Molotra molotra

Ubick, Darrell & Griswold, Charles E., 2011, The Malagasy Goblin Spiders of the New Genus Molotra (Araneae: Oonopidae), American Museum Novitates 2011 (3729), pp. 1-72: 15-19

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1206/3729.2

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03B587C1-6F18-336B-16B1-7AE1FCDFFAFB

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Molotra molotra
status

 

Molotra molotra   species group

DIAGNOSIS: Members of this group may be distinguished from the others by a combination of somatic characters: large size, darker pigmentation, larger eyes, carapace strongly granulate and with a pronounced posterior knob, short body setae, and round book lung covers (figs. 13–78). The male palp differs from others in the genus in that the DL and VL are arranged along a horizontal plane (figs. 1–4), but vertical in M. tsingy   (fig. 5); are at least slightly separated from each other, but closely appressed in M. milloti   (fig. 6); and meet in a straight line, but are sinuous in M. milloti   . The female genitalia are unusual in lacking a receptaculum, but have a genitalic architecture, including a T-shaped process, apodemes, papillae, and ridges, resembling that found in the sillouettelloids (figs. 8, 10).

DESCRIPTION: MALE: Total length 1.9–2.2. CEPHALOTHORAX: Carapace with surface of elevated portion of pars cephalica granulate, sides granulate; with prominent pointed knob on posterior margin of pars cephalica (figs. 16, 42, 50, 66, 85). Sternum slightly longer than wide, with anterior excavation wide, surface with many large pits, especially at infracoxal grooves (figs. 87–89). Endites with distal (ectal) excavation (figs. 93, 95, 96). ABDOMEN: Book lung covers medium sized, smaller than pedicel diameter, oval (figs. 19, 45, 53, 69). Posterior spiracles connected by complete groove, anterior spiracles by partial groove (figs. 102, 104, 105). Pedicel dorsal surface with lateral ridges, smaller ridges on opposing surface of epigastric scutum (figs. 107–109). Epigastric scutum dorsal extension only slightly greater than pedicel diameter (figs. 15, 41, 49, 65, 100). Postepigastric scutum with short posteriorly directed lateral apodemes (figs. 20, 46, 54, 70, 104, 105). Dorsal setae present, short. Spinnerets (of M. molotra   ): ALS with four spigots, median on large base plus three laterals on small bases; PMS with two spigots on large bases; PLS with three spigots on large bases (figs. 112–115). Leg spines present, longer than leg segment width: tibiae: I, II v4-2-2; metatarsi I, II v2-2-0. Tarsal claws examined in M. molotra   : inferior claw absent, superior claw surfaces striate; all proclaws and retroclaws similar, with single row of five large teeth, evenly distributed along claw, in ventral position with origin slightly median, closely resembling outer claw teeth in female (figs. 131–141).

GENITALIA: Palp femur attaches to patella basally. Embolar region with dorsal and ventral lobes separate, with straight interface (figs. 1–4, 142–197).

FEMALE: Total length 2.1–2.3. CEPHALOTHORAX: Sternum with anterior cavity smaller than in male (figs. 25, 59, 75, 90–92). Endites distally not excavated, anteromedian tip unmodified (figs. 94, 97). Palp without claw; spines absent; tarsus unmodified, patella without prolateral row of ridges (figs. 33, 34). ABDOMEN: Epigastric scutum relatively flat ventrally, not protuding ventrally as in male, not fused to postepigastric scutum. Spinnerets (of M. molotra   ): ALS with four spigots, median on large base plus three laterals on small bases; PMS with four spigots on large bases; PLS with eight spigots on large bases (figs. 116–119). LEGS: pale orange; patella plus tibia I nearly as long as carapace. Tarsal claws (of M. molotra   ) with two rows of teeth; claws I and II with five large ventral (lateral) teeth, spread across entire claw length, six or five (respectively) shorter inner teeth, in median position; claws III with four ventral (lateral) teeth, medium sized, basal in position, four small, more apically positioned inner teeth; claws IV with three ventral (lateral) teeth, medium sized, basal, three or four small, apical inner teeth

(figs. 137–141). GENITALIA: Anterior and posterior apodemes prominent, T-shaped process well developed and variable in size, receptaculum absent (figs. 198–205).

SPECIES INCLUDED: Molotra katarinae   , M. molotra   , M. ninae   , and M. suzannae   .

