Blakistonia aurea Hogg, 1902

Harrison, Sophie E., Rix, Michael G., Harvey, Mark S. & Austin, Andrew D., 2018, Systematics of the Australian spiny trapdoor spiders of the genus Blakistonia Hogg (Araneae: Idiopidae), Zootaxa 4518 (1), pp. 1-76: 20-26

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4518.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:708981EF-21DC-4DC2-B1CD-8CFF4373DA8C

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C10411-5544-FFDF-E1E8-FF66FE2DF8DF

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Plazi

scientific name

Blakistonia aurea Hogg, 1902
status

 

Blakistonia aurea Hogg, 1902  

( Figs 5 View FIGURE 5 A–L, 6A–I)

Blakistonia aurea Hogg, 1902: 132   , fig. 25B–E, pl. 13, figs 1–2. Simon, 1903: 903, figs 1051, 1056–1057. Rainbow & Pulleine, 1918: 104, pl. 13, fig. 8, pl. 14, fig. 6, pl. 15, fig. 7. Main, 1964: 30, figs A–G. Main, 1985: 40, figs 146– 157, 203–204, 211–212. Rix et al., 2017c: 586, figs 43, 45, 49–51.

Aganippe villosa Rainbow & Pulleine, 1918: 96   , pl. 21, fig. 44 (synonymised by Main, 1985: 40).

Type material (of B. aurea   ). AUSTRALIA: South Australia: male syntype, Lower North Road, Adelaide; 4 female syntypes, Blakiston and Mount Lofty Ranges (purportedly BMNH, SAM; presumed lost)   .

Type material (of A. villosa   ). AUSTRALIA: South Australia:   female holotype, Bridgewater (AMS KS6156; examined).

Material examined (exemplar specimens for descriptions and variation). AUSTRALIA: South Australia: 1 male, Valley View , 34°50’29”S, 138°39’41”E, 3 April 2013, hand collected, W. Chau ( SAM NN29564) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Echunga , 35°7’9S, 138°48’10”, 20 March 2015 ( SAM NN29623 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Moralana Drive, 31°43’06”S, 138°31’52”E, 4 May 2013, dug from burrow in dry grass paddock, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29577 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Maitland-Ardrossan Road, 34°23’21”S, 137°43’28”E, 6 May 2013, dug from burrow on dry verge next to paddock, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29590 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Pages Flat, off Pages Flat Road, 35°20’24”S, 138°31’37”E, 3 September 2013, dug from burrow on dry roadside with sparse grass, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29601 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Norton Summit, 34°55’04”S, 138°44’37”, 30 April 2015, dug from burrow in mossy clay bank, S.E. Harrison, N. Birks ( SAM NN29630 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Satsuma Crescent, Golden Grove , 34°46’56”S, 138°43’9”, 1 June 2015, hand drowned in water in tarpaulin, A.J. Lewis ( SAM NN29633 View Materials DNA); 1 male, Morgan, 34°2’7.12”S, 139°40’20”, 15 June 2015, hand wandering at night, M. Newton ( SAM NN29634 View Materials DNA)   ; 1 male, Pyap, Murray Mallee , 34°27’S, 140°29’40”E, 17 June 1991, hand collected from house verandah after rain, L.N. Nicolson ( SAM NN20078 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Mitcham, Adelaide Plains , 34°58’S, 138°37’E, 25 March 1979, hand collected at night under porchlight, R.V. Southcott ( SAM NN20047) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Weetootla Well, Balcanoona Creek, Flinders Ranges , 30°29’S, 139°13’E, 8 May 1989, pitfall, D. Hirst ( SAM NN20096) GoogleMaps   . Victoria: 1 male, Mildura , 34°32’S, 142°12’E, 23 July 1992, P. Hudson ( SAM NN20082) GoogleMaps   . New South Wales: 1 female, Eaglehawk Station , 32°21’S, 141°43’E, N. Birks ( SAM NN29615 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   .

