Otacilia, Thorell

Deeleman-Reinhold, Christa, 2001, Forest Spiders of South East Asia With a revision of the sac and ground spiders (Araneae: Clubionidae, Corinnidae, Liocranidae, Gnaphosidae, Prodidomidae and Trochanteriidae)., Forest Spiders of South East Asia With a revision of the sac and ground spiders- Family Liocranidae, Leiden, Netherlands: Brill Leiden; Boston; Köln, pp. 400-505 : 409-411

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https://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.814704



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Genus Otacilia View in CoL View at ENA Thorell

Otacilia Thorell, 1897: View in CoL 243. Type species: O. armatissima Thorell, 1897 View in CoL , ♀, Burma. Palaetyra Simon, 1898 , syn. n. Type species: P. luzonica Simon, 1898 , ♂, Luzon.

Otacila armatissima Thorell, 1897 View in CoL , ♀, Myanmar (Burma), was originally described in Clubioninae; Palaetyra luzonica (Simon) , ♂, Philippines, was placed, along with Otacilia View in CoL , in the Phrurolithinae by Simon. Otacilia View in CoL and Palaetyra were treated in the Phrurolithinae by Roewer (1954). Brignoli (1983) placed them in the Gnaphosidae View in CoL , Micariinae ; they were moved back to Liocranidae, Phrurolithinae View in CoL by Platnick, 1989.

Described species.— Otacilia armatissima Thorell, 1897 View in CoL , ♀, Myanmar (Burma); O. zebra View in CoL sp. n., ♂ ♀, N. Thailand, this volume; O. onoi View in CoL sp. n., ♂ ♀, C Thailand, this volume; O. sinifera View in CoL sp. n., ♂ ♀, C Thailand, this volume; O. parva View in CoL sp. n., ♂ ♀, W Sumatra, this volume; O. ornata sp. n., ♂ ♀, Borneo, Kinabalu National Park, this volume; O. ambon View in CoL sp. n., ♂ ♀, Ambon View in CoL , this volume. New species are described in geographic order.

Species of Otacilia described in other genera.— Palaetyra luzonica Simon (monotypic) is here synonymized with Otacilia . Phrurolithus luna, Kamura, 1994 , and Phrurolithus lynx, Kamura, 1994 from SW Japan are here moved to Otacilia .

Unidentified specimens ( map 34 View Map 34 ):

Loc. 1: N Thailand, Doi Angkhang 1800 m, 1 ♀, (MHNG), dark, leg I enlarged and


Loc. 2: N Thailand, Doi Angkhang 1650 m, 1 ♀, (MHNG), large, with very broad epi­

gyne near epigastric fold.

Loc. 3: N Thailand, Doi Angkhang, 1 ♀. (MHNG), black with white chevrons.

Loc. 4: N Thailand, Doi Suthep 1180 m, 1 ♂ 1 ♀ (MHNG), dark, tibial apophysis


Loc. 5: N Thailand, Doi Suthep 1180 m, 1 ♂ (MHNG).

Loc. 6: N Thailand, Nan Province, Doi Phu Kha National Park, 1700 m, 1 ♀ (MHNG),

small, epigynal openings in anterior fold.

Loc. 7: prope onoi , C Thailand, Phra Khanong (CAS), 1 ♂ with 7 specimens of O. onoi , see note under onoi .

Loc. 8: Viet Nam, Hanoi-Lang Son, 1 ♂ (NMNHS), scutum entire.

Loc. 9: Hong Kong, 3 ♀.

Loc. 10: prope armatissima China, Yunnan, Menzi Prov., cave Longa Dao Pao Dong, 1

♀ (NMNHS).

Loc. 11: Malay Peninsula, Genting Highlands, 1 ♀.

Loc. 12: Philippines, Mindanao, Eagle reserve, ♂ ♀, PME much reduced, male tibial

apophysis and embolus much lengthened.

Loc. 13: prope armatissima N Thailand, Doi Chiang Dao, ♀ (MHNG).

Loc. 14: Thailand, Doi Tung 1160 m, 1 ♂, (MHNG), on limestone, large, pale, long leg

I, broad convex tibial apophysis.

Loc. 15: Viet Nam, Prov. Quang Ninh, Dao Mec Vey, litter, 1 ♀, Beron (NMNHS).

Loc. 16: Viet Nam, Quang Nam-Da Nang province, Ba Na Forest Reserve, VN9503, 2 ♂, 1 without palps, between 15°57'N and 16°03'N, 107°57'E and 108°03'E, I9. vii-16.ix.1995, lowland rainforest (ZMK), related to O. ornata , with 2 rows of long setae on venter and large voluminous convex male tibial apophysis.