Molotra molotra   , new species

Figures 1 View FIGS , 8, 10, 12–38, 79–145, 158–165, 190, 191, 198–201, 206–230; map 1; table 1

TYPES: Male holotype, female allotype and five male and five female paratypes from Madagascar, Antananarivo Province, 3 km 41° NE Andranomay, 11.5 km 147° SSE Anjozorobe , montane rainforest, sifted litter, 1300m, 18.47333°S, 47.96000°E (5–13 Dec 2000, Fisher-Griswold Arthropod Team) deposited in GoogleMaps   CAS ( CASENT9000917,   PBI_OON_01990).

ETYMOLOGY: Same as for genus.

DIAGNOSIS: This species differs from other Molotra   by the combination of carapace with prominent posterior knob and distinct dorsal declivity (figs. 15, 23), lateral margin with about 15 setose denticles (figs. 16, 24), male palpal patella larger than tibia (figs. 143, 145), embolar region with large dorsal and ventral lobes (figs. 158, 165), embolar tip free, not fused to lobes (figs. 163–165), and female with large T-shaped process (figs. 198–201).

MALE (PBI_OON_01990): Total length 2.05. CEPHALOTHORAX: Carapace lateral margin with about 14 denticles on each side (figs. 16, 81–86). Sternum microsculpture medially and in furrows (figs. 17, 87–89), infracoxal grooves present, but shallow and without apparent pores (fig. 89); setae abundant, densest laterally, originating from surface. ABDOMEN: Book lung covers smaller than pedicel diameter (fig. 19). Scutopedicel region with ridges (figs. 19, 107–109), scutum not extending far dorsal of pedicel (figs. 15, 100). Epigastric scutum slightly protruding. Postepigastric scutum long, almost rectangular. Spinneret scutum without fringe of setae. LEGS: Leg spination (only surfaces bearing spines listed, all spines longer than segment width): tibiae: I, II v4-2-2; metatarsi: I, II v2-2-0 (figs. 29–32). Tarsi I to IV superior claws teeth examined in detail: superior claw surfaces striate; all proclaws and retroclaws similar, with single row of five large teeth (excluding distal) occupying entire space (figs. 131–136). Trichobothria examined with SEM, bothrium finely wrinkled, pit with gratelike wrinkles (figs. 120–122). Tarsal organ as in female with two sensillae on palp, tarsi III, IV; 3 sensillae on tarsi I, II. GENITALIA: Epigastric region with sperm pore small (figs. 20, 102, 103), internally with sclerotized anterior edge (figs. 105, 106), flanked by two obliquely directed apodemes (figs. 104, 105). Palp femur attaching to patella basally (figs. 143, 190); cymbium with distal scopula (figs. 158, 159); embolar region with large dorsal and ventral lobes (figs. 1, 165); embolus distal section not fused to lobes (figs. 163–165).

FEMALE (PBI_OON_01990): Total length 2.20. As in male except as noted. CEPHALO-

THORAX: Carapace lateral margin with about 16 denticles on each side (figs. 24, 79, 80).

ABDOMEN: Pedicel tube short, scutopedicel region with ridges (fig. 111). Epigastric scutum without lateral joints. Postepigastric scutum separate from epigastric scutum (figs. 28, 198, 207). Spinneret scutum present, complete ring. Supraanal scutum absent. LEGS: Leg spination (only surfaces bearing spines listed, all spines longer than segment width): tibiae: I, II v4-2-2; metatarsi: I, II v2-2-0 (figs. 33–38). Tarsal claws with two rows of teeth; claws I, II with five large ventral (= outer) teeth, spread across entire claw length, six or five (respectively) shorter inner teeth, in median part of claw; claws III with four ventral (= outer) teeth, medium sized, basal in position, four small, more apically positioned inner teeth; claws IV with three ventral (= outer) teeth, medium sized, basal, three to four small, apical inner teeth (figs. 137–141). Trichobothria (figs. 128–130), tarsal organs (figs. 123–127) as in male. GENITALIA: Internal genitalia lacking large receptaculum, but T-shaped process, apodemes well developed (figs. 201, 214–225).

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: MADAGASCAR: Antananarivo: 3 km 41° NE Andranomay, 11.5 km 147° SSE Anjozorobe , montane rainforest, sifted litter, 1300m, 18.47333°S, 47.96000°E, 5–13 Dec 2000, Fisher-Griswold Arthropod Team, 1 3, 1 ♀, paratypes ( CAS, CASENT9003825, PBI _OON_03389); pitfall traps, 9 3, 7 ♀, paratypes ( CAS, CASENT9001460, PBI _OON_03390);Same, 19 3, 22 ♀, paratypes ( CAS, CASENT9001458, PBI _OON_03392); General collecting, 4 3, 3 ♀, paratypes ( CAS, CASENT9004108, PBI _OON_03391) GoogleMaps   .