Other material examined. AUSTRALIA: South Australia: GoogleMaps   1 male, Crystal Brook Golf Course, Mid- North   GoogleMaps , 33°21’S, 138°12’E, 12 April 1998, hand collected after rain, D. Hirst (SAM NN20006); 1 male, Crystal Brook Golf Course, Mid-North , 33°21’S, 138°12’E, 12 April 1998, hand collected after rain, D. Hirst ( SAM NN20007) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Windsor Gardens, Adelaide Plains , 34°52’S, 138°39’E, May 1994, D. Hirst ( SAM NN20009) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Crystal Brook Golf Course, Mid-North , 33°21’S, 138°12’E, 29 March 1991, dug from burrow, H. Kairl ( SAM NN20013) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Angaston, Mt Lofty Ranges , 34°30’S, 139°03’E, 23 March 1950 ( SAM NN20015) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Para Wirra National Park, North Oval , 34°42’40”S, 138°49’34”E, 25 April 1989, hand collected, dead, from Latrodectus hasseltii   web, D. Hirst ( SAM NN20016) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Para Hills, Adelaide Plains , 34°48’S, 138°39’E, 9 March 1982, hand collected from lounge room of house, T. Morley ( SAM NN20017) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Parafield Gardens, Adelaide, Adelaide Plains , 34°46’S, 138°36’E, 13 April 1972, hand collected from floor of house, J. Hall ( SAM NN20022) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Monarto, Murray Mallee , 35°04’S, 139°07’E, 23 May 1978, S. Gifford ( SAM NN20023) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Magill, Adelaide Plains , 34°54’S, 138°40’E, 4 May 1994, G. Davies ( SAM NN20024) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Adelaide, Adelaide Plains , 34°56’S, 138°36’E, March 1988, hand collected from swimming pool ( SAM NN20025) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Two Wells, Adelaide Plains , 34°35’S, 138°31’E, 1 April 1994, hand collected after light rain, J.A. Mcmara ( SAM NN20026) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Two Wells, Adelaide Plains , 34°35’S, 138°31’E, 1 April 1994, hand collected after light rain, J.A. Mcmara ( SAM NN20027) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Hawthorn, Adelaide Plains , 34°58’S, 138°36’E, 15 March 1985, S. Barker ( SAM NN20029) GoogleMaps   ; 3 males, Hawthorn, Adelaide Plains , 34°58’S, 138°36’E, 30 March 1988, S. Barker ( SAM NN20031–3 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Windsor Gardens, Adelaide Plains , 34°52’S, 138°39’E, 22 March 1989, D. Hirst ( SAM NN20034) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Magill, Adelaide Plains , 34°54’S, 138°40’E, May 1967, R. Briggs ( SAM NN20035) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Adelaide, St Peters College, Mt Lofty Ranges , 34°55’S, 138°40’E, 23 March 1953, D. McEwen and N. Birks ( SAM NN20038) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Blackwood, Mt Lofty Ra. , 35°01’S, 138°36’E, April 1967, hand collected from bathroom, Mrs Kenny ( SAM NN20039) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Wayville, Adelaide, Adelaide Plains , 34°56’S, 138°35’E, 2 July 2011 ( SAM NN20040) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Edwardstown, 12 Price Street, Adelaide Plains , 34°59’S, 138°34’E, 12 April 1989, D. Jones ( SAM NN20043) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Edwardstown, 12 Price Street, Adelaide Plains , 34°59’S, 138°34’E, 12 April 1989, D. Jones ( SAM NN20044) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Langhorne Creek , 35°25’S, 139°15’E, August 1997, R. Eckert ( SAM NN20050) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Mitcham, Adelaide Plains , 34°58’S, 138°37’E, 28 March 1984, hand collected wandering below porch light, R.V. Southcott ( SAM NN20051) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Mitcham, Adelaide Plains , 34°58’S, 138°37’E, 12 April 1978, R.V. Southcott ( SAM NN20052) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Blackwood, Mt Lofty Ranges , 35°01’S, 138°36’E, April 1967, hand collected from bathroom, Mrs Kenny ( SAM NN20060) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Blackwood, Mt Lofty Ranges , 35°01’S, 138°36’E, April 1967, hand collected from bathroom, Mrs Kenny ( SAM NN20061) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Old Boolcoomata, Olary Plains, 32°10’36”S, 140°18’04”E, August 1996, pitfall, North Olary Plains Survey , ( SAM NN20109) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Hawthorn, Adelaide Plains , 34°58’S, 138°36’E, 2 April 1981, found dead in swimming pool, S. Barker ( SAM NN20661) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Hawthorn, Adelaide Plains , 34°58’S, 138°36’E, 2 April 1981, found dead in swimming pool, S. Barker ( SAM NN20662) GoogleMaps   ; 5 males, Belair National Park, Mt Lofty Ranges , 35°01’S, 138°36’E, April 1967, hand collected from bathroom, Mrs Kenny ( SAM NN20678–52 View Materials ) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Adelaide Plains , 34°54’S, 138°37’E, 3 April 2004, S. Bishop ( SAM NN22302) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Tracy, Mid-North , 33°13’50”S, 139°02’34”E, 27 Oct–1 Nov 2003, pitfall, Mid North & Yorke Peninsula Survey ( SAM NN22401) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, Happy Valley, Mt Lofty Ranges , 35°04’S, 138°34’E, 11 May 2016, found wandering around while raining, M. Wilkinson ( SAM NN28533) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Hallett , 33°20’27”S, 138°54’10”E, 