Tetralycosa oraria ( L . Koch, 1876 )

Framenau, Volker W. & Hudson, Peter, 2017, Taxonomy, systematics and biology of the Australian halotolerant wolf spider genus Tetralycosa (Araneae: Lycosidae: Artoriinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 335, pp. 1-72: 17-23

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2017.335

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:EFCD2BD0-D70E-4A9B-8EEA-FE86EDC66F57

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3850608

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C687C8-FFF4-182A-9573-9F62B361C40F

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Tetralycosa oraria ( L . Koch, 1876 )
status

 

Tetralycosa oraria ( L. Koch, 1876)  

Figs 1 View Fig E–F; 5A–D; 6A–G; 9

Lycosa oraria Koch, 1876: 883–886   , pl. 76, figs 2, 2a, 3, 3a.

Lycosa candicans Koch, 1877: 888–890   , pl. 76, figs 5, 5a, 6, 6a–b. Synonymy established in Framenau et al. (2006).

Lycosa sibyllina Simon, 1909: 188–189   , fig. 7. Synonymy established in McKay (1979b).

Lycosa meracula Simon, 1909: 190–191   . Synonymy established in Framenau et al. (2006).

Lycosa oraria   – Simon 1909: 188. — Rainbow 1911: 270. — Bonnet 1957: 2656.

Lycosa candicans   – Rainbow 1911: 266. — Hickman 1950: 5. — Bonnet 1957: 2637.

Lycosa sibyllina   – Rainbow 1911: 272.

Lycosa meracula   – Rainbow 1911: 270. — McKay 1985: 80. — Platnick 1989: 372. — Moritz 1992: 320.

Crocodilosa oraria   – Roewer 1955: 238.

Tetralycosa meracula   – Roewer 1955: 296; 1960: 949. — Rack 1961: 38.

Hogna sibyllina   – Roewer 1955: 253.

Trochosula candicans   – Roewer 1955: 304.

Trochosomma oraria   – Roewer 1960: 847.

Ocyale oraria   – McKay 1973: 380.

Lycorma meracula   – McKay 1973: 380.

Trochosa candicans   – McKay 1973: 381; 1979b: 293–294, fig. 4e; 1985: 85. — Platnick 1989: 390.

Trochosa oraria   – McKay 1979b: 279–282, fig. 1a–h; 1985: 86. — Platnick 1989: 391; 1993: 510.

Tetralycosa oraria   – Framenau et al. 2006: 26 –27, fig. 58.

non Lycosa meracula   – McKay 1979a: 264, fig. 9a–k: misidentification; not L. meracula   but two species in the genus Costacosa Framenau & Leung, 2013   ( Framenau & Leung 2013).

Diagnosis

Tetralycosa oraria   is very similar to T. orariola   sp. nov. In particular the female genitalia are indistinguishable and separating both species is easiest by the colouration of the carapace. The lateral light bands of T. oraria   are wide, although sometimes irregular, and run straight along the carapace margin. In contrast, the light bands in T. orariola   sp. nov. are narrow and separated from the carapace margins by narrow dark bands. T. oraria   is overall larger than T. orariola   sp. nov., but sizes overlap.

The wide and light marginal bands of the carapace are similar to those of T. wundurra   comb.nov., however, both species differ in their genital morphology. The embolus of the male pedipalp in T. wundurra   comb. nov. is very broad narrowing abruptly at more than three quarters length into a slim tip, whereas it is of similar width along its whole length and twisted apically in T. oraria   . The median septum of the epigyne of T. oraria   has a distinct bridge with parallel borders, which is not present in T. wundurra   comb. nov.

Type material

AUSTRALIA: syntypes of Lycosa oraria L. Koch, 1876   , unknown number of ♂♂ and ♀♀, King George Sound (35°02′ S, 117°56′ E, Western Australia), Bradley Collection (L. Koch, 1876). Considered lost ( Framenau 2005b) (not examined).

