flowering,

Araújo, Diogo & Alves, Marccus, 2010, Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic Forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (northeastern Brazil), Phytotaxa 8, pp. 1-24: 5-12

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.8.1.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C3CA40-8711-FFC2-97A8-FA1BB9D71C0C

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

flowering
status

 

Key to the identification of the climbing plants of Igarassu based on flowering  material

Note that for species of the Sapindaceae  flowering plant family, fruiting characters are included as these are essential for identification to species.

1. Tendrils present, but not associated with the inflorescence.......................................................................................... 2

1. Tendrils not present, or where present unbranched .................................................................................................... 34

2. Leaves opposite............................................................................................................................................................. 3

2. Leaves alternate ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

3. Leaves simple ................................................................................................................................ Strychnos parviflora 

3. Leaves compound. ........................................................................................................................................................ 4

4. Branches of the inflorescence flattened in cross-section, the calyx spathe-like… .............. Phryganocydia corymbosa 

4. Branches of the inflorescence circular in cross-section, the calyx campanulate .......................................................... 5

5. Glands of the calyx 5, discoid, present on the calyx outer surface ( Fig. 2AView FIGURE 2); corolla yellow, anthers glabrous............ ........................................................................................................................................... Adenocalymma hypostictum 

5. Glands absent from the outer surface of the calyx; corolla red to pink, anthers hairy .......................... Lundia cordata 

6. Leaves simple or 1-foliolate compound........................................................................................................................ 7

6. Leaves compound and with more than one leaflet ..................................................................................................... 26

7. Flowers zygomorphic ................................................................................................................................................... 8

7. Flowers actinomorphic ................................................................................................................................................. 9

8. Basal third of the leaflet connate; bracts reniform; petal outer surface completely hairy ............... Phanera outimouta 

8. Basal two-thirds of the leaflets connate; bracts linear-lanceolate; petals outer surface hairy only along the midvein .. ..................................................................................................................................................... Phanera trichosepala 

9. Tendrils opposite the leaves ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3) ............................................................................................... Cissus verticillata 

9. Tendrils axillary to the leaves, either in the leaf sheath (appearing emergent from the petiole) or at the base of the inflorescence ( Fig. 3B, C, D, F, GView FIGURE 3) ............................................................................................................................. 10

10. Tendrils 2, at the apex of the leaf sheath (appearing emergent from the petiole, Fig. 3GView FIGURE 3) ................ Smilax syphilitica 

10. Tendril 1, in the leaf’s axils or borne at an acute angle to the petiole ( Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3) ........................................................ 11

11. Flowers unisexual ....................................................................................................................................................... 12

11. Flowers bisexual ......................................................................................................................................................... 17

12. Calyx urceolate ( Fig. 2BView FIGURE 2); stamens 2.......................................................................................................................... 13

12. Calyx infundibuliform or campanulate ( Fig. 2CView FIGURE 2); stamens 3 ..................................................................................... 15

13. Leaves 5-lobate; anthers straight ....................................................................................................... Psiguria umbrosa 

13. Leaves 1–3-lobate; anthers twice-folded from the base ............................................................................................. 14

14. Lobes of the calyx longer than the lobes of the corolla ................................................................... Gurania acuminata 

14. Lobes of the calyx shorter than the lobes of the corolla ................................................................... Gurania spinulosa 

15. Flowers solitary ............................................................................................................................ Momordica charantia 

15. Flowers borne in clusters (racemes) ........................................................................................................................... 16

16. Adaxial surface of the leaves with stiff recurved hairs; flowers grouped in lax, larger than 2cm long racemes, bearing more than 3 flowers ............................................................................................................................ Cayaponia tayuya 

16. Leaves glabrous; flowers grouped in congested, up to 2cm, racemes bearing less than 3 flowers ( Fig. 2DView FIGURE 2) ................ ..................................................................................................................................................... Melothria fluminensis 

17. Ovary inferior ....................................................................................................................................... Gouania virgata 

17. Ovary superior ............................................................................................................................................................ 18

18. Plant hairy; petals absent ................................................................................................................ Passiflora suberosa 

18. Plant glabrous; petals 5 ............................................................................................................................................... 19

19. Leaves entire ............................................................................................................................................................... 20

19. Leaves lobate .............................................................................................................................................................. 22

20. Flowers grouped in racemes; styles 4 .................................................................................................. Passiflora ovalis 

20. Flowers solitary or in pairs; styles 3 ........................................................................................................................... 21

21. Stem 4-angulate; petiole with 2–6 sessile glands ................................................................................. Passiflora alata 

21. Stem cylindrical; petiole with 2 stalked glands ............................................................................... Passiflora galbana 

