Pseudosmittia joaquimvenancioi (Messias et Oliveira)

Andersen, Trond, Saether, Ole A. & Mendes, Humberto F., 2010, Neotropical Allocladius Kieffer, 1913 and Pseudosmittia Edwards, 1932 (Diptera: Chironomidae) 2472, Zootaxa 2472 (1), pp. 1-77: 45-48

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2472.1.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C0582D-993F-FF86-BB8B-FB2A00D0691E

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Pseudosmittia joaquimvenancioi (Messias et Oliveira)
status

 

Pseudosmittia joaquimvenancioi (Messias et Oliveira)  

( Figs 125–130)

Bryophaenocladius joaquimvenancioi Messias et Oliveira, 2000: 189   .

Pseudosmittia joaquimvenancioi (Messias et Oliveira)   ; Wang et al. (2006: 19).

Pseudosmittia digitata Saether, 1981: 25   , pro parte.

Material examined. BRAZIL: Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro, FIOCRUZ Campus, holotype male, 26.iv.1992, Núcleo de Chironomidae (IOC)   ; 5 males, 1 female paratypes, as holotype ( IOC)   . SAINT VIN- CENT: Golden Grove Estate, Yambon River, 1 male (misidentified paratype of P. digitata   ), vii.1972, A.D. Harrison; Majorca, Yambon River , below waterfall   , 442 m a.s.l., 4 males, 1 female (misidentified paratypes and allotype of P. digitata   ), vii–viii.1972, Malaise trap, A.D. Harrison; Leeward Highway, Petit Bordel stream, 4 males (misidentified paratypes of P. digitata   ), 18.x.1971, net, A.D. Harrison; Richmond River , backwater at hydro-station weir   , 122 m a.s.l., 1 male (misidentified paratype of P. digitata   ), viii.1972, Malaise trap, A.D. Harrison ( ZMBN)   . SAINT LUCIA: Castries, lower slope of mountain behind Castries, Malaise trap, 1 male (misidentified paratype of P. digitata   ), 22.xii.1972, A.D. Harrison ; as previous except 4 males, 9.i.1973 ( ZMBN)   ; Castries , 1 male, 10–22.ix.1972, J.C. Bradley ( CU)   . BRAZIL: Santa Catarina State, Jaraguá do Sul , 5 males, 27.v.–15.vii.2003, soil trap on cattle dung (n. 02), Expedition FIOCRUZ (FIOCRUZ) ( ZMBN)   . São Paulo State, Ribeirão Preto, Campus USP, 4 males, 2.x.2000, hand net, T. Andersen & H.F. Mendes ( ZMBN)   . Rio de Janeiro State, Rio de Janeiro, 1 male, 10.x.1919, Cornell University Expedition ( CU)   ; Reserva Biológica Tinguá, Nova Iguaçu , 22º34'30''S 43º26'07''W, 1 male, 5–8.iii.2002, Malaise (Trilha 4), S.T.P. Amarante et al. (BRTIN09: BIOTA-FAPESP) ( ZMBN) GoogleMaps   . VENEZUELA: Aragua State, Maracay, Maracay campus, cultivated area, 10º16.390'N, 67º36.607'W GoogleMaps   , 400 m a.s.l., 5 males, 22.ix.1999, hand net, T. Andersen; Cuyagua, 50 m a.s.l., 2 males, 27.v.1999, hand net, J.L. Garcia, & R. Montilla ( ZMBN)   . NICARA- GUA: Granada Department, 3 km South of Granada direction Nindaime , 19 males, primo xii.1999, hand net, L.O. Hansen ( ZMBN)   . COSTA RICA: Heredia Province, La Selva Biological Station , 1 male, 3.iv.1993, Malaise trap, O.A. Saether ( ZMBN)   . MEXICO: Campeche State, Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, Ejido Gustavo Diaz Ordaz, San Antonio Soda , Río Escondido , 300 m West of town, 18º24'54.9''N, 89º08'13.2''W, 170 m a.s.l., 7 males, 22–23.ix.1997, Malaise trap, A. Contreras-Ramos et al. ( ZMBN) GoogleMaps   . Veracruz de Ignacio de la Llave State, Los Tuxtlas, Tres Zapotes , 1 male, 22.i.1995, L.O. Hansen ( ZMBN)   .

