Gaeolaelaps jondishapouri Nemati & Kavianpour, 2013,

Kazemi, Shahrooz, Rajaei, Asma & Beaulieu, Frédéric, 2014, Two new species of Gaeolaelaps (Acari: Mesostigmata: Laelapidae) from Iran, with a revised generic concept and notes on significant morphological characters in the genus, Zootaxa 3861 (6), pp. 501-530: 505-510

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Gaeolaelaps jondishapouri Nemati & Kavianpour, 2013


Gaeolaelaps jondishapouri Nemati & Kavianpour, 2013 

Gaeolaelaps jondishapouri Nemati & Kavianpour, 2013: 64  .

Diagnosis (modified from Nemati & Kavianpour, 2013). Female with dorsal shield abruptly tapering from level of S 4 setae, bearing 39 pairs of moderately long setae, more or less reaching base of next seta in opisthosomal region, each seta with 1–4 small barbs; gland pores gd 2 and gd 6 present; seven marginal (r -R) setae, born on soft cuticle, with relatively thick sclerotised rings around alveoli. Sternal shield slightly wider than long, ratio of length/width ≈ 0.9; reticulate in its anterior third, smooth posteriorly, slightly concave posteriorly, with setae st 1 on pointed edge of two anterior extensions of shield. Presternal region lightly sclerotised, lineate. Epigynal shield flask-shaped, slightly widened posteriorly, ratio of widths at level of broadest point/level of st 5 ≈ 1.2, smooth except for an inversely Y-shaped line. Eight pairs of opisthogastric setae on relatively thick sclerotised rings around alveoli. Peritremes relatively short, anteriorly reaching posterior margin of acetabulum I. Epistome with anterior margin subtriangular. Deutosternum with six rows of 1–5 denticles. Fixed cheliceral digit with 5–7, rarely eight, teeth on its anterior half. Internal malae with long median projections and two additional pairs of lateral projections of similar length. Palp apotele with three tines, including a minute basal tine. Leg setae simple and mostly slender; ventral setae usually thicker than lateral and dorsal setae; av of femur II not spur-like; seta av on genu IV, setae av, pv and pl 2 on tibia IV and setae md, pv 2, pl 2 and pd 2 on tarsus IV thickened; setae pd 2 and pv 2 on tarsus IV inserted well proximal to ad 2 and av 2, respectively. Male with holoventral shield relatively narrow posteriorly, poorly developed behind coxae IV. Spermatodactyl short, curved and slightly extending beyond movable digit (male characters based on illustrations in Nemati & Kavianpour, 2013).

Redescription ( Figs 1–12View FIGURES 1 – 4View FIGURES 5 – 10View FIGURES 11 – 12). Female (n= 5, excluding holotype). Dorsal idiosoma ( Figs 1View FIGURES 1 – 4, 11View FIGURES 11 – 12). Idiosoma 545–568 [573] long, 288–311 [291] wide. Dorsal shield 504–526 [562 (543–550)] long, 238–267 [276 (270–340)] wide, reticulate throughout except for smooth anteromedian region extending from behind j 6 setae to anterior shield apex, covering most of dorsal idiosoma but leaving an exposed band of soft lateral cuticle; shield slightly tapering after humeral region from level of r 3 to level of S 4, where it then sharply tapers into a V-shape, and ends in a rounded posterior apex; shield with 39 pairs of setae of almost uniform length, relatively short and usually not reaching base of following setae. Dorsal shield setae j 1 (39–42) [41] and z 1 (16–18) [16 (17–19)] smooth; J 5 (39–43) [39], Z 4 (44–56) [58 (50–60)], S 4 (48–52) [53], and S 5 (53–59) [54] with 2–3 barbs; Z 5 (57–61) [52] with 3–4 barbs; and all other setae (30–44) [33–47] usually with one small barb on distal half ( Fig. 2View FIGURES 1 – 4); without unpaired setae. Shield with 16 pairs of discernible poroids (oval-shaped symbols) and six pairs of gland pores (circular symbols), including gd 2 (posterolaterad of setae j 4) and gd 6 (posteromediad of z 6). Setae r 6 (24–27) [24 (34–36)], R 1–6 (26–56) [28–57 (25–70] and one UR (33–34) [34] inserted on soft cuticle laterad of dorsal shield, with relatively thick sclerotised rings around alveoli ( Figs 1View FIGURES 1 – 4, 11View FIGURES 11 – 12). Sigillae consistent across individuals, as illustrated in Fig. 1View FIGURES 1 – 4.