15 March 2013, dug from burrow dug from burrow in dry grass paddock, S.E. Harrison, J. Schofield ( SAM NN29556 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Teliqua Field Site, off Eastern Road, north east of Burra , 33°36’39”S, 138°59’14”E, 16 March, dug from burrow in dry grass paddock, S.E. Harrison, J. Clayton ( SAM NN29557 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, same data except 33°37’05”S, 138°59’17”E, 16 March ( SAM NN29558 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 2 females, same data except 33°36’58”S, 138°59’24”E, 15 March 2013, ( SAM NN29559 View Materials DNA, NN29560 DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 3 females, reserve off East Terrace, Adelaide CBD, 34°55’42”S, 138°37’02”E, 20 March 2013, dug from burrow in dry creek bank, S.E. Harrison, N. Birks ( SAM NN29561 View Materials DNA, NN29562 DNA, NN29563 DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 male, 14 Nanette Drive, Valley View , 34°50’29”S, 138°39’41”E, 3 April 2013, found in shed, W. Chau ( SAM NN29564) GoogleMaps   ; 2 females, on road to Mount Middleback, off Port Lincoln Highway, south west of Whyalla , 33°11’16”S, 137°15’13”E, 2 May 2013, dug from burrow near paddock fence in saltbush paddock, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29567 View Materials DNA, NN29568 DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 2 females, Pichi Richi Park, Pichi Richi Pass, Flinders Ranges , 32°25’46”S, 137°58’16”E, 3 May 2013, dug from burrow in dry grass, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29570 View Materials DNA, NN29571 DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Burnt Down Creek, Hilder Road, off Horrocks Highway , 32°24’51”S, 138°06’53”E, 3 May 2013, dug from burrow near creek bed, in dry grass/scrub, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29574 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Wilmington-Hammond Road, off Horrocks Highway , 32°36’33”S, 138°08’02”E, 3 May 2013, dug from burrow under gum trees on road verge, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29575 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Nectar Brook Road, off Main North Road , 32°37’02”S, 137°59’40”E, 3 May 2013, dug from burrow on rocky road verge next to dry grass paddock, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29576) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Moralana Scenic Drive, before Black Gap , 31°42’56”S, 138°31’45”E, 4 May 2013, dug from burrow under large gum trees, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29578 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Survey Road (dirt road between Melrose and Port Germein ), 32°50’48”S, 138°10’53”E, 5 May 2013, dug from burrow on dry creek bank in paddock under gumtree, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29579 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Lindsay Terrace, Kadina , 33°57’25”S, 137°43’07”E, 5 May 2013, dug from burrow on dry grassy verge, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29581 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Lindsay Terrace, Kadina , 33°57’25”S, 137°43’07”E, 5 May 2013, dug from burrow on dry grassy verge, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29583 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Hicky’s Drive, Coobowie , 35°01’42”S, 137°45’42”E, 6 May 2013, dug from burrow on dry verge next to paddock, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29584 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 3 juveniles, Saint Vincent Highway, Port Vincent , 34°46’44”S, 137°50’08”E, 6 May 2013, dug from burrow on dry verge next to paddock, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29587 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Arthurton Road , 34°21’58”S, 137°49’46”E, 6 May 2013, dug from burrow on dry verge next to paddock, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29588 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Honnor Road (off Minlaton-Maitland Road ), 34°23’52”S, 137°39’59”E, 7 May 2013, dug from burrow in dry grass paddock near fence, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29592 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Lake Fowler Road (at intersection of Edithbourgh Road and Yorketown Road ), 35°03’35”S, 137°38’45”E, 8 May 2013, dug from burrow in dry grass paddock near fence, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29593 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, on unnamed road from Port Moorowie toward Yorketown (extension of McEacherns Beach Road ), 35°04’24”S, 137°32’01”E, 8 May 2013, dug from burrow on dry verge next to paddock, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29594 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 3 females, 8 Whitewood Drive, Upper Sturt , 35°01’04”S, 138°41’26”E, 28 July 2013, dug from burrow on steep clay bank, S.E. Harrison, N. Birks ( SAM NN29596 View Materials DNA, NN29697 DNA, NN29798 DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 2 females, Pages Flat, off Pages Flat Road , 35°20’24”S, 138°31’37”E, 3 September 2013, dug from burrow on dry roadside with sparse grass, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29599 View Materials DNA, NN29600 DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Orroroo, off Orroroo-Peterborough Road , 32°44’12”S, 138°37’05”E, 12 November 2013, dug from burrow in mallee trees next to road, M.G. Rix, S.E. Harrison ( SAM NN29605 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 3 females, Beetaloo Reservoir , on road to entrance, near gate, 33°12’38”S, 138°13’34”E, 2 April 2014, dug from burrow in mossy, grassy bank, S.E. Harrison, M.S. Harvey ( SAM NN29608 View Materials DNA, NN29609 DNA, NN229610 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 3 females, Cobbler Creek , in reserve, 34°46’9”S, 138°40’21”E, 16 October 2014, dug from burrow in clay bank of Nature Reserve, A. Lewis ( SAM NN29611 View Materials DNA, NN29612 DNA, NN29613 DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Morphett Vale , 35°08’01”S, 138°31’4”E, 15 May 2013, hand collected in garden, N. Birks ( SAM NN29614 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 2 females, Black Hill Conservation Park , 34°51’46”S, 138°43’26”, 22 December 2014, dug from burrow in natural clay bank, S.E. Harrison, M.L. Harrison ( SAM NN29620 View Materials DNA, NN29621 DNA); 1 female, Antsey Hill Conservation Park, Lower North East Road, Horton, 34°50’28”S, 138°44’44”, 1 April 2015, dug from burrow in high rocky bank on side of road, S.E. Harrison ( SAM NN29624 View Materials DNA)   ; 1 female, 42–43 Lower North East Road, Houghton , 34°49’48”S, 138°45’34”, 1 April 2015, dug from burrow in very hard rocky bank, S.E. Harrison ( SAM NN29625 View Materials DNA); 2 females, Para Wirra Conservation Park, Yattalunga, 34°41’28”S, 138°49’30”, 1 April 2015, dug from burrow in clay bank, S.E. Harrison, B. Horton ( SAM NN29627 View Materials DNA, NN29628 DNA)   ; 1 juvenile, same data ( SAM NN29629 View Materials DNA)   ; 1 female, Teringie Drive, Norton Summit , 34°54’46”S, 138°42’35”, 30 April 2015, dug from burrow in driveway cutting, S.E. Harrison, N. Birks ( SAM NN29631 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Beetaloo reservoir, on road to entrance, near gate, 33°12’38”S, 138°13’34”E, 5 May 2014, dug from burrow in mossy, grassy bank, S.E. Harrison ( SAM NN29632); 1 female, Belair National Park, 35°00’18”S, 138°38’07”, 20 August 2015, dug from burrow in mossy bank on side of walking trail, S.E. Harrison, D. Stringer and A. Lewis ( SAM NN29637 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Brown Hill Conservation Park , 34°59’14”S, 138°39’11”E, 16 February 2016, dug from burrow in mossy bank on side of walking trail, S.E. Harrison, D. Bass ( SAM NN29640 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Mount Crawford Forest Reserve , 34°42’41”S, 138°55’57”E, 16 February 2016, dug from burrow in clay bank next to roadside, S.E. Harrison, M. Harrison ( SAM NN29641 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Kapunda , 34°20’28”S, 138°58’36”E, 2 December 2014, pulled out of burrow with optiscope, J. Clayton ( SAM NN29796 View Materials DNA) GoogleMaps   ; 1 female, Terowie , 33°15’28”S, 138°54’26”, 2 April 2013, dug from burrow, J. Clayton ( SAM NN29797 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Burra, 33°40’44”S, 138°57’43”E, 27 September 2014, pulled out of burrow with optiscope, J. Clayton ( SAM NN29798 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Tiliqua Reserve, 33°36’51”S, 138°59’8”E, 15 July 2013, dug from burrow, J. Clayton ( SAM NN29799 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Burra, 33°40’44”S, 138°57’43”E, 23 September 2013, dug from burrow, J. Clayton ( SAM NN29801 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Tiliqua Reserve, 33°36’51”S, 138°59’8”E, 15 July 2013, dug from burrow, J. Clayton ( SAM NN29802 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Burra, 33°40’44”S, 138°57’43”E, 27 September 2014, dug from burrow, J. Clayton ( SAM NN29803 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Kapunda, 33°20’28”S, 138°58’36”E, 2 December 2014, dug from burrow, J. Clayton ( SAM NN29804 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Jamestown, 33°16’6”S, 138°37’21”E, 23 February 2015, pulled out of burrow with optiscope, J. Clayton ( SAM NN29806 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Hallett, 33°20’9”S, 138°53’18”E, 18 July 2013, dug from burrow, J. Clayton ( SAM NN29807 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Baldina station, near Burra, 33°39’54”S, 139°2’2”E, 18 July 2013, dug from burrow, J. Clayton ( SAM NN29808 View Materials DNA); 1 male, Mallala, 34°27’S, 138°31’E, 1900 ( KS.43729); 1 male, Hawthorn, 29 Angas Road, 34°58’S, 138°36’E, 17 May 1969, S. Barker ( WAM T 141078 View Materials ); 2 males, Torrens Gorge, Adelaide, 34°51’S, 138°44’E, 20 March 1974, S. Barker ( WAM T 141079 View Materials ); 1 male, Hawthorn, 34°58’S, 138°36’E, 1 April 1983, S. Barker ( WAM T 141080 View Materials ); 3 males, Hawthorn, 34°58’S, 138°36’E, 1 April 1983, S. Barker ( WAM T 141081 –3 View Materials ); 1 male, Westbourne Park, 60 Monmouth Road, 34°58’S, 138°35’E, 4 August 1954, K. Main ( WAM T 141098 View Materials ); 1 male, Dublin, 34°27’S, 138°21’E, 16 May 1986, B.Y. Main ( WAM T 141105 View Materials ); 2 males, Hawthorn, 34°58’S, 138°36’E, 18 April 1986, S. Barker ( WAM T 141115 View Materials ). GoogleMaps   Victoria: 1 female, Chinkapook, off Pier-Millan-Chinkapook Road, 35°11’20”S, 142°56’16”E, 13 November 2013, dug from burrow in mallee woodland, M.G. Rix, S.E. Harrison ( SAM NN29606 View Materials DNA); 1 female, Meringur Flora and Fauna Reserve , N. of Meringur , 34°22’01”S, 141°20’04”E, 14 November 2013, dug from burrow in Casuarina   woodland, M.G. Rix, S.E. Harrison ( SAM NN29607 View Materials DNA). GoogleMaps  

