fruiting,

Araújo, Diogo & Alves, Marccus, 2010, Climbing plants of a fragmented area of lowland Atlantic Forest, Igarassu, Pernambuco (northeastern Brazil), Phytotaxa 8, pp. 1-24: 12-15

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.8.1.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C3CA40-871E-FFC7-97A8-FD90B9D01A8C

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

fruiting
status

 

Key to the identification of the climbing plants of Igarassu based on fruiting  material

1. Tendrils present, but not associated with the inflorescence.......................................................................................... 2

1. Tendrils absent, or where present just a simple branch .............................................................................................. 34

2. Leaves opposite............................................................................................................................................................. 3

2. Leaves alternate ............................................................................................................................................................ 6

3. Leaves simple ................................................................................................................................ Strychnos parviflora 

3. Leaves compound ......................................................................................................................................................... 4

4. Leaflets bearing two dark glands at their base, branches of the inflorescence flattened in cross-section ...................... ............................................................................................................................................. Phryganocydia corymbosa 

4. Leaflets without dark glands, branches of the inflorescence cylindrical in cross-section ............................................ 5

5. Fruits oblongoid, seeds not winged ................................................................................... Adenocalymma hypostictum 

5. Frutis elongated, seeds winged .............................................................................................................. Lundia cordata 

6. Leaves simple or 1-foliolate compound........................................................................................................................ 7

6. Leaves compound and with more than one foliole..................................................................................................... 26

7. Tendrils hook-like ......................................................................................................................................................... 8

7. Tendrils twining ............................................................................................................................................................ 9

8. Basal third of the leaflet connate; fruit indehiscent ..................................................................... Phanera trichosepala 

8. Basal two-thirds of the leaflets connate; fruit dehiscent .................................................................. Phanera outimouta 

9. Tendrils axillary to the leaves ..................................................................................................................................... 10

9. Tendril not axillary to the leaves................................................................................................................................. 19

10. Fruits winged, grouped in short (<20cm) racemes ............................................................................... Gouania virgata 

10. Fruits berries, solitary, in pairs or long (> 20cm) racemes .......................................................................................... 11

11. Leaves entire ............................................................................................................................................................... 12

11. Leaves 2- or more lobbed ........................................................................................................................................... 14

12. Fruits grouped in racemes up to 1.5 m in length ................................................................................. Passiflora ovalis 

12. Fruits solitary or in pairs............................................................................................................................................. 13

13. Stem 4-angulate in cross-section; petiole with 2-6 sessile glands ........................................................ Passiflora alata 

13. Stem cylindrical in cross-section; petiole with 2 stalked glands ..................................................... Passiflora galbana 

14. Leaves 5-lobbed ............................................................................................................................ Passiflora cincinnata 

14. Leaves 2- or 3-lobbed ................................................................................................................................................. 15

15. Mature fruits never more than 15mm long ................................................................................................................. 16

15. Mature fruits always more than 15mm long ............................................................................................................... 17

16. Stem hairy, flattened in cross-section ................................................................................................. Passiflora misera 

16. Stem glabrous, cylindrical in cross-section .................................................................................... Passiflora suberosa 

17. Petiole with two sessile glands ............................................................................................................ Passiflora edulis 

17. Petiole with 2-6 stalked glands ................................................................................................................................... 18

18. Apex of the leaves and stipules mucronate ................................................................................. Passiflora watsoniana 

18. Apex of the leaves and stipules truncate ........................................................................................ Passiflora edmundoi 

19. Tendrils opposite to the leaves ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3) ........................................................................................... Cissus verticillata 

19. Tendrils in the leaf sheath, at the basis of the inflorescence, or forming an acute angle with petiole ( Fig. 3B, C, D, F, GView FIGURE 3) ................................................................................................................................................................................ 20

20. Tendrils two, in the apex of the leaf sheath ( Fig. 3GView FIGURE 3) ....................................................................... Smilax syphilitica 

20. Tendril solitary, in the leaf’s axils, forming an acute angle with the petiole or at the basis of the inflorescence ( Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3) .............................................................................................................................................................................. 21 21. Leaves glabrous .......................................................................................................................................................... 22

21. Leaves hairy................................................................................................................................................................ 23

22. Latex watery; seeds arilate................................................................................................................. Psiguria umbrosa 

22. Latex absent; seeds without an aril .............................................................................................. Melothria fluminensis 