Ventral idiosoma ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 5 – 10). Tritosternum with narrow columnar base, 24–34 [34 (44–49)] long, 14–17 [17] wide at base, 7–9 [7] at apex, and two sparsely pilose laciniae 109–114 [111 (119–139)] long, and fused basally for 5–7 [6] µm. Presternal area weakly sclerotised, lineate and very slightly granulate. Soft integument behind coxae I with three pairs of gland openings flanked by two minute valves. Sternal shield 108–114 [115 (120–138)] long, 117–121 [122 (130–145)] wide, finely reticulated anterolaterally, otherwise smooth; anterior and posterior margin of shield moderately concave, anterolateral corners narrowly extending between coxae I –II, distally bearing gland pores gvb; endopodal elements between coxae II and III fused with shield; shield bearing three pairs of smooth setae st 1 (37–41) [41], st 2 (38–42) [40] and st 3 (35–38) [38], and two pairs of slit-like poroids, iv 1 and iv 2, their axes oriented transversely; vestige of gland pores gv 1 apparently present on posterior margin of sternal shield ( Fig. 12View FIGURES 11 – 12). Metasternal setae (33–35) [34 (30–34)] and poroids iv 3 on soft cuticle flanked by narrow endopodal elements between coxae III/IV. Epigynal shield flask-shaped, 196–209 [216 (180–213)] long, 99–108 [109] from setae st 5 level to posterior margin, 77–93 [94] wide, slightly broadened past st 5; anterior hyaline margin of shield irregularly convex and usually slightly covering posterior margin of sternal shield, with an inverse Y –shaped ornamentation, otherwise smooth; epigynal shield separated from anal shield by almost length of anal shield; setae st 5 (31–33) [33 (30–33)] inserted on lateral margins of shield, approximately at level of posterior edge of coxae IV. Poroids iv 5 inserted on soft cuticle, at level of tip of st 5. A strip-like postgenital sclerite (sometimes divided into 2–4 narrow strips) closely bordering posterior margin of epigynal shield. Anal shield subtriangular, 92–98 [107 (99–103)] long, 87–95 [94 (94–96)] wide, with lineate-reticulate ornamentation, anterior margin of shield slightly convex, circumanal setae smooth, postanal seta (33–39) [38 (33–36)] longer than para-anal setae (26–30) [28 (27–30)]; cribrum well developed, with two single files of denticles each extending from cribrum to near base of para-anal setae; anal opening located at mid-level of shield; pair of glands gv 3 inserted on shield lateral margins, at level between para-anal setae and posterior edge of anus. Peritrematal shields weakly developed posteriorly beyond stigmata, almost reaching level of coxae IV posterior margin, extending anteriorly and fused to dorsal shield at base of seta z 1 level; bearing three gland pores (gp) and three poroids (ip): two of these poroids and one of these pores located on short, narrow post-stigmatic plate, one pore located near anterior extremity of peritreme ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 5 – 10). Peritremes somewhat short (218–228 [221]), extending from stigmata to posterior margin of coxae I ( Fig. 6View FIGURES 5 – 10). Exopodal and parapodal platelets narrow, divided into sclerotised strips along coxae II-IV; gland pore gv 2 present anteromediad of parapodal platelet. One pair of minute paragenital platelets anterior to setae ZV 1. Primary (most lateral) metapodal platelets suboval, with irregular margin, and secondary (more median) pair tiny, oriented more or less transversely. Opisthogaster with five pairs of poroids (four ivo; ivp) and three pairs of smooth ventral setae JV 1 (30–34) [34 (30–32)], JV 2 (32–36) [32 (30–32)] and ZV 1 (25–29) [28 (30–33)], and five pairs of setae with 1–2 barbs: JV 3 (35–37) [38 (30–32)], JV 4 (40–43) [44 (39–41)], ZV 2 (32–37) [38 (30–33)], ZV 3 (25–29) [31 (30–33)] and ZV 4 (39–42) [42 (30–33)]; JV 5 (58–60) [60 (57–60)] with 3–4 barbs.