Diagnosis. Males of B. aurea   can be distinguished from those of B. maryae   , B. plata   , B. birksi   , B. newtoni   , B. hortoni   , B. parva   , B. olea   , B. tariae   , B. carnarvon   and B. raveni   by the prolateral clasping spurs on tibia I, each with raised cuticular bases and bearing multiple terminal peg-like macrosetae ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 G–I); from those of B. bella   , by the absence of a dark dorsal cardiac stripe ( Fig. 5A View FIGURE 5 ); from those of B. pidax   , by the presence of thickened spine-like setae on the cymbium ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 J–L); from those of B. emmottorum   , by the square eye group ( Fig. 5D View FIGURE 5 ); from those of B. tunstilli   , by the spinules of the palpal tibia being similar to or only slightly shorter in length to those on the RTA ( Fig. 5J, L View FIGURE 5 ); and from those of B. gemmelli   , by the relatively long RTA (with the field of RTA spinules extending further onto the tibia) ( Fig. 5J View FIGURE 5 ), and by the moderate to weak abdominal pattern ( Fig. 5A View FIGURE 5 ). Females of B. aurea   can be distinguished from those of B. bassi   , B. mainae   , B. maryae   , B. wingellina   and B. nullarborensis   by the combined absence of a trapezoidal eye group ( Fig. 6D View FIGURE 6 ), the absence of golden hairs on the carapace and the absence of dark brown on the book lungs (in contrast to abdomen colour) ( Fig. 6C View FIGURE 6 ); from those of B. birksi   by abdominal chevrons being lighter brown (as opposed to chevrons being dark brown to black) ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ); and from those of B. maryae   by the presence of labial cuspules ( Fig. 6E, F View FIGURE 6 ).