Diagnosis. — A speciose genus of small, ground-dwelling phrurolithines which share the modified palpal femur in males and the frontal spines on the chelicera with the Palaearctic genus Phrurolithus . It is separated from that and from other SE Asian genera by the narrow flat head that widens abruptly to the thorax ( figs 642 View Figs 642 - 648 , 649 View Figs 642 - 648 , 665 View Figs 665 - 669 , 675 View Figs 673 - 674 ), with posterior eye row barely wider than anterior eye row, and PME often oval or reduced. The lateral anterior and posterior eyes often are juxtaposed to the median eyes. The chelicerae usually bear two frontal spines in excess to the teeth on the pro- and retrolateral margins. The anterior tibiae and metatarsi bear a series of very strong paired spines ventrally, the posterior legs are spineless. The male palpal tibia has a large and crescent retrolateral apophysis, sometimes with a dorsal branch or a separate dorsal apophysis; the sperm duct in distal part of tegulum is circular, the embolus is spine-, thread- or ribbon-shaped, and located apically. The epigyne and vulva are shaped in a variety of ways, the insemination ducts are usually short or even absent, the bursae in typical species are membraneous and much enlarged.

Description. — Small to medium (1.7-4.5 mm) spiders, orange-yellow to brown, often with pattern; carapace low, with smooth surface, wide and rounded behind, thoracic groove well developed. AER straight or recurved, not procurved when seen in front, PER recurved, AME size variable, PME often reduced and close to laterals, well removed from each other. Clypeus 1 d AME or less. Chilum obsolete. Chelicerae in typical species each with 2 frontal spines and with 3 promarginal and 2 retromarginal teeth, close together. Labium a little wider than long. A somewhat raised retrocoxal window present on coxa I. Femora usually with 1 short dorsal spine, femur I and II with 3 to 6 strong pl spines, tibiae with 6 to 11 and metatarsi with 3 to 4 pairs of spines, tibial spines very strong, on tubercles, other legs and segments spineless. Abdomen in males often with partly or entirely coriaceous or sclerotized dorsal scutum, and coriaceous epigastric scutum, females sometimes with small dorsal scutum, lacking epigastric scutum; epigyne in round coriaceous plate. A field of setae is often found ventrally in front of spinnerets; males sometimes ornated with ventral bushes of long hair. Spinnerets fig. 661 View Figs 657 - 664 , (male) and fig. 662 View Figs 657 - 664 (female): PMS in males small, cylindrical, without visible spigots, in females greatly enlarged, laterally compressed, with appr. 15 pairs of atypical cylindrical gland spigots in a row. PLS in both sexes with distal segment bearing two spigots near base similar to those in female PMS and with one spigot with very long base situated on the tip (minor ampullate gland spigots), as in Plynnon . Male palpal femur with various kinds of modifications, tibial apophysis sometimes strongly developed, embolus spine-, thread- or ribbonshaped, sperm duct circular, limited to distal portion of tegulum; tegulum sometimes with apical tegular apophysis. Conductor and median apophysis absent. Vulva: opening often surrounded by sclerotized structures ( figs 664 View Figs 657 - 664 , 669 View Figs 665 - 669 ) or just a shallow depression, probably providing support to the male palp; a thin insemination duct leads to sclerotized spermathecae and anterior bursae, the latter are obsolete in O. pcirva .

Old material studied.— Otacilia armatissima Thorell , ♀ Burma (MCSNG); Palaetyra luzonica Simon , ♂ Luzon, Simon Collection (MNHNP 13697).

Habitat. — All specimens were collected by sifting leaf litter, in a variety of forests. They were found in rainforest (Sumatra. Borneo), mountains (Thailand), evergreen forest (Thailand) and secondary forest and bush (Moluccas).

Distribution. — Myanmar (Burma), Thailand, Viet Nam, China, Japan, Sumatra, Borneo, Moluccas, Philippines. All species are known from small distribution ranges.

Remarks on synonymy. — Simon (HNA: 212) differentiates Otacilia and Palaetyra by the strong reduction of the PME in Palaetyra and the absence of cheliceral frontal spines. The type of Palaetyra luzonica studied (Paris 13697) however exhibits distinct cheliceral spines. Within this large genus, various degrees of PME reduction occur apparently at random; species with and without frontal spines also exist, and the two characters seem to vary independently of each other. I consider therefore Palaetyra junior synonym of Otacilia .













Deeleman-Reinhold, Christa 2001


Simon 1898


Simon 1898


Thorell 1897: 243

O. armatissima

Thorell 1897


Thorell 1897

Otacilia armatissima

Thorell 1897
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