Amphiodia Verrill, 1899,

Alitto, Renata A. S., Bueno, Maristela L., Guilherme, Pablo D. B., Domenico, Maikon Di, Christensen, Ana Beardsley & Borges, Mic, 2018, Shallow-water brittle stars (Echinodermata: Ophiuroidea) from Araçá Bay (Southeastern Brazil), with spatial distribution considerations, Zootaxa 4405 (1), pp. 1-66: 31

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Amphiodia Verrill, 1899


Genus Amphiodia Verrill, 1899 

Type taxon. Amphiodia pulchella ( Lyman, 1869)  , originally described as Amphiura pulchella  .

Diagnosis. Disc with scales dorsally and ventrally. Radial shields contiguous for almost their entire length or separated proximally by up to four scales. Two lateral oral papillae, distal slightly larger, circular or triangular. One to two tentacle scales. Three to four arm spines, dorsal usually longer ( Verrill 1899a; Thomas 1962; Tommasi 1970).

Comments. Amphiodia  was described for some species of Amphiura  with different jaw characteristics ( Verrill 1899a). The number, shape, size, and distribution of lateral oral papillae were essential to assign an additional three groups to Amphiura  : Amphipholis  , Amphiodia  , and Amphioplus  . Except for Amphioplus  , which has three or more lateral oral papillae, the other genera only have two lateral oral papillae, whose shape and size differentiate them. Amphiura  has a buccal scale higher up on the jaw, Amphipholis  has a much-widened distal papilla, and Amphiodia  has a slightly larger distal papilla that may be circular or more triangular. Currently, 35 species are accepted in Amphiodia ( Stöhr et al. 2016)  , with five recorded from Brazil ( Barboza & Borges 2012): A. habilis Albuquerque, Campos-Creasey & Guille, 2001  , A. planispina (Von Martens, 1867)  , A. pulchella ( Lyman, 1869)  , A. riisei ( Lütken, 1859)  and A. trychna H. L. Clark, 1918  .