23. Mature fruits green or yellow striped ......................................................................................................................... 24

23. Mature entirely yellow to orange................................................................................................................................ 25

24. Petioles to 3 cm long; leaves scabrous on the adaxial surface.......................................................... Gurania spinulosa 

24. Petioles to 15 cm long; leaves pubescent on the adaxial surface..................................................... Guranis acuminata 

25. Mature fruit orange, dehiscent; seeds red .................................................................................... Momordica charantia 

25. Mature fruit yellow (rarely red), indehiscent; seeds white ................................................................ Cayaponia tayuya 

26. Tendrils borne opposite to the leaves ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3).......................................................................................... Cissus erosa 

26. Tendrils borne in the axils of the leaves or at the basis of the inflorescence ( Fig. 3B, C, D, F, GView FIGURE 3)............................ 27

27. Fruits fleshy ................................................................................................................................................................ 28

27. Fruits dry..................................................................................................................................................................... 32

28. Leaves with 2 or 3 foliolules....................................................................................................................................... 29

28. Leaves with more than 3-foliolules ............................................................................................................................ 30

29. Plants glabrous; fruits solitary ........................................................................................................... Psiguria triphylla 

29. Plants pubscent to scrabous; fruit borne in racemes ..................................................................... Gurania bignoniacea 

30. Fruits without wings ........................................................................................................................... Paullinia pinnata 

30. Fruit 3-winged............................................................................................................................................................. 31

31. Leaf margin entire; wings of the fruit obovate, apiculate................................................................ Paullinia racemosa 

31. Leaf margin dentate; wings of the fruit elliptical, not apiculate ........................................................ Paullinia trigonia 

32. Stem flattened in cross-section; leaves pinnate ........................................................................ Machaerium aculeatum 

32. Stem cylindrical in cross-section; leaves 3-foliolate or ternate .................................................................................. 33

33. Fruit divided into three oblong-winged samaras ....................................................................... Serjania subinpunctata 

33. Fruit divided into three ovate-winged samaras............................................................................ Serjania salzmaniana 

34. Leaves opposite or verticillate .................................................................................................................................... 35

34. Leaves alternate .......................................................................................................................................................... 48

35. Stipules borne between the petioles........................................................................................................ Sabicea grisea 

35. Stipules not borne between the petioles...................................................................................................................... 36

36. Plants hairy ................................................................................................................................................................. 37

36. Plants glabrous............................................................................................................................................................ 42

37. Latex present............................................................................................................................................................... 38

37. Latex absent ................................................................................................................................................................ 40

38. Glands absent from the leaf limb ................................................................................................. Temnadenia odorifera 

38. Glands present on the leaf limb .................................................................................................................................. 39

39. Leaves scabrous, glands 2-6, distributed along the midvein ............................................................ Mandevilla scabra 

39. Leaves not scabrous, glands 2-6 grouped at the base of the midvein ................................................ Matelea maritima 

40. Leaf covered with long fine hairs; fruit divided into 3 samaras ........................................... Stigymaphyllon blanchetii 

40. Leaf covered with short thick hairs............................................................................................................................. 50

41. Fruit a 3-valved capsule; seeds winged .................................................................................... Prionostemma asperum 

41. Fruits grouped into a capitate compound infrutescence ...................................................................... Mikania obovata 

42. Fruit winged ................................................................................................................................................................ 43

42. Fruit not winged.......................................................................................................................................................... 45

43. Wings less than three times the length of the fruit.................................................................... Niendenzuela acutifolia 

43. Wings as long as or longer than three times the length of the fruit ............................................................................ 44

44. Wings oblong-falcate ( Fig. 2JView FIGURE 2) ................................................................................................ Heteropterys nordestina 

44. Wings asymmetrically obovate ( Fig. 2IView FIGURE 2) ................................................................................. Stigmaphyllon salzmanii 

45. Stigma feather-like................................................................................................................................. Clematis dioica 

45. Stigma not feather-like................................................................................................................................................ 46

46. Fruit a 3-carpelar capsule; seeds winged .................................................................................... Hippocratea vollubilis 

46. Fruit a berry or a 2-carpelar capsule; seeds not winged ............................................................................................. 47

47. Fruit a capsule, 2-carpelar................................................................................................................... Thunbergia alata 

47. Fruit a berry ............................................................................................................................ Mendoncia blanchetiana 