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the type locality.

Molotra ninae   , new species

Figures 3 View FIGS , 39–46 View FIGS , 146–149 View FIGS , 166–173 View FIGS , 192, 193 View FIGS ; map 1; table 1

TYPES: Male holotype and male paratype from Madagascar, Toamasina, Ambatovy , 12.4 km NE Moramanga, 1080 m, 18.83944°S, 48.30833°E (4–7 Mar 2007, B.L. Fisher et al.) deposited in GoogleMaps   CAS ( CASENT9036087,   PBI_OON_03839).

ETYMOLOGY: This species is named after Darrell Ubick’s niece and goddaughter, Nina Jaehning   , who deserves to have a species named in her honor.

DIAGNOSIS: This species differs from other Molotra   by the combination of carapace with prominent posterior knob and distinct dorsal declivity (fig. 41), lateral margin with about 13 setose denticles (fig. 42), male palpal patella larger than tibia (figs. 192, 193) and embolus with large ventral and dorsal lobes (figs. 146–149).

MALE (PBI_OON_03395): Total length 2.16. CEPHALOTHORAX: Carapace lateral margin with about 13 denticles on each side (fig. 42). Eyes: ALE slightly larger than others, ALE circular (figs. 40–42). Sternum only slightly longer than wide (fig. 43). Mouthparts: Endites distally excavated. ABDOMEN Scutopedicel ridges present (fig. 45). Dorsal scutum middle surface smooth, sides smooth. Supraanal scutum not visible. GENITALIA: Epigastric region with sperm pore situated between anterior and posterior spiracles (fig. 46). Palp patella slightly enlarged, longer than tibia (figs. 192, 193), embolar lobes broad (figs. 146–149, 166–173).

FEMALE: Unknown.

NOTES: The embolar region is more complex than in others of the group. The VL is folded in toward the DL (fig. 3), and not splayed out as in M. molotra   (fig. 1). Basad of the wrinkled VL is a flat smooth region (VL? on fig. 173), of unknown homology. On its prolateral side and bent inward (toward the embolus) is a thick, seemingly rigid, process (fig. 169). This process opposes a thinner flap, of externally wrinkled membrane, which is attached to the DL (figs. 168, 171).

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: MADAGASCAR: Toamasina: Torotorofotsy , 18.87083 ° S, 48.3475 ° E, 1070 m, 24 Mar 2004, montane rainforest, sifted litter, Malagasy ant team, 13 paratype ( CAS, CASENT9023263, PBI _OON_03395) GoogleMaps   . DISTRIBUTION: Known from two localities in NE Madagascar.

Molotra katarinae   , new species

Figures 2 View FIGS , 47–62 View FIGS View FIGS , 150–153 View FIGS , 174–181 View FIGS , 194–196 View FIGS , 202, 203 View FIGS ; map 1; table 1

TYPES: Male holotype, female allotype, and two male paratypes from Madagascar, Toamasina, Ambatovy , montane rainforest, leaf mold, rotten wood, 1075 m, 18.85083°S, 48.32139°E (21 Mar 2004, Malagasy ant team, BLF10501 View Materials ) deposited in GoogleMaps   CAS ( CASENT9023252,   PBI_OON_03393).

ETYMOLOGY: This species is named after Darrell Ubick’s sister, Katarina Mijatović, in recognition for the many spiders she has collected over the years.

DIAGNOSIS: M. katarinae   differs from other Molotra   by the combination of carapace with moderate posterior knob and lacking distinct dorsal declivity (figs. 49, 57), lateral margin with about 20 setose denticles (figs. 50, 58), male palpal patella smaller than tibia (figs. 151, 153, 194, 196), embolar region with large dorsal and small ventral lobes (figs. 178–181), embolar tip free of lobes (fig. 179) and female with medium-sized T-shaped process (figs. 202, 203).

