Paraphasma laterale ( Fabricius, 1775 )

Chiquetto-Machado, Pedro I., Morales, Adriana C. & Cancello, Eliana M., 2022, Taxonomic revision of Paraphasma Redtenbacher, 1906 (Phasmatodea, Pseudophasmatidae) based on phallic and external morphology, Zootaxa 5122 (1), pp. 1-80 : 22-30

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5122.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:EC13A69D-D6FA-4926-AC59-648A5626C9B9

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B587AA-FFC0-FFD6-FF2A-F90AFCDDF493

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Paraphasma laterale ( Fabricius, 1775 )
status

 

Paraphasma laterale ( Fabricius, 1775)

Figs 11–19 View FIGURE 11 View FIGURE 12 View FIGURE 13 View FIGURE 14 View FIGURE 15 View FIGURE 16 View FIGURE 17 View FIGURE 18 View FIGURE 19 , Table 4.

Mantis lateralis Fabricius, 1775: 275 ; Fabricius, 1787: 227; Gmelin, 1789: 2054; Olivier, 1792: 634; Fabricius, 1793: 15; Lichtenstein, 1796: 78 [in part]; Zimsen, 1964: 615. Holotype: ♀, Brazil (NHM 012502929).

Phasma lateralis, Fabricius, 1798: 188 ; Latreille, 1807: 87; Serville, 1831: 58 [in part]; Peletier de Saint Fargeau & Serville, 1825: 101 [in part].

Phasma laterale, Lichtenstein, 1802: 15 [in part]; De Haan, 1842: 123 [in part]; Gray, 1835: 22 [in part]; Westwood, 1859: 122 [in part].

Phocylides lateralis, Giglio-Tos, 1895: 806 [probable misidentification]. Olcyphides lateralis, Caudell, 1904: 186 [probable misidentification].

Prexaspes lateralis, Kirby, 1904a: 414 ; Brock, 1998b: 34.

Stratocles lateralis, Redtenbacher, 1906: 104 [in part].

Prexaspes (Prexaspes) lateralis, Otte & Brock, 2005: 282 ; Brock et al., 2016: 180.

Paraphasma lateralis, Conle et al., 2020: 70 , 126.

Paraphasma laterale, Chiquetto-Machado & Cancello, 2021: 3–4 View Cited Treatment , 26–27, figs 3, 15F, 16A,D,G, 18A, 22C, 25, 26.

Phasma hopii Gray, 1835: 25 ; Chiquetto-Machado & Cancello, 2021: 26 [= Paraphasma laterale ( Fabricius, 1775) ]. Lectotype (here designated): ♂, Brazil (OUM). Paralectotypes (here designated): 2♀, Brazil (NHM 012502945, 012502946).

Phasma hopei, Westwood, 1859: 117 .

Olcyphides hopii, Kirby, 1904a: 410 ; Rehn, 1907: 165 [probable misidentification]; Otte & Brock, 2005: 231; Brock et al., 2016: 176 View Cited Treatment .

Stratocles hopei, Redtenbacher, 1906: 107 .

Phasma lineolatum Serville, 1839: 273 ; De Haan, 1842: 123; Westwood, 1859: 120; Kirby, 1904a: 410 [= Olcyphides hopii ]; Giglio-Tos, 1910: 10 [= Phasma fasciatum Gray, 1835 ]; Otte & Brock, 2005: 231 [= Olcyphides hopii ( Kirby, 1904a) ]; Chiquetto-Machado & Cancello, 2021: 26 [= Paraphasma laterale ( Fabricius, 1775) ]. Unspecified type (s): Brazil [probably lost].

Phocylides lineolatus, Stål, 1875: 97 ; Giglio-Tos, 1910: 10 [= Phasma fasciatum Gray, 1835 ].

Stratocles dentatus Piza, 1937: 7–8 ; Piza, 1946: 155; Chiquetto-Machado & Cancello, 2021: 26 [= Paraphasma laterale ( Fabricius, 1775) ]. Holotype: ♂, Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Três Lagoas (ESALQ*) ( Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 ).

Paraphasma dentatum, Zompro & Domenico, 2005: 257 ; Otte & Brock, 2005: 251.