Diagnostic characters. The imagines differ from other members of the genus by having an apical elongation of the third palpomere and carrying 7–13 sensilla clavata.

Male (n = 10, except when otherwise stated). Total length 1.37–1.54, 1.42 mm. Wing length 0.80–0.92, 0.85 mm. Total length / wing length 1.55–1.75, 1.67. Wing length / length of profemur 2.67–2.91, 2.79.

Coloration. Thorax dark brown with lighter scutellum, abdomen brown with paler anterior margins of tergites.

Head. AR 0.86–1.16, 1.03; ultimate flagellomere 238––281, 268 µm long. Temporal setae 4–7, 5; consisting of 2–3, 3 outer verticals; 2–3, 2 inner verticals and 0–2, 1 postorbitals. Clypeus with 8–11, 9 setae. Tentorium, stipes and cibarial pump as in Figure 125. Tentorium 79–93, 87 µm long; 13–18, 16 µm wide. Stipes 84–93, 89 µm long; 25–29, 27 µm wide. Palpomere ( Fig. 126) lengths (in µm): 11–16, 14; 20–27, 25; 50–59, 54; 57–68, 61; 84–109, 95. Third palpomere with 16–23, 19 µm long digitiform projection and 7–13 lanceolate sensilla clavata in one or two groups, longest 11–16, 14 µm long.

Thorax ( Fig. 127). Median antepronotal lobes reduced; antepronotum with 1 lateral seta. Dorsocentrals 9– 12, 10; acrostichals 2; prealars 3; supraalar absent. Scutellum with 4–6, 5 setae.

Wing ( Fig. 128). Anal lobe weakly developed. Cu 1 weakly curved; postcubital fork present. R 4+5 ending distal to apex of Cu 1. VR 1.62–1.97, 1.74; VR 2 1.21–1.68, 1.43. Costal extension 5–50, 20 µm long. Brachiolum with 1 seta, other veins bare.

Legs (n = 6–8). Spur of fore tibia 27–36, 33 µm long; spurs of mid tibia 18–21, 20 µm and lost; of hind tibia 29–39, 34 µm and 15–20, 18 µm long. Width at apex of fore tibia 18–23, 20 µm; of mid tibia 18–23, 20 µm; of hind tibia 29–34, 31µm. Comb with 12–16, 14 setae; longest 27–36, 31 µm long; shortest 13–20, 16 µm long. Length and proportions of legs as in Table 14.

Hypopygium ( Figs 129–130). Anal point 15–32, 24 µm long, with 0–4, 2 setae. Tergite IX with 3–9, 7 additional setae. Laterosternite IX with 2–3, 3 setae. Phallapodeme 45–59, 54 µm long. Sternapodeme evenly rounded with no trace of oral projections, arched part about 50–61, 54 µm long. Virga 38–52, 45 µm long. Gonocoxite 95–118, 101 µm long. Inferior volsella well developed; anterior lobe with rounded apex; posterior lobe broadly rounded to subtriangular. Gonostylus 43–57, 50 µm long; megaseta 4–7, 5 µm long. HR 1.72– 2.50, 2.06. HV 2.59–3.25, 2.85.

Female (n = 1–2). Total length 1.40 mm. Wing length 0.68–0.76 mm. Total length / wing length 2.05. Wing length / length of profemur 2.47–2.53.

Coloration. Brown with light brown scutellum.

Head. AR 0.44. Lengths (in µm) of flagellomeres: 50, 34, 34, 32, 66. Temporal setae 4–5, including 2 inner verticals and 2–3 outer verticals. Clypeus with 7–15 setae. Tentorium 59–75 µm long, 9–10 µm wide. Stipes 82–87 µm long. Palpomere lengths (in µm): 18–25, 27, 73–85, 57, lost. Third palpomere with 18–21 µm long apical projection and 5–7 lanceolate sensilla clavata. Coronal suture absent.