48. Ochrea present ( Fig. 2NView FIGURE 2) ............................................................................................................. Coccoloba ochreolata 

48. Ohcrea absent.............................................................................................................................................................. 49

49. Leaves compound ....................................................................................................................................................... 50

49. Leaves simple or compound unifoliolate.................................................................................................................... 69

50. Palms. Terminal leaflets reduced, stiff and hook-like ( Fig. 4AView FIGURE 4)................................................................................. 51 50. Not palms. Terminal leaflets not hook-like, foliaceus ................................................................................................ 52

51. Raphe unarmed, leaflets unarmed or sometimes armed with thorns at the basis of the leaflets; apex of bracts covered in narrow thorns ( Fig. 4BView FIGURE 4) ..................................................................................................... Desmoncus orthacanthos 

51. Raphe and abaxial surface of the leaflets armed with stiff and twisted thorns; apex of bracts covered in pustular thorns ( Fig. 4CView FIGURE 4) ...................................................................................................................... Desmoncus polyacanthos 

52. Inflorescences opposite to the leaves .......................................................................................................... Cissus erosa 

52. Inflorescences never opposite to the leaves................................................................................................................ 53

53. Leaves digitate ............................................................................................................................. Merremia macrocalyx 

53. Leaves with 3 or more leaflets, never digitate ............................................................................................................ 54

54. Prickles or thorns present ................................................................................................................ Senegalia tenuifolia 

54. Prickles or thorns absent ............................................................................................................................................. 55

55. Calyx persistent, 2-lobed ............................................................................................................................................ 56

55. Calyx persistent, 4 or 5 lobed ..................................................................................................................................... 58

56. Abaxial surface of the leave glabrous ........................................................................................... Canavalia parviflora 

56. Abaxial surface of the leave glabrescent to pubescent ............................................................................................... 57

57. Calyx lobes of unequal lengths ................................................................................................... Canavalia braziliensis 

57. Calyx lobes of equal lengths ............................................................................................................ Canavalia dictyota 

58. Calyx 5 lobed .............................................................................................................................................................. 58

58. Calyx 4-lobed.............................................................................................................................................................. 66

59. Calyx including a spur ................................................................................................................................................ 60

59. Calyx lacking a spur ................................................................................................................................................... 61

60. Stem cylindrical; calyx lobes unequal in size, the larger lobe twice the length of the calyx tube.................................. ................................................................................................................................................... Centrosema pubescens 

60. Stem angulate; calyx lobes of equal size ...................................................................................... Centrosema plumieri 

61. Bracteole caducous; calyx campanulate ..................................................................................................................... 62

61. Bracteole persistent; calyx tubular.............................................................................................................................. 63

62. Stems bearing lenticels, glabrous; leaflets lanceolate; calyx persistent in fruit ............................. Connarus blanchetii 

62. Stem lacking lenticels, hairy; leaflets ovate; calyx not persistent ............................................. Rynchosia pyramidalis 

63. Seeds more than ten per fruit ................................................................................................... Macroptilum prostratum 

63. Seeds 4-6 per fruit....................................................................................................................................................... 64

64. Legume obtusely quadrangular; seeds spherical ................................................................................... Clitoria falcata 

64. Legume oblong to linear ............................................................................................................................................. 65

65. Plants glabrous; bracteoles stiff, adpressed to the rachis ........................................................................... Vigna luteola 

65. Plants hirsute; bracteoles membranaceous, free ..................................................................................... Vigna vexillata 

66. Lobes of the calyx of unequal length ( Fig. 4DView FIGURE 4); fruit with urticating hairs… .................................... Mucuna pruriens 

66. Lobes of the calyx of equal length; fruit without urticating hairs .............................................................................. 67

67. Plants herbaceous ..................................................................................................................... Centrosema brazilianum 

67. Plants woody............................................................................................................................................................... 68

68. Stem hairy; calyx glabrous .................................................................................................................... Dioclea virgata 

68. Stem glabrous; calyx hairy .................................................................................................................. Dioclea violacea 

69. Fruits grouped in a flower-like inflorescence ............................................................................................................. 70

69. Fruits borne in racemes, panicles, glomerules or solitary........................................................................................... 73

70. Fruits arranged into a capitate compound inflorescence ....................................................... Cyrtocymura scorpioides 

70. Fruits protected by two persistent, bright involucral bracts, not arranged into a capitulum ...................................... 71