Diagnosis. Similar to P. conspersum , P. indistinctum sp. nov., P. marginale , P. minus and P. sooretama sp. nov., but clearly distinguishable by the phallic organ, with a “small-simple type ” sclerite of the ventral lobe ( Fig. 14 View FIGURE 14 , in green), which is roughly oval in dorsal view and has two rounded protuberances, the right one directed anteriorly and left one directed caudally. Although not exclusive of P. laterale , the following features may also be useful for the identification of this species: male cerci with rounded and internally concave apex ( Fig. 12E View FIGURE 12 ) (a feature that is shared only with P. sooretama sp. nov.); vomer longer than wide ( Fig. 13 View FIGURE 13 ); male subgenital plate with posterolateral margins forming a pair of approximately triangular expansions with malleable aspect ( Fig. 12 View FIGURE 12 : arrows); female sternite VII with a rounded indentation on the posterior margin; live specimens bright-colored ( Figs 18 View FIGURE 18 , 19 View FIGURE 19 ), with a marked contrast between the bright yellow lateral stripes and the mostly shiny black body. Also, contrary to most species of Paraphasma , the females of P. laterale sometimes lack a distinctly raised anterodorsal carina on the profemur.

Redescription of male. Color ( Figs 11 View FIGURE 11 , 12 View FIGURE 12 , 18 View FIGURE 18 ): Live specimens ( Fig. 18 View FIGURE 18 ) with a pair of bright yellow lateral stripes extending along head, prothorax, mesothorax and costal region of tegmina and hindwings; rest of body mostly shiny black. Head, pro- and mesonotum with yellow or light brown dorsomedian line; pro- and mesonotum with spots in the same color as dorsomedian line. Legs black or dark brown; femora sometimes with longitudinal light brown stripes.Anal region of hindwing bright yellow. Body ventrally yellowish-brown, but abdominal sternites gradually darkening towards posterior end of body; subgenital plate mostly or entirely black. Dried specimens usually retain general color pattern ( Fig. 11 View FIGURE 11 ), but less bright and with anal region of hindwing becoming colorless; in some specimens entire body becomes brownish. Head, thorax and legs ( Figs 11 View FIGURE 11 , 18A–C View FIGURE 18 ): As in Paraphasma conspersum . Wings ( Figs 11 View FIGURE 11 , 18B View FIGURE 18 ): Tegmina short, not reaching median region of metanotum; in dorsal view 2– 2.6x longer than wide; posterior and apical margins gently rounded; shoulder pad varying from dull protuberance to sharp spine; anal region with conspicuous reticulate venation. Hindwing reaching abdominal tergite VII. Abdomen ( Figs 11A–C View FIGURE 11 , 12 View FIGURE 12 , 13 View FIGURE 13 ): As in Paraphasma conspersum , except for the following: apex of cerci rounded in lateral view and internally concave ( Fig. 12E View FIGURE 12 ); vomer shape varying from a gradual narrowing towards apex to an abrupt constriction between apical and basal regions ( Fig. 13 View FIGURE 13 ). Phallic organ ( Fig. 14 View FIGURE 14 ): Dorsal sclerite wider than long, roughly rectangular in dorsal view, but anterior margin sometimes fairly concave ( Fig. 14 View FIGURE 14 , in red); distal process short and wide, directed to the left, almost perpendicular in relation to longitudinal axis of organ ( Fig. 14 View FIGURE 14 : dp). Dorsal and ventral lobes partially fused on left side. Dorsal lobe ( Fig. 14 View FIGURE 14 : dl) subdivided into main body on the right and a smaller, rounded dorsal pouch on the left ( Fig. 14 View FIGURE 14 : asterisks); inner face with a small sclerotized region ( Fig. 14 View FIGURE 14 , dark gray). Sclerite of the ventral lobe of “small-simple type ” ( Fig. 14 View FIGURE 14 , in green), covering only central region of inner face of ventral lobe; roughly oval in dorsal view, with right region broader than left region; bearing two rounded protuberances, the larger one on the right of sclerite and directed anteriorly, the smaller one on the left of sclerite and directed caudally. One of base apodemes ( Fig. 14 View FIGURE 14 , in blue) projecting into dorsal lobe as a distinct spatulate expansion.

Redescription of female. Color ( Figs 15 View FIGURE 15 , 19A View FIGURE 19 ): As in male, but subgenital plate light brown or yellowish, lighter than preceding sternites. Head and thorax ( Fig. 15A–C,G View FIGURE 15 ): As in male. Legs ( Fig. 15A–C,G View FIGURE 15 ): As in male, but slightly shorter in relation to body and anterodorsal carina of profemur varying from weakly to distinctly raised medially. Wings ( Figs 15A–C,G View FIGURE 15 , 19A View FIGURE 19 ): As in male, but hindwing reaching or surpassing abdominal tergite VIII. Abdomen ( Fig. 15A–F View FIGURE 15 ). As in Paraphasma conspersum .