Gnathosoma  ( Figs 3–4View FIGURES 1 – 4, 7– 8View FIGURES 5 – 10). Anterior margin of epistome subtriangular and more or less rounded apically, denticulate, with about 50 small denticles ( Fig. 3View FIGURES 1 – 4). Corniculi horn-like, 42–47 [46] long. Salivary stylets narrow and apically pointed. Internal malae fringed, with a pair of thick, contiguous median projections, and two pairs of thinner lateral projections, the inner pair shortest. Labrum considerably longer than corniculi. Hypostomal setae smooth, h 1 (43–47 [(31–37)]> h 3 (37–39 [(27–30)])> h 2 (27–30 [28 (24–30)]), capitular (pc) setae smooth (39–43 [(36–41)]). Deutosternal groove with six rows of denticles, each row with 2–4 and more rarely 1–5 denticles (holotype has most deutosternal rows with two denticles close to each of lateral margins of deutosternum); lateral margins of deutosternum subparallel ( Fig. 7View FIGURES 5 – 10). First (basal) segment of chelicerae 64–76 [67] long, second segment 175–191 [186 (240–245)] long, including fixed digit, 54–56 wide; fixed digit of chelicera 57–63 [63] long, bearing 5–7, rarely eight, teeth on its anterior half, including subapical offset tooth (gabelzhan); pilus dentilis short and setiform ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 5 – 10). Movable digit of chelicera 72–77 [79 (75-84)] long, bidentate ( Fig. 8View FIGURES 5 – 10). Palp chaetotaxy normal for Laelapidae  ; all setae smooth, al 1 and al 2 of palpgenu and al of palpfemur slightly thickened, palptarsus apotele with two main tines, and an additional, very short basal tine ( Fig. 4View FIGURES 1 – 4).

Legs ( Figs 9–10View FIGURES 5 – 10). Leg chaetotaxy normal for Laelapidae  (sensu Evans and Till, 1965). All legs with ambulacrum, lengths of legs I-IV 549–562 [572 (539–549)], 416–428 [429 (444–452)], 386–405 [424 (418–422)] and 608–634 [621 (623–628)], respectively. Lengths of femora I 94 –106 [113 (123–126)], II 78 –87 [(80–84)], III 72 –76 [76 (71–77)], IV 97 –109 [124 (130–135)]; genua I 81 –85 [80 (87–95)], II 61 –66 [63 (65–70)], III 56 –60 [59 (58–62)], IV 78 –83 [78 (80–85)]; tibiae I 88 –95 [85 (36–39)], II 64 –70 [66 (73–77)], III 59 –62 [63 (60–65)], IV 90 –96 [89 (95–100)]; tarsi I 158–164 [163 (155–161)], II 118–130 [127 (129–136)], III 124–135 [123 (129–136)], IV 194–199 [200 (200–208)]. Leg setae mostly simple, needle-like; tarsi II-IV with al 1, pl 1, av 1, and pv 1 relatively thick; leg I without conspicuously thickened seta; trochanter II with al short and thickened; trochanter IV with ad slightly thickened; femur IV with ad 2 short and slightly thickened; leg IV with the following setae considerably thickened or spine-like: av on genu; av, pv and pl 2 on tibia; md, av 2, pv 2, pl 2 and pd 2 on tarsus. Coxa I each bearing two gland pores (gc) ( Fig. 5View FIGURES 5 – 10).

Remarks. Gaeolaelaps jondishapouri  can be distinguished from any other Gaeolaelaps  species by two distinctive, if not exceptional, characters among known members of the genus: (1) a dorsal shield abruptly tapering from the level of setae S 4; (2) setae st 1 inserted relatively far anteriorly from poroids iv 1, on the apex of two pointed extensions of the sternal shield (making the anterior margin appear bilobed, see Figs 2View FIGURES 1 – 4, 12View FIGURES 11 – 12). Whereas the original description shows a sternal shield with a straight anterior margin, without extensions, leaving st 1 completely off the shield, the re-illustration of the sternal shield by Kavianpour & Nemati (2014) is similar to ours. Other notable discrepancies that we noticed between the original description and the specimens we examined (including the holotype) are: (1) denticulate rows of deutosternal groove usually with 2–4 denticles [rows appear smooth in the original illustration, and there is no mention of denticles in the text]; (2) palp apotele with a small basal tine, in addition to the two main tines; (3) 16 poroids and six gland pores on the dorsal shield [only 18 porelike structures in the original description, missing gland pore behind j 4, and poroids near s 3, behind s 6, and laterad of Z 4; Nemati & Kavianpour had acknowledged in the text that they could have overlooked some pores or poroids]; (4) peritrematal shields anteriorly fused to dorsal shield, each bearing one gland pore [in the original description, peritremes appear without shielding anteriorly and therefore free from the dorsal shield]; (5) coxae I and surrounding soft integument with five gland openings; (6) cribrum with two files of denticles extending anteriorly to near the base of para-anal setae [not illustrated nor mentioned in the original description]; (7) setae h 1 (43–47) and h 3 (37–39) moderately longer [31–37 and 27–30, respectively, in the original description]. A few other measurements do not overlap between the original description and ours (e.g. dorsal shield; see notes in the redescription above), but these differences may at least in part be due to differences among populations; (8) most leg setae are needle-like, i.e. rather straight and with a relatively constant thickness through most of their length (not finely tapering as many setae in Nemati & Kavianpour, 2013); setae of leg I and of coxa-tibia II are thin and needle-like, except thickened al 1 on coxa and ventral setae on tibia (in contrast to the original illustrations showing most setae of legs I-II thickened or spine-like). Although this is a relatively inconspicuous feature, G. jondishapouri  also has all dorsal setae with one or more barbs, with the exception of j 1 and z 1.