AUSTRALIA: holotype of Lycosa sibyllina Simon, 1909   , ♀, Albany (35°01′ S, 117°53′ E, Western Australia), 13/22 Aug. and 10 Oct. 1905, W. Michaelsen and R. Hartmeyer leg., ‘ Hamburger südwestaustralische Forschungsreise’, Station 165 ( ZMB 11102 View Materials ) (examined). GoogleMaps  

AUSTRALIA: lectotype (designated here) of Lycosa meracula Simon, 1909   , ♂, Albany (35°01′ S, 117°53′ E, Western Australia), 13/22 Aug. and 10 Oct. 1905, W. Michaelsen and R. Hartmeyer leg., ‘Hamburger südwest-australische Forschungsreise’, Station 165 ( MHNP 24364) (examined).

AUSTRALIA: syntypes (paralectotypes) of Lycosa meracula Simon, 1909   , 1 immature ♀, Denham (25°55′ S, 113°32′ E, Western Australia), 9–11 Jun.1905, W. Michaelsen and R. Hartmeyer leg., ‘Hamburger südwest-australische Forschungsreise’, Station 65 ( ZMB 11085 View Materials ) (examined); 1 juvenile, same data ( ZMH, Rack (1961) -catalogue 466) (examined); 1 juvenile, same data ( WAM 11/4303) (examined) (None of the three immature syntypes are conspecific with the male type from Albany ( Framenau et al. 2006)).