22. Stems 2-angulate; leaves bearing 8–12 circular glands on the adaxial surface .................................. Passiflora misera 

22. Stems not angulate; leaves eglandular ........................................................................................................................ 23

23. Leaves 5-lobate ............................................................................................................................. Passiflora cincinnata 

23. Leaves 3-lobate ........................................................................................................................................................... 24

24. Petiole with 2 sessile glands ................................................................................................................ Passiflora edulis 

24. Petiole with 2–6 stalked glands .................................................................................................................................. 25

25. Apex of the leaves and stipules mucronate; bracts lanceolate, green… ..................................... Passiflora watsoniana 

25. Apex of the leaves and stipules truncate; bracts obovate, pink ..................................................... Passiflora edmundoi 

26. Tendrils opposite to the leaves ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3) .................................................................................................... Cissus erosa 

26. Tendrils in the axils of the leaves or at the base of the inflorescence ( Fig. 3B, C, D, F, GView FIGURE 3)....................................... 27

27. Flowers actinomorphic ............................................................................................................................................... 28

27. Flowers zygomorphic ................................................................................................................................................. 29

28. Calyx narrow in its length, geen, glabrous ........................................................................................ Psiguria triphylla 

28. Calyx wide at basis with narrowed entering, orange, hairy .......................................................... Gurania bignoniacea 

29. Fruit divided into three samaras.................................................................................................................................. 30

29. Fruit a simple capsule ................................................................................................................................................. 31

30. Sepals with velvety margin ( Fig. 2GView FIGURE 2) ....................................................................................... Serjania subimpunctata 

30. Sepals entirely glabrescent or glabrous ( Fig. 2HView FIGURE 2) ........................................................................ Serjania salzmaniana 

31. Fruit without wings ............................................................................................................................. Paullinia pinnata 

31. Fruit with wings.......................................................................................................................................................... 32

32. Fruit with one wing ................................................................................................................... Machaerium aculeatum 

32. Fruit with three wings ................................................................................................................................................. 33

33. Leaf margin entire; wings of the fruit obovate, apiculate ( Fig. 2EView FIGURE 2) ................................................ Paullinia racemosa 

33. Leaf margin dentate; wings of the fruit elliptical, not apiculate ( Fig. 2FView FIGURE 2) ......................................... Paullinia trigonia 

34. Leaves opposite or verticillate .................................................................................................................................... 35

34. Leaves alternate .......................................................................................................................................................... 50

35. Flowers grouped into a capitate compound inflorescence ................................................................... Mikania obovata 

35. Flowers grouped but not into a capitate compound inflorescences ............................................................................ 36

36. Nectariferous disk conspicuous, surrounding the ovary............................................................................................. 37

36. Nectariferous disk inconspicuous or absent............................................................................................................... 38

37. Plant with hairs that are rough to the touch .............................................................................. Prionostemma asperum 

37. Plant without hairs or with hairs that are not rough to the touch ................................................ Hippocratea vollubilis 

38. Petiole glandular, glands 2, discoid ............................................................................................................................ 39

38. Petiole glandular or eglandular, where glandular glands not discoid ......................................................................... 41

39. Glands 2 at the base of the petiole ( Fig. 2JView FIGURE 2) ............................................................................. Heteropterys nordestina 

39. Glands 2 at the apex of the petiole ( Fig. 2IView FIGURE 2) ............................................................................................................... 40

40. Surface abaxial of the leave hirsute ........................................................................................ Stigmaphyllon blanchetii 

40. Surface abaxial of the leave glabrous ...................................................................................... Stigmaphyllon salzmanii 

41. Stipules borne between the petioles ........................................................................................................ Sabicea grisea 

41. Stipules not borne between the petioles...................................................................................................................... 42

42. Flowers actinomorphic, the number of stamens more than double the number of petals ......................................... 43

42. Flowers zygomorphic, the number of stamens double, equal, or less than number of petals .................................... 48

43. Petiole twining; latex absent; stigma feather-like .................................................................................. Clematis dioica 

43. Petiole not twining; latex present; stigma not plumose .............................................................................................. 44

44. Plant glabrous ............................................................................................................................................................. 45

44. Plants hairy ................................................................................................................................................................. 46

45. Leaves oblong-elliptic; glands 2, broader at the base ( Fig. 2KView FIGURE 2) ................................................... Blepharodon nitidum 

45. Leaves obovate; glands 2,not broader at the base ( Fig. 2LView FIGURE 2) ................................................. Mandevilla moricandiana 

46. Glands absent from the leaf lamina ............................................................................................. Temnadenia odorifera 

46. Glands 2–6, borne on the leaf lamina ......................................................................................................................... 47