All life stages of B. aurea   can also be distinguished from those of other species with sequence data except B. bassi   by the following nucleotide substitutions (n = 71 specimens): T(547), A or G(549); and from those of B. bassi   by the following nucleotide substitutions: T(68), T(102), C(199), T(216), A(255), G(264), T(336), C(339), A(367), T(426), G(433), C(462), C(470), T(479), G(520), C(535), G(546).

Description. Male (SAM NN29564). Medium-sized idiopid spider (total length 16.3).

Colour (in ethanol; Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 A–C): Carapace, legs and pedipalp golden-brown, with darker line between fovea and eye group ( Fig. 5A View FIGURE 5 ); sternum also, darker towards anterior margins; labium golden-brown, maxillae slightly darker yellow brown, chelicerae dark red-brown ( Fig. 5E, F View FIGURE 5 ); abdomen yellow-brown without noticeable chevron pattern ( Fig. 5A, C View FIGURE 5 ).

Cephalothorax: Carapace 7.4 long, 5.9 wide, 4.7 high, 1.3 times longer than wide; oval ( Fig. 5A View FIGURE 5 ), caput low, ocular area raised ( Fig. 5C View FIGURE 5 ); cuticle smooth, with pits outward from fovea and both sides of caput; fovea straight; row of thickened setae between fovea and eye group; carapace sparsely setose, with indistinct lines of setae radiating from fovea, concentrated and forming fringe on lateral margins; median clump of thickened setae on clypeus and both sides of eye group ( Fig. 5D View FIGURE 5 ). Length of median clypeus less than 1.0; anterior margin slightly convex. Eye group 1.1 wide, 1.1 long, 0.2 of carapace width; anterior eye row strongly procurved, PLE–PLE/ALE–ALE ratio 1.0; posterior eye row very slightly recurved; AME only slightly smaller than ALE and separated by about AME diameter; PLE only slightly larger than ALE and separated by just over about PLE diameter; PME pale, about half size of PLE, and separated from PLE by less than its own diameter ( Fig. 5D View FIGURE 5 ). Labium without cuspules ( Fig. 5F View FIGURE 5 ).Sternum 3.4 long, 2.8 wide, evenly setose; three pairs of faint sigilla ( Fig. 5E View FIGURE 5 ). Maxillae with 5 (left) and 7 (right) cuspules ( Fig. 5E, F View FIGURE 5 ).

Legs: diffusely setose and spinose on all surfaces; tarsi I, II slightly ventrally flattened; tarsi and distal metatarsi I, II scopulate ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 G–I). Paired tarsal claws with 1 row of ventral teeth: leg I p6 (6 large), r6 (6 large); leg II p5 (5 large), r5 (5 large); leg III p5 (5 large), r4 (4 large); leg IV r5 (5 large), r5 (5 large).

Spination: Tibia I with prolateral clasping spurs, distal-most spur with 2 terminal peg-like macrosetae, proximal-most with 3 terminal peg-like macrosetae ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 G–I); r3. Leg II: tibia p1; metatarsus p3; metatarsus p1, r4. Leg III: patella p3; tibia p2, r1; metatarsus p6, r9; tarsus p3, r5. Leg IV: tibia p1, r1; metatarsus p9, r2; tarsus p8, r5.

