Tetralycosa Roewer, 1960

Framenau, Volker W. & Hudson, Peter, 2017, Taxonomy, systematics and biology of the Australian halotolerant wolf spider genus Tetralycosa (Araneae: Lycosidae: Artoriinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 335, pp. 1-72 : 15-17

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https://doi.org/ 10.5852/ejt.2017.335

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Tetralycosa Roewer, 1960


Tetralycosa Roewer, 1960 View in CoL View at ENA

Tetralycosa Roewer, 1960: 949 View in CoL ,

type species Lycosa meracula Simon, 1909 , by original designation (considered a junior synonym of Tetralycosa oraria (L. Koch, 1876) View in CoL by Framenau et al. 2006). The gender is feminine.


Males of Tetralycosa differ from other lycosid genera within the Artoriinae by the combination of the following characters: tegular apophysis originating apically on tegulum and basally curved, opposing an apico-medially directed pointy (lobed in T. halophila sp. nov.) protrusion on the retrolateral section of the tegulum; basal lobe of tegular apophysis present; terminal apophysis forms a shaft for the resting embolus; female epigyne variable: with a wide median septum that displays an inverted T-shaped dark central pattern, or a round to oval opening with anterior notch.

Putative sister groups of Tetralycosa are Kangarosa Framenau, 2010 and Diahogna Roewer, 1960 . The genital morphology within these two genera is very similar to Tetralycosa ; however, the tegular apophysis of the male pedipalp is not curved, but is more or less straight. The female epigyne in both genera forms a small open atrium in comparison with Tetralycosa with its distinct median septum or large round to oval opening. Somatic characters shared by the Kangarosa , Diahogna and some species of Tetralycosa include the arrangement of the eyes, in particular the length of the anterior row of eyes that is as wide or wider than the posterior median row of eyes. Our phylogeny ( Fig. 4A View Fig ) suggest Kangarosa to be the sistergroup of Tetralycosa based on the absence of a median band on the carapace (character 4). However, only a single species of Kangarosa and Diahogna were included in our analyses, which focused on establishing intrageneric relationships within Tetralycosa .


Small to large wolf spiders (TL 4.5–22.5 mm). Males smaller than females. Carapace longer than wide, dorsal profile straight in lateral view ( oraria -group) ( Fig. 6A View Fig ), or with an elevated cephalic region and downward slope towards posterior end ( alteripa - and eyrei -groups) ( Fig. 15A View Fig ). Head flanks in frontal view a gentle slope ( oraria -group) or nearly vertical ( alteripa - and eyrei -groups). Carapace colouration variable from uniform light yellowish-brown ( T. arabanae , T caudex sp. nov.), brown with median and marginal bands (e.g., T. wundurra comb. nov., alteripa -group) to uniformly dark brown ( eyrei -group). Anterior median eyes larger than anterior lateral eyes (except in T. rebecca sp. nov.), row of anterior eyes wider or as wide ( oraria -group) or smaller ( alteripa - and eyrei -groups) than row of posterior median eyes; row of anterior eyes straight, procurved or strongly procurved. Chelicerae generally with three promarginal and three retromarginal teeth, but two to four teeth on individual chelicerae possible on both margins. Labium generally as wide as or wider than long (except in T. caudex sp. nov., male T. adarca sp. nov. and male and female T. halophila sp. nov.). Abdomen generally with olive-grey heart mark, auxiliary colouration variable. Leg formula variable between species and sexes of the same species, leg I or leg III shortest (except in T. caudex sp. nov., leg II shortest). Femora I generally with three dorsal spines (rarely two or four), patella in males generally with prolateral and retrolateral spine (reduced in most females), tibiae of males generally with two dorsal spines (rarely none or only one).

Tegulum of male pedipalp deeply divided. Tegular apophysis located apically at tegulum, basally curved and opposing an apico-medially directed pointy protrusion on the retrolateral section of the tegulum. Tegular apophysis with a basal lobe. Embolus originating prolaterally on and curving ventrally around palea, long and slim. Basoembolic apophysis an unsclerotised lobe. Terminal apophysis well developed and forming a sclerotised shaft for the resting embolus. Cymbium tip without or only a few macrosetae. Female epigyne variable with a wide median septum sometimes only partially visible behind the sclerotised margins of the epigyne, which only leave a round or oval opening. Small round or oval spermathecal heads. Spermathecal stalks short and twisted.


The type species of Tetralycosa is Lycosa meracula Simon, 1909 , which was recently synonymised with T. oraria ( Framenau et al. 2006) . Lycosa meracula as illustrated by ( McKay 1979 a) represented material of two different but closely related species of Costacosa Framenau & Leung, 2013 , a member of the subfamily Lycosinae ( Framenau & Leung 2013) .

Tetralycosa belongs to the subfamily Artoriinae Framenau, 2007 that also includes Anoteropsis L. Koch, 1878 , Artoria Thorell, 1877 , Artoriopsis Framenau, 2007 , Diahogna Roewer, 1960 , Lycosella Thorell, 1890 , Notocosa Vink, 2002 , and Syroloma Simon, 1900 , an undescribed genus listed in Murphy et al. (2006) as ‘New Genus 1’ ( Framenau 2007), and Kangarosa Framenau, 2010 ( Framenau 2010) . It may also include the Argentine genera Lobizon Piacentini & Grismado 2009 and Navira Piacentini & Grismado, 2009 ; however, the placement of these genera within the subfamily remains contentious ( Piacentini & Grismado 2009).

A putative synapomorphy of this subfamily is the presence of the basoembolic apophysis on the male pedipalp. The monophyly of this subfamily is not only supported by the similar genital morphology, but also molecular data ( Murphy et al. 2006).

The following taxonomic treatment groups the species into (in this order) the oraria -, alteripa - and eyrei - groups to facilitate comparison of similar species. Within each group, the species are in alphabetical order with the exception of T. oraria , the type species of the genus, which is treated first.












Tetralycosa Roewer, 1960

Framenau, Volker W. & Hudson, Peter 2017


Roewer C. F. 1960: 949
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