Description of egg ( Figs 16 View FIGURE 16 , 17 View FIGURE 17 ). External morphology as in Paraphasma conspersum , but capsule and operculum densely covered with uniformly distributed granules, each one originating a fairly long bristle, many of which are lost in preserved eggs. Internal micropylar plate open ( Fig. 16D View FIGURE 16 ); oval and elongate; internal median line distinct ( Fig. 16D View FIGURE 16 : black arrow), more than half as long as plate. Egg in varying shades of brown ( Fig. 17 View FIGURE 17 ), often light brown with sparse darker regions. Measurements (mm, n = 10): capsule length, 2.8–2.9; capsule width, 1.8–2.0; capsule height, 1.9–2.1; operculum width, 1.1–1.2; operculum height, 1.2–1.5; micropylar plate length, 0.7–0.9; micropylar plate width, 0.4–0.5.

Distribution ( Fig. 1 View FIGURE 1 : pink circles). Paraphasma laterale occurs in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest in the states of Santa Catarina, Paraná, São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and southern Minas Gerais, and is also recorded from a Cerrado- Atlantic Forest transition zone in eastern Mato Grosso do Sul state (type locality of the junior synonym Stratocles dentatus ).

Remarks. The holotype of P. laterale (locality: Brazil) belongs to the Banks Collection of the NHM, a historic collection composed of Sir Joseph Banks’ material. This specimen was presumably collected during Captain James Cook’s first circumnavigation of the globe, when Banks had the opportunity to collect biological material in the region of Rio de Janeiro, the only Brazilian city visited in this voyage [for more details on the Banks Collection and James Cook’s expeditions, see the website of the NHM (http://www.nhm.ac.uk/our-science/collections/entomologycollections/historical-collections) and of the Captain Cook Society (http://www.captaincooksociety.com)].Therefore, in spite of the vague type locality and the very damaged condition of the holotype [images available in Brock et al. (2022)], it is possible to assume that it was collected near the city of Rio de Janeiro, corroborating its conspecificity with the other specimens here assigned to P. laterale .

This species was described by Fabricius (1775) as Mantis lateralis . It has an intricate taxonomic history and was often confused with Parastratocles xanthomela ( Olivier, 1792) , as explained below. Olivier (1792) proposed the binomen Mantis xanthomela for Stoll’s species ‘Spectre Noir de Surinam’ and ‘Spectre Noir de Coromandel’ ( Stoll 1787: pp. 31–32, figs 36, 37). Later, these same species of Stoll (1787) were misidentified by Lichtenstein (1796) as Mantis lateralis Fabricius, 1775 . After M. lateralis was transferred to Phasma by Fabricius (1798), several authors repeated the mistake of Lichtenstein (1796), associating the two species of Stoll (1787) with the name Phasma laterale ( Lichtenstein 1802; Peletier de Saint Fargeau & Serville 1825; Serville 1831; Gray 1835; De Haan 1842; Westwood 1859 —some of these authors incorrectly attributed the name Phasma laterale to Lichtenstein or Stoll). Furthermore, Mantis xanthomela was mistakenly regarded as a junior synonym of Phasma laterale by Peletier de Saint Fargeau & Serville (1825), Gray (1835) and Westwood (1859), and also by Redtenbacher (1906), who proposed the combination Stratocles lateralis . The transfer of this species to Stratocles was probably a consequence of Redtenbacher (1906) having examined the drawings of Mantis xanthomela Olivier in Stoll (1787) instead of the holotype of Mantis lateralis Fabricius , which clearly belongs to a different species. The name Stratocles lateralis remained valid until Brock (1998b) transferred the species to Prexaspes , reestablishing a combination originally proposed by Kirby (1904a), Prexaspes lateralis . Mantis xanthomela was finally removed from the synonymy of Prexaspes lateralis by Otte & Brock (2005), who revalidated the species as Stratocles xanthomela . Recently, both species were placed in new combinations by Conle et al. (2020): Prexaspes lateralis was transferred to Paraphasma , which was corroborated by the phylogenetic hypothesis of Chiquetto-Machado & Cancello (2021), and Stratocles xanthomela was transferred to Parastratocles Redtenbacher, 1906 .