47. Glands 2–6, borne along the midvein ............................................................................................... Mandevilla scabra 

47. Glands 2–6, borne at the base of the midvein ( Fig. 2MView FIGURE 2) ................................................................... Matelea maritima 

48. Corolla with wholly distinct petals; stamens 10 ....................................................................... Niedenzuella acutifolia 

48. Corolla with wholly or partially fused petals; stamen 4 ............................................................................................ 49

49. Plant herbaceous; petiole winged; flowers orange ............................................................................. Thunbergia alata 

49. Plant woody; petiole not winged; flowers white ( Fig. 4I and JView FIGURE 4)… ......................................... Mendoncia blanchetiana 

50. Ochrea present ( Fig. 2NView FIGURE 2) ............................................................................................................. Coccoloba ochreolata 

50. Ochrea absent.............................................................................................................................................................. 51

51. Leaves compound ....................................................................................................................................................... 52

51. Leaves simple or compound unifoliolate.................................................................................................................... 71

52. Palms. Terminal leaflets reduced, stiff and hook-like ( Fig. 4AView FIGURE 4)................................................................................. 53

52. Not palms. Terminal leaflets not hook-like, foliaceus ................................................................................................ 54

53. Raphe unarmed, leaflets unarmed or sometimes armed with thorns at the base of the leaflets; apex of bracts covered in narrow thorns ( Fig. 4BView FIGURE 4) ..................................................................................................... Desmoncus orthacanthos 

53. Raphe and abaxial surface of the leaflets armed with stiff and twisted thorns; apex of bracts covered in pustular thorns ( Fig. 4CView FIGURE 4) ...................................................................................................................... Desmoncus polyacanthos 

54. Inflorescences opposite to the leaves.......................................................................................................... Cissus erosa 

54. Inflorescences never opposite to the leaves................................................................................................................ 55

55. Leaves digitate ............................................................................................................................. Merremia macrocalyx 

55. Leaves with 3 or more leaflets, never digitate ............................................................................................................ 56

56. Prickles or thorns present ................................................................................................................ Senegalia tenuifolia 

56. Prickles or thorns absent ............................................................................................................................................. 57

57. Calyx 2-lobate/divided................................................................................................................................................ 58

57. Calyx 4 or 5 lobed....................................................................................................................................................... 60

58. Surface abaxial of the leave glabrous ........................................................................................... Canavalia parviflora 

58. Surface abaxial of the leave glabrescent to pubescent................................................................................................ 59

59. Calyx lobes of differing lengths .................................................................................................. Canavalia braziliensis 

59. Calyx lobes of uniform length ......................................................................................................... Canavalia dictyota 

60. Calyx 5 lobed .............................................................................................................................................................. 61

60. Calyx 4 lobed ............................................................................................................................................................. 68

61. Calyx including a spur ................................................................................................................................................ 62

61. Calyx lacking a spur ................................................................................................................................................... 63 62. Stem cylindrical in cross-section; calyx lobes unequal in size, the larger lobe twice the length of the calyx tube, flowers lilac ................................................................................................................................ Centrosema pubescens 

62. Stem angulate in cross-section; calyx lobes equal in size, the lobes not twice the length of the calyx tube; flowers yellow ........................................................................................................................................... Centrosema plumieri 

63. Bracteole caducous; calyx campanulate ..................................................................................................................... 64

63. Bracteole persistent; calyx tubular.............................................................................................................................. 65

64. Stems bearing lenticels, glabrous; leaflets lanceolate .................................................................... Connarus blanchetii 

64. Stem lacking lenticels, hairy; leaflets ovate ............................................................................... Rynchosia pyramidalis 

65. Stigma straight ....................................................................................................................................... Clitoria falcata 

65. Stigma twisted............................................................................................................................................................. 66

66. Corolla wings conspicually larger than the standard ............................................................ Macropitilium prostratum 

66. Corolla wings never larger than the standard ............................................................................................................. 67

67. Plants glabrous; bracteoles stiff, adpressed to the rachis ........................................................................... Vigna luteola 

67. Plants hirsute; bracteoles membranaceous, free ..................................................................................... Vigna vexillata 

68. Lobes of the calyx of differingt lengths ( Fig. 4DView FIGURE 4) .............................................................................. Mucuna pruriens 

68. Lobes of the calyx of uniform length.......................................................................................................................... 69

69. Plants herbaceous ..................................................................................................................... Centrosema brazilianum 

69. Plants woody............................................................................................................................................................... 70

70. Stem hairy; calyx glabrous .................................................................................................................... Dioclea virgata 

70. Stem glabrous; calyx hairy .................................................................................................................. Dioclea violacea 

71. Flowers grouped in a flower-like inflorescence ......................................................................................................... 72