The specimens of G. jondishapouri  that we examined also differ from Nemati & Kavianpour’s (2013) description by the shape of the posterior region of the dorsal shield. We would rather describe this region as Vshaped, or even subtriangular, with a rounded apex, instead of bell-shaped, as indicated in their species key (examination of the holotype shows a dorsal shield that may appear as ‘bell-shaped’ because the shield is bent posteriorly on that specimen). With such a distinctive tapering of the dorsal shield, we believe that G. jondishapouri  is closely related to G. changlingensis ( Ma, 2000)  , with the minor  difference that the shield of G. changlingensis  abruptly tapers from the level of S 3 instead of S 4 as in G. jondishapouri  . Based on its description, G. changlingensis  also differs from G. jondishapouri  by its narrower sternal shield (Li-Ming Ma pers. comm.), st 2 inserted more posteriorly, and possibly longer idiosomal setae (however, some of these apparent differences may be due to inaccurate illustrations).

Nemati & Kavianpour (2013) placed G. jondishapouri  in the G. angusta  species group (sensu Karg, 1979) based on the tapering posterior region of the dorsal shield. However, we do not concur that G. jondishapouri  can be placed in the G. angusta  group, because the four species originally placed in this species group have dorsal shields that taper much more anteriorly than that of G. jondishapouri  , and consequently are quite narrower posteriorly. Based on Karg’s hypothesis (1979), the dorsal shield of species in the angusta  group is wedge-shaped, characterised by ‘shoulders’ (typically near the level of r 3–4), from which the shield gradually tapers to a relatively narrow apex (see, for example, the redescription of G. queenslandicus ( Womersley, 1956)  by Costa, 1966). The dorsal shield of G. jondishapouri  is therefore quite distinct from that of members of the angusta  species group, and the same applies to the putatively close relative G. changlingensis  . Such shape of the dorsal shield is strongly reminiscent of that of Stratiolaelaps scimitus (Womersley)  , which differs from congenerics by a shield abruptly tapering at level of S 1–2 ( Walter & Campbell, 2003).

Very few species of Gaeolaelaps  have a deutosternum with fewer than five denticles per row. Gaeolaelaps jondishapouri  is among the exceptions, as is G. spiniseta  , which has a deutosternum with 3–4 denticles per row ( Barilo, 1991). However, G. jondishapouri  can easily be distinguished from G. spiniseta  by several characters, including its posteriorly tapered dorsal shield (rounded in G. spiniseta  ), which bears 39 pairs of moderately long setae (38 in G. spiniseta  , with setae longer, usually reaching the base of next setae), flanked by seven pairs of marginal setae (only one pair in G. spiniseta  ); its sternal shield bearing st 1 on anterior extensions of the sternal shield (st 1 inserted closer to iv 1 and well behind the anterior margin of the shield in G. spiniseta  ); and by its rounded epistome (subtriangular or pointed in G. spiniseta  , according to the illustration in Barilo, 1991).

Material examined. Holotype female: Southwestern Iran, Ahwaz, Khuzestan Province, 2010, coll. M. Kavianpour. Paratypes: 10 females: southeastern Iran, Kerman Province, Jiroft County (28 ˚ 51 ' 29 " N; 57 ˚ 71 ' 92 " E), altitude 589 m above sea level, from cow manure in a citrus orchard, 4 Jan 2011, coll. A. Rajaei, deposited in ACISTE. One female with same data, deposited in ACJAZUT. One female with same data, deposited in CNC. Five females: collected from soil and litter, in the same orchard as above, same date and collector, deposited in ACISTE.


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes














Gaeolaelaps jondishapouri Nemati & Kavianpour, 2013

Kazemi, Shahrooz, Rajaei, Asma & Beaulieu, Frédéric 2014

Gaeolaelaps jondishapouri

Nemati & Kavianpour 2013: 64