Here we solve one last taxonomic problem regarding these species. Phasma perspicillaris Stoll, 1813 was synonymized under Stratocles lateralis by Redtenbacher (1906), probably because of the similarities between the drawings of the types of Phasma perspicillaris (Stoll 1813: fig. 86) and Mantis xanthomela ( Stoll 1787: figs 36, 37), which was also regarded by the author as a junior synonym of Stratocles lateralis . However, when Otte & Brock (2005) revalidated Mantis xanthomela (as Stratocles xanthomela ), these authors mistakenly left the name Phasma perspicillaris as a junior synonym of Prexaspes lateralis instead of synonymizing it under Stratocles xanthomela . We, therefore, remove Phasma perspicillaris from the synonymy of Paraphasma laterale and place it as a new synonym under Parastratocles xanthomela (see “Further taxonomic changes in Pseudophasmatidae ”). The types of both Parastratocles xanthomela and Phasma perspicillaris are from Suriname ( Stoll 1787, 1813) and are probably lost.

Additional material examined. BRAZIL. Minas Gerais: 1♂, Poços de Caldas , Morro S Domingos, xi.1965, J. Becker ( UEFS 38376 View Materials *) . Paraná: 1♂, 1♀, C Mourão, i.52 ( DZUP 380032 View Materials *, 380033) ; 1♀, São Jorge, Copacabana , 15.xi.1975, Rosado & Mielke ( DZUP 380013 View Materials ) ; 1♂, Tapejara , i.53 ( DZUP 380031 View Materials ) . Rio de Janeiro: 2♂, 1♀, Barra de Itabapoana , x–xi.1935, M. Rosa ( MNRJ *) ; 1♂, 1♀, Cabo Frio , i.1978, Amilton Ferreira ( ESALQ *) ; 1♀, Distrito Federal, Floresta da Tijuca , 25.i.1953, C. A. Campos Seabra ( MNRJ) ; 1♂, Distrito Federal, Jacarepaguá, 10.xi.52, Newton Santos ( MNRJ *) ; 1♂, Itaguaí, Serra da Caveira , 600 m, 25.ii.1948, W. Zikán ( MNRJ) ; 1♂, Organ Mts. near Tijuca , 1902–287, S. R. Wagner ( NHM 012502947 ) ; 2♀, Petrópolis, Pr. Independência , 9.v.929, Príncipe Paulo Gagarin ( MNRJ) ; 2♂, Petrópolis, Le Vallon, Alt. Mosélla, 24.i–23.ii.1956, D’Albuquerque ( MNRJ) ; 1♂, Petrópolis, Taquara, 27.xii.70, H. S. Lopes ( MNRJ) ; 1♂, Petrópolis, Taquara, 25.i.71, H. S. Lopes ( MNRJ *) ; 2♂, 2♀, Serra dos Órgãos, xii.1940, Parko ( MNRJ) . Santa Catarina: 1♂, Nova Teutônia , 4.i.1949 ( MZUSP 0364 View Materials *) . São Paulo: 1♂, Bertioga, Parque Estadual Restinga de Bertioga, Fazenda Içassu , 23º45’06”S, 46º03’09”W, 16.ii.2013, Biffi, G. & Ament, D. C. ( MZUSP 0536 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 2♂, 3♀, Ilha da Vitória , 16–27.iii.1964, Exp Dep Zool ( ESALQ; MZUSP 0165 View Materials , 0167 View Materials , 0168 View Materials *, 0169) ; 1♂, 1♀, Ilha da Vitória , 29.iii–6.iv.1965, Exp Depto Zool ( MZUSP 0172 View Materials , 0173 View Materials ) ; 1♂, Mogi das Cruzes, próximo à Pedreira Itapeti , 23º29’36”S, 46º15’07”W, 5.ii.2016, V. M. Ghirotto ( MZUSP 0611 View Materials *) GoogleMaps ; 1♂, Raiz Serra ( ESALQ 6532 ) ; 1♀, Rio Paraná , xii.1929 ( ESALQ) ; 1♂, Salesópolis, Est Biol Boraceia , 17.ii.965, E. X. Rabello ( MZUSP 0166 View Materials ) ; 1♀, 1 egg, Salesópolis, Estação Biológica de Boraceia , 23º39’S, 45º53’W, 6–8.ii.2016, P. I. Chiquetto-Machado, A. Z. Ramin ( MZUSP 0584 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♀, Santos, Praia do Itaguaré , 6.ii.62, Rabello ( MZUSP 0171 View Materials ) ; 1♂, Santos, Praia do Itaguaré ( MZUSP 0170 View Materials ) ; 2♀, 14 eggs, São Paulo, Jardim Alviverde , 23º45’56”S, 46º45’34”W, ii.2016, R. Rossi, P. W. Engelking ( MZUSP 0582 View Materials , 0583 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂, São Paulo, Jardim Alviverde , 23º45’58”S, 46º45’35”W, xi.2016, P. W. Engelking, E. W. Engelking ( MZUSP 0794 View Materials *) GoogleMaps ; 2♂, 4♀, 40 eggs, São Paulo, Jardim Alviverde , 23º45’58”S, 46º45’35”W, 9.i.2017, P. I. Chiquetto-Machado, A. Z. Ramin ( MZUSP 0760 View Materials , 0761 View Materials , 0762 View Materials , 0763 View Materials , 0771 View Materials , 0856 View Materials ) GoogleMaps ; 1♂, São Sebastião, Centro de Biologia Marinha da Universidade de São Paulo, 23º49’36”S, 45º25’26”W, 12.vii.2017, E. B. Crispino ( MZUSP 0872 View Materials *) GoogleMaps .