MALE (PBI_OON_03393): Total length 2.02. CEPHALOTHORAX: Carapace lateral margin bearing about 22 denticles per side (fig. 50). LEGS: Leg spination: tibia I with extra prolateral-ventral spine, giving 4-3-2; metatarsi: I v2-2-0; II v2-02-0. GENITALIA: Palpal patella shorter than tibia (figs. 151, 153, 194, 196); dorsal lobe large, ventral small, embolar tip free, not fused to lobes (figs. 2, 150–153, 174–181).

FEMALE (PBI_OON_03393): Total length 2.30. As in male except as noted. CEPHALO-

THORAX: Carapace lateral margin with about 20 denticles on each side (fig. 58). Sternum with anterior margin slightly excavated, less than in male (fig. 59). Endites rounded ectally. ABDO- MEN: Postepigastric scutum not fused to epigastric scutum (fig. 62). LEGS: Leg spination: tibia II with extra prolateral-ventral spine, giving 4-3-1. GENITALIA: T-shaped process smaller than in M. molotra   , but larger than in M. suzannae   (figs. 202, 203).

NOTES: The scanned male has a crack at the posterior part of the dorsal lobe (figs. 178, 181), which may be the result of damage. However, the dorsal view of that area shows structures (ridges) that do not seem damaged (bottom of fig. 177), suggesting that the crack is natural and that the posterior part of DL forms a prong. The prong is short and stout, whereas a long, slender one seems to be present in M. suzannae   (fig. 197). The embolar region of M. katarinae   seems to have an additional sclerite, a middle lobe (ML), situated between the dorsal and ventral (fig. 179). The embolar region expands somewhat following treatment with hot lactic acid. The dorsal and ventral lobes pivot apart, possibly swelling (figs. 194–195).

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: MADAGASCAR: Toamasina: Analamay , montane rainforest, leaf mold, rotten wood, 1068m, 18.80611°S, 48.33694°E, Mar. 21, 2004, Malagasy ant team, 13 paratype GoogleMaps   ( CAS, CASENT9023226,   PBI_OON_03394).

DISTRIBUTION: Known from two localities in NE Madagascar.

Molotra suzannae   , new species

Figures 4 View FIGS , 63–78 View FIGS View FIGS , 154–157 View FIGS , 182–189 View FIGS , 197 View FIGS , 204, 205 View FIGS ; map 1; table 1

TYPES: Male holotype, female allotype and female paratype from Madagascar, Toamasina, Foret Clasee Didy , 18.19833°S, 48.57833°E, 960 m, montane rainforest, sifted litter (16–23 Dec 1998, H.J. Ratsirarson, HJR131) deposited in GoogleMaps   CAS ( CASENT9036040,   PBI_OON_03396).

ETYMOLOGY: This species is named after Darrell Ubick’s wife, Suzanne Ubick, in gratitude for her help both in the field and at home.

DIAGNOSIS: M. suzannae   differs from other Molotra   by the combination of carapace with moderate posterior knob and lacking distinct dorsal declivity (figs. 65, 73), lateral margin with about 14 setose denticles (figs. 66, 74); male palpal patella subequal to tibia (fig. 155), embolar region with small dorsal and ventral lobes (fig. 186), fully fused to embolus (fig. 187), showing large median lobe (fig. 187); female with small T-shaped process (figs. 204, 205).

MALE (PBI_OON_03396): Total length 1.95. CEPHALOTHORAX: Carapace lateral margin with about 14 denticles on each side (fig. 66). LEGS: Leg spination: tibia IV with small distal, prolateral spine. GENITALIA: Palpal tibia as large as patella (figs. 155, 197); embolar lobes small with indistinct opening (figs. 186–188), median lobe visible (fig. 187).

FEMALE (PBI_OON_03396): Total length 2.04. As in male except as noted. CEPHALO-

THORAX: Carapace lateral margin with about 15 denticles on each side (fig. 74). LEGS: Tibia IV with small distal, prolateral spine. GENITALIA: T-shaped process small (figs. 204, 205).

NOTES: The dorsal lobe of the scanned specimen is broken at its posterior end (figs. 186– 189). The broken section shows that the DL is hard and tapers to a thin edge. Moreover, the break is restricted to the area marked by the arrows (fig. 189) and the adjacent posterior region is not broken, which indicates that the broken portion was an extension and not attached laterally to the palp. On different specimens viewed with a light microscope, there is a thin curved prong visible in the area (figs. 155, 197). The embolar region of this species has a prominent median lobe (ML) between the other lobes (fig. 187).

OTHER MATERIAL EXAMINED: None.

DISTRIBUTION: Known only from the type locality.

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Oonopidae

Genus

Molotra