Leg and pedipalp measurements: Length of legs IV> I> II> III. Leg I: femur 6.2, patella 3.2, tibia 4.4, metatarsus 4.6, tarsus 2.7, total = 21.9. Leg II: femur 5.2, patella 2.7, tibia 3.7, metatarsus 4.5, tarsus 2.3, total = 18.4. Leg III: femur 6.2, patella 3.2, tibia 4.4, metatarsus 4.6, tarsus 2.7, total = 21.9. Leg IV: femur 6.2, patella 3.5, tibia 6.1, metatarsus 6.5, tarsus 3.4, total = 25.7. Pedipalp: femur 4.9, patella 2.1, tibia 3.3, tarsus 1.5, total = 11.8.

Pedipalp: Femur with dorsal spines, patella with thickened ventral setae; tibia short and swollen, RTA short and pointed, covered in short, dense spinules for just over half distance between base of apophysis and distal tibia; long, erect setae on ventral tibia; bulb uniform, globular; embolus simple, slender, tapering, tip noticeably twisted, just over length of bulb; cymbium covered with rows of short spinules, getting longer and denser on distal cymbium ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 J–L).

Abdomen: Setose, oval, 2 pairs of unsclerotised dorsal sigilla; 8.9 long, 5.7 wide ( Fig. 5A View FIGURE 5 ).

Variation (n=7): Carapace 4.8–7.6 long, 5.0–6.2 wide, no labial cuspules. Spination: Leg I: tibia r1–3, metatarsus r0–3. Leg II: tibia p1–2, r3–7; metatarsus p0–3, r3–8, tarsus r0–5. Leg III: patella p0–4; tibia p1–4, r–3; metatarsus p6–11, r5–12. Leg IV: tibia p0–2, r0–3; metatarsus p7–11, r3–8; tarsus p0–0, r1–5.

Female (SAM NN29623 DNA). Large idiopid spider (total length 19.4).

Colour (in ethanol; Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 A–C): Carapace, legs and pedipalp golden-brown, with darker line between fovea and eye group ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ); sternum golden-brown, darker towards anterior margins; labium as sternum, maxillae slightly darker yellow brown, chelicerae dark reddish brown ( Fig. 6E, F View FIGURE 6 ); abdomen yellowish brown with faint chevron pattern ( Fig. 6A, C View FIGURE 6 ); dorsal femur the darkest ( Fig. 6G, H View FIGURE 6 ).

Cephalothorax: Carapace 8.6 long, 7.2 wide, 7.2 high, 1.2 times longer than wide; oval ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ); caput moderately raised, ocular area flat ( Fig. 6C View FIGURE 6 ); cuticle uniformly smooth; fovea procurved; one row of thick setae between fovea and eye group; small, fine setae scattered very sparsely across carapace, concentrated and form very fine, indistinct fringe around lateral margins; median clump of thickened setae on clypeus ( Fig. 6D View FIGURE 6 ). Length of median clypeus less than 1.0; anterior margin slightly convex. Eye group 1.7 wide, 1.3 long, 0.2 of carapace width; anterior eye row strongly procurved, PLE–PLE/ALE–ALE ratio 1.1; posterior eye row straight; AME slightly smaller than ALE and separated by about ALE diameter; ALE and PLE separated by about twice the ALE diameter; PME pale, only slightly smaller than PLE, and separated from PLE by just less than its own diameter ( Fig. 6D View FIGURE 6 ). Labium with ca. 11 cuspules ( Fig. 6F View FIGURE 6 ).Sternum 5.1 long, 4.2 wide, moderately setose with setae densely grouper and longer around margins; 2 pairs of faint sigilla of similar side near posterior half of lateral margins ( Fig. 6E View FIGURE 6 ). Maxillae with ca. 44 (left) and 24 (right) cuspules ( Fig. 6E, F View FIGURE 6 ).

Legs: moderately setose and diffusely spinose, with retrolateral side of all legs being least setose and dorsal sides of III and IV with thick, dense, spine-like setae; distinct upright setae on metatarsi I, II; femora I, II, and pedipalp laterally bowed; tarsi and metatarsi I, II, and palpal tarsi heavily scopulate ( Fig. 6 View FIGURE 6 G–I). Paired tarsal claws: leg I p2 (1 large, 1 small) r0; leg II p2 (1 large, 1 small), r2 (1 large, 1 small); leg III p0, r0; right leg IV p2 (2 large), r0. Pedipalp claw with 2 large teeth.