71. Involucral bracts entire ( Fig 4EView FIGURE 4) ....................................................................................... Dalechampia convolvuloides 

71. Involucral bracts 3-lobed ............................................................................................................................................ 72

72. Stipules linear-subulate; seed rough, dark-brown ( Fig 4FView FIGURE 4) ................................................... Dalechampia brasiliensis 

72. Stipules reniform; seeds smooth, light-brown ( Fig 4FView FIGURE 4) .................................................. Dalechampia pernambucensis 

73. Plant bearing urticating hairs; fruit a 3-lobed capsule; a single seed per locule......................................................... 74

73. Plant not bearing urticating hairs; fruit 3-lobed or not, where 3-lobed more than one seed per locule ..................... 75

74. Leaves 5-veined ..................................................................................................................................... Tragia volubilis 

74. Leaves 3-veined ................................................................................................................................. Tragia lessertiana 

75. Fruit solitary................................................................................................................................................................ 76

75. Fruit borne in racemes, panicles or glomerule............................................................................................................ 77

76. Pseudo-stipules reniform ......................................................................................................... Aristolochia brasiliensis 

76. Pesudo-stipules absent .............................................................................................................. Aristolochia pappillaris 

77. Fruit a pod................................................................................................................................................................... 78

77. Fruit not a pod............................................................................................................................................................. 79

78. Apical third of the leaflets connate; bracts linear-lanceolate ....................................................... Phanera trichosepala 

78. Basal third of the leaflets connate; bracts reniform ......................................................................... Phanera outimouta 

79. Fruits winged .............................................................................................................................................................. 80

79. Fruits not winged ........................................................................................................................................................ 81

80. Fruits 3-winged; seeds numerous, flattened ................................................................................. Dioscorea marginata 

80. Fruits 1-winged; one seed per fruit, spherical ............................................................................ Securidaca diversifolia 

81. Fruits fleshy ................................................................................................................................................................ 82

81. Fruits dry..................................................................................................................................................................... 84

82. Fruits born in a cime, opposite to the leaves ....................................................................................... Cissus verticilata 

82. Fruits born in caulinar or terminal racemes ................................................................................................................ 83

83. Leaves peltate; bracts cordate .................................................................................................. Cissampelos glaberrima 

83. Leaves no peltate; bracts filiform ........................................................................................ Cissampelos andromorpha 

84. Stems not releasing latex when cut............................................................................................................................. 85

84. Stems releasing white or colourless latex when cut ................................................................................................... 86

85. Sepals persistent, unequal, internal 2 bigger than the external 3, surrounding the fruit ( Fig. 4HView FIGURE 4); seeds with a white aril ............................................................................................................................................................ Davila aspera 

85. Sepals persistent, equal in size, not surrounding the fruit; seeds without a white aril ............................................... 87

86. Fruits solitary ................................................................................................................................. Operculina altissima 

86. Fruits grouped in infrutescences ................................................................................................................................. 88

87. Fruits born in terminal racemes ...................................................................................................... Tetracera breyniana 

87. Fruits born in axillary or cauliflorous glomerules ....................................................................... Doliocarpus dentatus 

88. Leaves pinatifid ................................................................................................................................ Ipomoea quamoclit 

88. Leaves entire to 5-lobed.............................................................................................................................................. 89

89. Leaves sagitate; inner surface of sepals with liguliform appendix ................................................... Ipomoea bahiensis 

89. Leaves never sagitated; inner surface of sepals without appendix ............................................................................. 90

90. Leaves 3–5-lobed; sepals ............................................................................................................... Ipomoea hederifolia 

90. Leaves entire; sepals not corniculate .......................................................................................................................... 91

91. Leaves and sepals glabrous......................................................................................................................................... 92

91. Leaves and sepals hairy .............................................................................................................................................. 93

92. Fruits irregulary dehiscent; seeds triangular ................................................................................... Merremia umbelata 

92. Fruits regulary dehiscent; seeds with two surfaces flat, one convex .................................................. Ipomoea obscura 

93. Fruits 4-valved, each valve dividing into two ................................................................ Jacquemontia menispermoides 

93. Fruits 4-valved, valves not subdividing upon opening............................................................................................... 94

94. Leaves elliptic; hairs golden .......................................................................................................... Bonamia maripoides 

94. Leaves cordate; hairs white .................................................................................................................... Ipomoea martii