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Phasmida

Family

Pseudophasmatidae

Genus

Paraphasma

Loc

Paraphasma laterale ( Fabricius, 1775 )

Chiquetto-Machado, Pedro I., Morales, Adriana C. & Cancello, Eliana M. 2022
2022
Loc

Paraphasma lateralis

Conle, O. V. & Hennemann, F. H. & Bellanger, Y. & Lelong, P. & Jourdan, T. & Valero, P. 2020: 70
2020
Loc

Prexaspes (Prexaspes) lateralis, Otte & Brock, 2005: 282

Brock, P. D. & Marshall, J. A. & Beccaloni, G. W. & Harman, A. J. E. 2016: 180
Otte, D. & Brock, P. D. 2005: 282
2005
Loc

Paraphasma dentatum

Zompro, O. & Domenico, F. C. 2005: 257
Otte, D. & Brock, P. D. 2005: 251
2005
Loc

Stratocles dentatus

Chiquetto-Machado, P. I. & Cancello, E. M. 2021: 26
Piza, S. T. 1946: 155
Piza, S. T. 1937: 8
1937
Loc

Stratocles lateralis, Redtenbacher, 1906: 104

Redtenbacher, J. 1906: 104
1906
Loc

Stratocles hopei

Redtenbacher, J. 1906: 107
1906
Loc

Prexaspes lateralis

Brock, P. D. 1998: 34
Kirby, W. F. 1904: 414
1904
Loc

Olcyphides hopii, Kirby, 1904a: 410

Brock, P. D. & Marshall, J. A. & Beccaloni, G. W. & Harman, A. J. E. 2016: 176
Otte, D. & Brock, P. D. 2005: 231
Rehn, J. A. G. 1907: 165
Kirby, W. F. 1904: 410
1904
Loc

Phocylides lateralis

Caudell, A. N. 1904: 186
Giglio-Tos, E. 1895: 806
1895
Loc

Phocylides lineolatus, Stål, 1875: 97

Giglio-Tos, E. 1910: 10
Stal, C. 1875: 97
1875
Loc

Phasma hopei

Westwood, J. O. 1859: 117
1859
Loc

Phasma lineolatum

Chiquetto-Machado, P. I. & Cancello, E. M. 2021: 26
Otte, D. & Brock, P. D. 2005: 231
Giglio-Tos, E. 1910: 10
Kirby, W. F. 1904: 410
Westwood, J. O. 1859: 120
De Haan, W. 1842: 123
Serville, J. G. A. 1839: 273
1839
Loc

Phasma hopii

Chiquetto-Machado, P. I. & Cancello, E. M. 2021: 26
Gray, G. R. 1835: 25
1835
Loc

Phasma laterale, Lichtenstein, 1802: 15

Westwood, J. O. 1859: 122
De Haan, W. 1842: 123
Gray, G. R. 1835: 22
Lichtenstein, A. A. H. 1802: 15
1802
Loc

Phasma lateralis

Serville, J. G. A. 1831: 58
Peletier de Saint Fargeau, L. M. & Serville, J. G. A. 1825: 101
Latreille, P. A. 1807: 87
Fabricius, J. C. 1798: 188
1798
Loc

Mantis lateralis

Zimsen, E. 1964: 615
Lichtenstein, A. A. H. 1796: 78
Fabricius, J. C. 1793: 15
Olivier, M. 1792: 634
Gmelin, J. F. 1789: 2054
Fabricius, J. C. 1787: 227
Fabricius, J. C. 1775: 275
1775