Thorax. Median antepronotal lobes reduced; antepronotum with 1–2 lateral seta. Dorsocentrals 12, acrostichals 2, prealars 3, supraalar absent. Scutellum with 4–6 setae.

Wing. VR 1.74–1.80. Anal lobe weak. Costal extension 71–94 µm long. R 4+5 ending proximal to apex of M 3+4; Cu 1 straight. Brachiolum with 1 seta; costa between FR and apex of R 4+5 with 12–19 non-marginal setae, costal extension with 8–10 non-marginal setae, R with 6–7 setae, R 1 with 4–5, R 4+5 with 8–10 setae, other veins bare.

Legs. Spur of fore tibia 23 µm long, spurs of mid tibia 22 µm and 14 µm long, of hind tibia 37 µm and 14– 16 µm long. Width at apex of fore tibia 22 µm, of mid tibia 25 µm, of hind tibia 32 µm. Comb of 11–12 setae, longest 30–37 µm long, shortest 21–23 µm long. Length and proportions of legs as in Table 15.

Abdomen. Tergite I bare, T II–VII each with 9–12 setae, T VIII with 6 setae. Sternite I–II bare, S III–VII each with 4–5 setae, S VIII with 18 setae.

Genitalia. Gonocoxite comparatively well developed, without long posterior corner, with 4 strong and 2 weak setae. Tergite IX undivided, with altogether 4 setae. Cercus 43 µm long. Apodeme against gonocoxite 69 µm long. Seminal capsule moderately dark, ovoid, 48 µm long, 43 µm wide, with 11 µm long microtrichia. Notum 53 µm long.

Remarks. The digitiform projection of the third palpomere led to the placement of P. joaquimvenancioi   in Bryophaenocladius ( Messias & Oliveira 2000)   . Examination of the types, however, shows that the species belongs in Pseudosmittia Edwards   and is identical to P. digitata   described from the Caribbean ( Saether 1981). However, the situation is more complex. The types of P. digitata   were in bad shape. The illustrated male had lost the palp and other specimens were without legs etc. This revision has shown that the type material from St. Vincent and St. Lucia consists of two species, one with a digitiform projection on third palpomere and one without (Wang et al. 2005). The holotype belongs to the species without a projection, which receives the unfortunate name of P. digitata   , while the one with a digitiform projection is Pseudosmittia joaquimvenancioi (Messias et Oliveira)   .

Distribution and biology. The species apparently is widespread and common in the Neotropical Region. In Brazil it was collected in impacted areas including the Instituto Oswaldo Cruz Campus in Rio de Janeiro City and the Universidade de São Paulo Campus in Ribeirão Preto, as well as reared from cattle dung in Jaraguá do Sul in Santa Catarina State. In Venezuela it was collected in a cultivated area on the Universidad Central de Venezuela Campus in Maracay. In Costa Rica and Mexico it has also been taken in areas with lowland rainforest. The males often form dense swarms above vegetation during day time.

IOC

Colecao de Culturas de Fungos do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

ZMBN

Museum of Zoology at the University of Bergen, Invertebrate Collection

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Chironomidae

Genus

Pseudosmittia

Loc

Pseudosmittia joaquimvenancioi (Messias et Oliveira)

Andersen, Trond, Saether, Ole A. & Mendes, Humberto F. 2010
2010
Loc

Pseudosmittia joaquimvenancioi (Messias et Oliveira)

Wang, X. & Andersen, T. & Saether O. A. 2006: 19
2006
Loc

Bryophaenocladius joaquimvenancioi Messias et Oliveira, 2000: 189

Messias, M. C. & Oliveira, S. J. de 2000: 189
2000
Loc

Pseudosmittia digitata

Saether, O. A. 1981: 25
1981