. Total length (including telson  ): males 28.16–39.11 mm (n= 14; mean= 31.83; SD= 3.91); females 25.64–37.54 mm (n= 57; mean= 33.46; SD= 2.08) ( Table 9). Pectinal tooth counts: males 13–15 (n= 42; mode= 14); females 11–15 (n= 208; mode= 12) ( Table 2). Number of movable finger oblique rows of denticles: males 12–14 (n= 39; mode= 13); females 11–13 (n= 203; mode= 13) ( Table 3). Metasomal macrosetae counts: segment I: males (n= 21): 2/2 (n= 10), 2/3 (n= 1), 3/2 (n= 2), 3/3 (n= 7), 3/4 (n= 1) VSM macrosetae on the segment; segments II–IV: males (n= 21) 2/2 VSM on each segment; segment V: males (n= 21): 3/3 VSM and 3/3 VL macrosetae on the segment. Segment I: females (n= 116): 2/2 (n= 57), 2/3 (n= 9), 3/2 (n= 2), 3/3 (n= 46), 3/4 (n= 1), 4/2 (n= 1) VSM macrosetae on the segment; segment II–III: females (n= 116): 2/2 (n= 115), 2/3 (n= 1) VSM macrosetae on each segment; segment IV: females (n= 116): 2/2 (n= 106), 3/2 (n= 2), 3/3 (n= 4) VSM macrosetae on the segment; segment V: females (n= 116): 3/2 (n= 1), 3/3 (n= 114), 3/4 (n= 1) VSM macrosetae; 3/3 VL macrosetae, and 1/1 DL macrosetae on the segment. Segments I–IV: males (n= 21) and females (n= 116): 2/2 VL macrosetae on each segment. Relative position of the VSM2 macrosetae on the metasomal segment V: males (n= 21): distal to VL2 (n= 7) or at the same level of VL2 (n= 14); females (n= 116): distal to VL2 (n= 27); at the same level of VL2 (n= 78); slightly proximal to the level of VL2 (n= 1) or asymmetric with just one seta at the same level of VL2 (n= 10).

Hemispermatophore capsule: the basal hook of the capsule exhibited different shapes in anterior view: (1) elongated with a thick and rounded apex, curved lateral margin, and forming ‘’U’’-shaped curve with the stem ( Figure 23CView FIGURE 23) and (2) short with an acute apex, curved lateral margin, and forming a ‘’U’’-shaped curve with the stem ( Figure 23DView FIGURE 23).

Male intrasexual variations: adult males exhibited different body sizes ranging between 28.16–39.11 mm, but despite this they did not show discrete size-classes, but rather a progressive increase in their total lengths ( Figure 21View FIGURE 21 C–F, Table 9). However, as the total body size increases among males the following: (1) Carapace and tergites: the number of coarse granules on intercarinal surfaces increases; (2) Pedipalp femur: intercarinal areas have coarser and finest granules ( Figure 9CView FIGURE 9); (3) Chela  : the DI carina is more obsolete ( Figure 22View FIGURE 22 A–F); the manus is more incrassate without apparently exhibiting isometric growth (n= 14; Cl/Cw= 3.1–4.7; Cl/Ch= 3.0–4.0) ( Figure 22View FIGURE 22 A–F); (4) Metasomal segments II–IV: the DL carinae exhibit coarser distoterminal granules ( Figure 16C, DView FIGURE 16); and (5) Metasomal segment V: segment is more incrassate without apparently exhibiting an isometric growth (n= 14; Msl-V/Msw-V= 1.8–2.1; Msl-V/Msh-V= 1.6–2.1) ( Figure 16C, DView FIGURE 16), and the granules associated with carinae and intercarinal areas are less marked ( Figure 16C, DView FIGURE 16).

Distribution ( Figure 30View FIGURE 30). COLOMBIA: Boyacá department:Arcabuco, Chiquinquirá, Chita, Cuítiva, Duitama, Iza, Firavitoba, La Uvita, Mongui, Úmbita and Villa de Leyva. Cundinamarca department: Bogotá, Cajíca, Chocontá, Gachancipá, Guasca, Guatavita, La Calera, Mosquera, Pacho, Ubaté, and Soacha ( Figure 47B, CView FIGURE 47). New records. COLOMBIA: Bolívar department: Santuario de Flora y Fauna Los Colorados. Boyacá department: Susacón and Tinjáca. Cundinamarca department: Carmen de Carupa, Facatativá, Medina, Nariño, Susa, and Tabio. Nariño department: Natural Reserve La Planada. Tolima department: Ibagué.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Scorpiones

Family

Buthidae

Genus

Tityus

Loc

Tityus columbianus ( Thorell, 1876 )

Moreno-González, Jairo A., O, Ranulfo González & D, Eduardo Flórez 2019
2019
Loc

Tityus erikae

Lourenco, W. R. 2000: 456
2000
Loc

Phassus columbianus

Thorell, T. 1876: 8
1876