71. Flowers borne in racemes, panicles, glomerules or solitary ....................................................................................... 75

72. Flowers arranged into a capitate head .................................................................................... Cyrtocymura scorpioides 

72. Inflroescence protected by two bright involucral bracts, flowers not arranged into a capitulum.

73. Involucral bracts entire ( Fig 4EView FIGURE 4) ....................................................................................... Dalechampia convolvuloides 

73. Involucral bracts 3-lobate ........................................................................................................................................... 74

74. Stipules linear-subulate; seeds rough, dark-brown ( Fig 4FView FIGURE 4) .................................................. Dalechampia braziliensis 

74. Stipules reniform; seeds smooth, light-brown ( Fig 4FView FIGURE 4) .................................................. Dalechampia pernambucensis 

75. Flowers unisexual ....................................................................................................................................................... 76

75. Flowers bisexual ......................................................................................................................................................... 80

76. Hairs urticating; flowers of both sexes borne in the same inflorescence.................................................................... 77

76. Hairs not urticating, when present; male and female flowers borne in separate inflorescences ................................ 78

77. Leaves 5-veined .................................................................................................................................... Tragia volubilis 

77. Leaves 3-veined ................................................................................................................................ Tragia lessertiana 

78. Plants dioecious; nectariferous disk present; ovary inferior ........................................................ Dioscorea marginata 

78. Plants monoecious; nectariferous disk absent; ovary superior ................................................................................... 79

79. Leaves peltate; bracts cordate; stamens fused at their base, sessile ........................................ Cissampelos glaberrima 

79. Leaves not peltate; bracts filiform; stamens fused at their base, stalked ............................. Cissampelos andromorpha 

80. Flowers zygomorphic ................................................................................................................................................. 81

80. Flowers actninomorphic ............................................................................................................................................. 85

81. Perianth composed of distinct sepals and petals ......................................................................................................... 82

81. Perianth composed of tepals ....................................................................................................................................... 84

82. Papilionoid corolla ..................................................................................................................... Securidaca diversifolia 

82. Corolla not papilionoid ............................................................................................................................................... 83

83. Basal third of the leaflets connate; bracts reniform; petals hairy over their entire surface ............. Phanera outimouta 

83. Apical third of the leaflets connate; bracts linear-lanceolate; petals hairy along the midvein only ............................... ..................................................................................................................................................... Phanera trichosepala 

84. Pseudo-stipules reniform; lip (expanded part of corolla tube) smooth .................................... Aristolochia braziliensis 

84. Pseudo-stipules absent; lip (expanded part of corolla tube) papillose ........................................ Aristolochia papillaris 

85. Flowers with completely separate petals .................................................................................................................... 86

85. Flowers with the petals fused...................................................................................................................................... 89

86. Flowers borne in axillary or cauliflorous glomerules .................................................................. Doliocarpus dentatus 

86. Flowers borne in panicles or cymes............................................................................................................................ 87

87. Plant glabrous; inflorescences borne opposite to the leaves ............................................................. Cissus verticillada 

87. Plant with rough hairs; inflorescences terminal.......................................................................................................... 88

88. Sepals unequal, inner two larger than the outer three, surrounding the flowers ( Fig. 4HView FIGURE 4) ..................... Davilla aspera 

88. Sepals equal, not surrounding the flowers ...................................................................................... Tetracera breyniana 

89. Flowers solitary .............................................................................................................................. Operculina altissima 

89. Flowers grouped in inforescences............................................................................................................................... 90 90. Stigma globose............................................................................................................................................................ 91

90. Stigma oblong ............................................................................................................................................................. 96

91. Leaves pinnatifid.............................................................................................................................. Ipomoea quamoclit 

91. Leaves entire to 3–5 lobed .......................................................................................................................................... 92

92. Leaves sagitate; sepals with liguliform appendix on their inner surface.......................................... Ipomoea bahiensis 

92. Leaves never sagitate; sepals without an appendix on their inner surface ................................................................. 93

93. Leaves 3–5-lobed; sepals corniculate ............................................................................................ Ipomoea hederifolia 

93. Leaves entire; sepals not corniculate .......................................................................................................................... 94

94. Leaves and sepals glabrous................................................................................................................. Ipomoea obscura 

94. Leaves and sepals hairy to velvety ............................................................................................................................. 95

95. Leaves elliptic; hairs golden .......................................................................................................... Bonamia maripoides 

95. Leaves cordate; hairs white.................................................................................................................... Ipomoea martii 

96. Plants velvety, hairs stellate ........................................................................................... Jacquemontia menispermoides 

96. Plants glabrous to glabrescent, where glabrescent the hairs simple ............................................... Merremia umbelata