Solanum nigrum L.

McQuate, Grant T. & Liquido, Nicanor J., 2013, Annotated World Bibliography of Host Fruits of Bactrocera latifrons (Hendel) (Diptera: Tephritidae), Insecta Mundi 2013 (289), pp. 1-61: 34-35

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Solanum nigrum L.


Solanum nigrum L.  

GRIN Nomen number: 310124

Family: Solanaceae  

Common Name: black nightshade (English), blackberry nightshade (English), common nightshade (English), ‘enab el-deeb (Arabic), erva-moura (Portuguese), hierba mora (Spanish), morelle noire (French), pimenta-de-galinha (Portuguese-Brazil), poisonberry (English), popolo (Hawaiian), rva-moura (Portuguese-Brazil), schwarzer Nachtschatten (German).

Native: AFRICA - Northern Africa: Algeria; Morocco; Tunisia; ASIA-TEMPERATE - Western Asia: Afghanistan; Iran; Lebanon; Syria; Turkey; Caucasus: Armenia; Azerbaijan; Georgia; Russian Federation - Ciscaucasia, Dagestan; Siberia   : Russian Federation - Altay, Western Siberia   ; Middle Asia: Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Tajikistan; Turkmenistan; Uzbekistan; China: China; ASIA-TROPICAL - Indian Subcontinent: northern India; Nepal; Pakistan; EUROPE - Northern Europe: Denmark; Finland; Ireland; Norway; Sweden; United Kingdom; Middle Europe: Austria; Belgium; Czechoslovakia; Germany; Hungary; Netherlands; Poland; Switzerland; East Europe: Belarus; Estonia; Latvia; Lithuania; Moldova; Ukraine [incl. Krym]; Southeastern Europe: Albania; Bulgaria; Former Yugoslavia; Greece; Italy; Romania; Southwestern Europe: France; Portugal; Spain.

Naturalized: AFRICA - Northeast Tropical Africa: Eritrea, Ethiopia; South Tropcal Africa: Angola; Malawi; Mozambique; Zambia; Zimbabwe; Southern Africa: Botswana; Namibia; South Africa - Eastern Cape, Free State, Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, North West, Northern Cape, Western Cape; Swaziland; ASIA-TEMPERATE - Arabian Peninsula: Yemen; ASIA-TROPICAL - Malesia: Papua New Guinea; AUSTRALASIA - Australia: Australia; New Zealand: New Zealand; NORTHERN AMERICA - Canada; Mexico; United States; PACIFIC - North-Central Pacific: United States - Hawaii; Northwestern Pacific: Guam; Southwestern Pacific: New Caledonia; SOUTHERN AMERICA - Mesoamerica: Central America; Southern South America: Chile.

Field Infestation: Allwood et al. 1999: From fruit collections in Peninsular Malaysia (1986 to 1988) and in East Malaysia (Sabah and Sarawak) and Thailand (1990 to 1994) B. latifrons   was recovered from 8 samples. No infestation rate data given.

Clarke et al. 2001: From 1986 to 1994, a total of 0.50 kg of infested fruits was collected in one region of Thailand (Chiang Mai). Collected fruits had an infestation rate of 384.9 B. latifrons   per kg of infested fruits. Flies identified by either R.A.I. Drew or D.L. Hancock.

Liquido et al. 1994: From July 1990 to October 1992, a total of 10,476 total fruits (2.64 kg) was collected on Hawaii Island. Bactrocera latifrons   was recovered from 14 of 69 collections (20.3%) with an overall infestation rate of 373.2 B. latifrons   per kg of fruit.

Mwatawala et al. 2009: Mostly after October 2006, a total of 5,920 fruits (2.90 kg) was collected in the Morogoro region of Tanzania. Bactrocera latifrons   was recovered from 9 out of 34 collections (26%) with an overall average infestation rate of 43.99 emerged adults per kg fruit.

Mziray et al. 2010b: From March 2007 to March 2008, a total of 4,785 fruits (2.02 kg) was collected from the Morogoro region of Tanzania. Bactrocera latifrons   was recovered in 21 of 44 collections (47.73%) with an overall infestation rate of 98.21 B. latifrons   per kg of fruit (136.7 flies per kg infested fruits).

Ramadan and Messing 2003: From January to February 1996, one collection of 70 fruits was made in Rattaphum, Thailand, from which 4 B. latifrons   adults were recovered.

Vargas and Nishida 1985a: From April to August 1984, a total of 935 fruits was collected from 2 locations on Oahu, Hawaii, from which 92 B. latifrons   puparia were recovered, with an overall infestation rate of 641 B. latifrons   per kg fruit.

Listing Only: Hawaii Department of Agriculture 2009; CAB International 1996; Vargas and Nishida 1985a; Vargas and Nishida 1991; Vargas et al. 1990; White and Elson-Harris 1992; Yong 1993.

Solanum nodiflorum Jacq.   , see Solanum americanum Mill.  

Solanum nutans Sessé and Moc.   , see Solanum dulcamaroides Poir.  

Solanum pierreanum Pailleux and Bois   , see Solanum aethiopicum L.