Spination: Leg I: tibia p3, r4; metatarsus p2, r5; tarsus p2, r4 ( Fig. 6G, H View FIGURE 6 ). Leg II: tibia p2, r4; metatarsus p3, r7; tarsus p2, r4. Leg III: patella p5; tibia p6, metatarsus p7, r6; tarsus with ventral patch of 9 short spines. Right leg IV: metatarsus p7, r1; tarsus with 16 spines ventrally. Pedipalp: patella p1; tibia p6, r6; tarsus p3, r3.

Leg and pedipalp measurements: Length of legs IV> I> II> III. Leg I: femur 5.0, patella 3.4, tibia 3.0, metatarsus 2.3, tarsus 1.8, total = 15.5. Leg II: femur 4.5, patella 3.2, tibia 2.7, metatarsus 2.4, tarsus 1.9, total = 14.7. Leg III: femur 4.0, patella 3.1, tibia 2.6, metatarsus 2.7, tarsus 2.00, total = 14.4. Leg IV (right): femur 5.7, patella 4.0, tibia 4.8, metatarsus 4.2, tarsus 2.3, total = 21.0. Pedipalp: femur 4.5, patella 2.6, tibia 2.5, tarsus 3.4, total = 13.0.

Abdomen: Setose, oval, three pairs of unsclerotised dorsal sigilla; 10.8 long, 7.8 wide ( Fig. 6A View FIGURE 6 ).

Genitalia: Spermathecae paired, simple, unbranched, stout and outward facing, oval-shaped, covered in opaque mottled brown nodules ( Fig. 6I View FIGURE 6 ).

Variation (n=7): Carapace 6.3–9.9 long, 5.4–8.7 wide, 7–17 labial cuspules. Spination: Leg I: tibia p2–7, r4–7; metatarsus p2–4, r5–6; tarsus p1–2, r2–4. Leg II: tibia p0–2, r4–5; metatarsus p3–5, r5–7; tarsus p2–3, r4–7. Leg III: patella p3–5; tibia p1–6, r0–1; metatarsus p7–10, r1–4; tarsus with about 10–20 spines ventrally. Pedipalp: patella p0–1, r0–1; tibia p4–9, r5–7; tarsus p1–3, r1–4.

Distribution. Blakistonia aurea   has the broadest distribution of all species in the genus. It is found throughout the north-eastern Eyre Peninsula, the Yorke Peninsula, Flinders Ranges, Fleurieu Peninsula, and Mount Lofty Ranges, as well as western Victoria and far south-western New South Wales ( Fig. 30 View FIGURE 30 ).

Remarks. Blakistonia aurea   reaches a high population density in some areas around Adelaide and the Fleurieu Peninsula in optimal conditions. The preferred habitat is clay banks, and the spiders can often be found on roadside cuttings and creek banks. Males are often found after rain in swimming pools or wandering on verandas. The spiders build a characteristic thick D-shaped plug burrow ( Fig. 2 View FIGURE 2 A–C). Rainbow and Pulleine (1918) and Main (1985) observed that spiders sometimes construct a burrow with an unusual crenulated edge, simulating a clam-shell ( Fig. 2A View FIGURE 2 ). These populations were sampled and included in the molecular study, which confirmed that they did fall within B. aurea   , suggesting that this is a behavioural adaption to certain conditions. We have examined the holotype of Ag. villosa   and agree with its synonymy following Main (1985).

SAM

South African Museum

CBD

USF Center for Biological Defense

WAM

Western Australian Museum

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Idiopidae

Genus

Blakistonia

Loc

Blakistonia aurea Hogg, 1902

Harrison, Sophie E., Rix, Michael G., Harvey, Mark S. & Austin, Andrew D. 2018
2018
Loc

Aganippe villosa

Main, B. Y. 1985: 40
Rainbow, W. J. & Pulleine, R. H. 1918: 96
1918
Loc

Blakistonia aurea

Rix, M. G. & Raven, R. J. & Main, B. Y. & Harrison, S. E. & Austin, A. D. & Cooper, S. J. & Harvey, M. S. 2017: 586
Main, B. Y. 1985: 40
Main, B. Y. 1964: 30
Rainbow, W. J. & Pulleine, R. H. 1918: 104
Simon, E. 1903: 903
Hogg, H. R. 1902: 132
1902