Other material examined

AUSTRALIA, New South Wales: 1 ♀, with spiderlings, Batemans Bay, 35°42′ S, 150°11′ E ( MV K8157); 1 ♂, Eden, 37°03′ S, 149°54′ E ( WAM T62653 View Materials ); 2 ♂♂, Nadgee Beach, 37°25′ S, 149°58′ E ( AM KS2266, KS50159); 1 ♂, Richmond Beach, 35°42′ S, 150°18′ E ( ANIC). – South Australia: 1 ♀, Baird Bay, 33°06′ S, 134°18′ E ( WAM T65045 View Materials ); 1 ♀, Bald Hill Beach, Port Wakefield, 34°15′ S, 138°10′ E ( SAM NN13934); 1 ♂, Charlton Gully, 34°33′ S, 135°47′ E ( SAM NN13861); 1 ♀, 1 ♀ with egg sac, 3 juvs, Deep Lake, Innes National Park, 35°16′ S, 136°51′ E ( SAM NN13850–1); 2 ♀♀, Edithburg, Yorke Peninsula, 35°05′ S, 137°44′ E ( WAM T56654 View Materials ); 1 ♂, Emu Bay, Kangaroo Island, 35°38′ S, 137°32′ E ( SAM NN13840); 2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, Flinders Island, Eyre Peninsula, 33°43′ S, 134°31′ E ( SAM NN13854–7); 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, 3 juvs, Lake Greenly, 34°20′ S, 135°25′ E ( SAM NN13858–60); 3 ♂♂, Mt Rough, 12.1 km NNE of Mt Rough, Watervalley, 36°15′52″ S, 139°54′55″ E ( SAM NN13440–2); 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, Policeman Point, Coorong, 36°04′ S, 139°35′ E ( SAM NN13842–4); 1 ♂, 3 juvs, Port Lincoln, 34°43′ S, 135°51′ E ( AM KS85107); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Port McDonnell, 38°03′ S, 140°42′ E ( SAM NN13841); 1 ♀, Port Victoria, 34°30′ S, 137°29′ E ( SAM NN13852); 1 ♀, Reevesby Island, 34°31′ S, 136°16′ E ( MV K7813); 9 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀, Salt Lagoon, Kangaroo Island, 35°50′24″ S, 137°38′32″ E ( SAM NN13443– 5, NN13830–8); 1 ♀, Sinclairs Gap, salt lake nearby, 33°07′ S, 137°03′ E ( SAM NN13928); 2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, 1 ♀ with spiderlings, St Kilda Boat Barbour, Adelaide, 34°44′ S, 138°32′ E ( QM S61135 View Materials –6); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 juv., Stokes Bay, Kangaroo Island, 35°37′ S, 137°12′ E ( SAM NN13839, QM S66329 View Materials ); 1 ♀, Thistle Island, 34°58′ S, 136°07′ E ( QM S61137 View Materials ); 1 ♀, Thistle Island, Eyre Peninsula, 35°00′ S, 136°10′ E ( SAM NN13853); 1 ♀, 1 juv., Troubridge Point, 35°09′30″ S, 137°40′00″ E ( SAM NN13849); 3 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Victor Harbour, W of jetty to Granite Island, 35°33′ S, 138°38′ E ( SAM NN13845–8); 1 ♀, Whyalla, sewerage ponds, 33°03′ S, 137°35′ E ( SAM NN13865). – Tasmania: 4 ♂♂, 1 ♀, 5 juvs, Adventure Bay, Bruny Island, 43°17′ S, 147°17′ E ( QM S66330 View Materials ); 3 ♀♀, 2 juvs, Brooks Creek, 41°18′ S, 144°44′ E ( QVMAG 13:44304–5); 2 ♀♀, Chain of Lagoons, East Tasmania, 41°40′ S, 148°17′ E ( QVMAG 13:11118); 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, Clarke Island, 40°32′ S, 148°10′ E ( QVMAG 13:25911, 13:25923); 1 ♀, 6 juvs, Darlington Beach, Maria Island, 42°37′ S, 148°05′ E ( TMAG J3513); 2 ♂♂, Deal Island, 39°28′ S, 147°19′ E ( MV K7810); 3 ♂♂, 1 ♀, 3 juvs, Eaglehawk Neck, 43°01′ S, 147°55′ E ( QM S66331 View Materials –2); 1 ♀, Flinders Island, Whitemark, 40°07′S, 148°01′ E ( TMAG J650); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 2 juvs, Hobbs Lagoon, 42°15′ S, 147°40′ E ( QM S66327 View Materials ); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Lauderdale, 42°54′ S, 147°29′ E ( WAM T53669 View Materials ); 1 ♀, Pass River, King Island, 39°48′ S, 143°52′ E ( QVMAG 13:44306); 2 ♂♂, Preservation Island, Furneaux Group, 40°28′ S, 148°03′ E ( TMAG J1141); 2 ♀♀, Sandspit Point, Schouten Island, 42°17′ S, 148°15′ E ( TMAG J1660–1); 1 ♀, Strahan, 42°09′ S, 145°19′ E ( AM KS85104); 3 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, Wynyard, Table Cape, 40°59′ S, 145°43′ E ( QM S66328 View Materials ). – Victoria: 1 ♂, no exact location ( MV K7809); 1 ♂, Cockatoo, 37°57′ S, 145°29′ E ( MV K8133); 1 ♂, Grey River, Otway Ranges, 38°41′ S, 143°50′ E ( AM KS85106); 1 ♀, Mornington, 38°13′ S, 145°02′ E ( MV K8154); 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀, Point Cook, 37°54′ S, 144°45′ E ( MV K9088); 1 ♀, Werribee, 37°59′ S, 144°33′ E ( MV K9104). – Western Australia: 1 ♀, Anvil Island, Recherche Archipelago, 33°30′ S, 123°58′ E ( WAM T62359 View Materials ); 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Australind, 33°16′ S, 115°43′E ( WAM 71/360–2); 1 ♀, Busselton, 33°38′ S, 115°20′ E ( AM KS85105); 1 ♂, City Beach, near rifle range, 31°56′ S, 115°45′ E ( WAM T53654 View Materials ); 1 ♂, E of Culham Inlet, 33°59′ S, 120°03′ E ( WAM 98/2150); 4 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Dingo Beach, Torbay, 35°05′ S, 117°38′ E ( QM W5649, W5651); 1 ♀, Dirk Hartog Island, 25°44′ S, 113°01′ E ( WAM T53817 View Materials ); 15 ♂♂, 9 ♀♀, Dongara, 29°14′ S, 114°55′ E ( WAM 71/ 1666–75, 71/1697–709, 71/1801); 1 ♀, 1 juv., Drummond Cove, via Geraldton, 28°39′ S, 114°36′ E ( QM W5643); 1 ♀, Esperance District, 33°51′ S, 121°53′ E ( MV K8145); 1 ♂, 4 ♀♀, 10 juvs, Fitzgerald River Inlet, 34°08′ S, 119°24′ E ( WAM 70/3800–14, 71/642); 1 ♀, Fremantle, North Mole, 32°03′ S, 115°44′ E ( WAM 70/217); 1 ♂, Fremantle, Obelisk Hill, 32°03′ S, 115°44′ E ( ZMB 10583 View Materials ); 1 ♀, Garden Island, 32°12′ S, 115°40′ E ( WAM 69/844); 3 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, 1 juv., Geraldton, 28°46′ S, 114°37′ E ( WAM 71/1690–5); 1 ♂, Goode Beach, Albany, 35°04′ S, 117°56′ E ( WAM T53653 View Materials ); 3 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, Guilderton, 31°21′04″ S, 115°29′52″ E ( WAM T53393 View Materials –7); 1 ♀ with spiderlings, Guilderton, Moore River, 31°20′ S, 115°30′ E ( WAM 71/1993); 1 ♀, 1 juv., Gun Island, South Group, Houtman Abrolhos, 28°53′ S, 113°51′ E ( WAM 71/1667–7); 3 ♀♀, Lancelin Island, 31°0′ S, 115°19′ E ( WAM 71/771–3); 1 ♂, Leeman Swamp, 29°56′27″ S, 114°59′50″ E ( WAM T93541 View Materials ); 1 ♀, Mettams Pool, 31°52′ S, 115°45′ E ( WAM T56531 View Materials ); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Middle Island, Recherche Archipelago, 34°06′ S, 123°11′ E ( WAM T69946 View Materials ); 4 ♂♂, 7 ♀♀, 1 juv., North Island, Houtman Abrolhos, 28°43′ S, 113°47′ E ( WAM 71/ 1680–85, 71/1802–5, 71/1991–2, 71/1994); 1 ♀, Point Malcolm, 33°47′ S, 123°45′ E ( WAM T51432 View Materials ); 2 ♂♂, Post Office Island, South Group, Houtman Abrolhos, 28°52′ S, 113°58′ E ( WAM 71/1678–9); 2 ♂♂, 1 ♀, Quarantine Bay, 37°03′ S, 149°52′ E ( WAM T64979 View Materials ); 1 ♂, 1 ♀, Rossiter Bay, Cape Le Grand National Park, 33°58′21″ S, 122°16′13″ E ( WAM T93994 View Materials ); 1 ♀ with egg sac, Rottnest Island, 32°00′ S, 115°36′ E ( WAM T47247 View Materials ); 1 ♂, Safety Bay Foreshore Reserve, 32°18′ S, 115°43′ E ( WAM T65111 View Materials ); 1 ♂, Shelly Beach, 35°02′ S, 116°44′ E ( WAM T53495 View Materials ); 3 ♂♂, South Cottesloe Beach, 31°59′ S, 115°45′ E ( WAM T65606 View Materials ); 2 ♀♀, Two Peoples Bay, 34°57′ S, 118°11′ E ( WAM T51431 View Materials , T53692 View Materials ); 1 ♀, Windy Harbour, back beach, 34°50′ S, 116°01′ E ( WAM 72/251).

Description

MEASUREMENTS. ♂ WAM T53697 View Materials (♀ WAM T53393 View Materials ): TL 8.25 (12.30), CL 4.50 (5.10), CW 3.45 (4.13). Eyes: AME 0.21 (0.21), ALE 0.17 (0.18), PME 0.38 (0.41), PLE 0.33 (0.37). Row of eyes: AE 0.93 (1.05), PME 0.93 (1.05), PLE 1.23 (1.54). Sternum length/width: 1.95/1.65 (2.25/1.88). Labium length/ width: 0.58/0.60 (0.72/0.79). AL 2.85 (6.75), AW 4.2 (5.1). Legs: Lengths of segments (femur + patella/ tibia + metatarsus + tarsus = total length): Pedipalp 1.95+1.65+ – +1.25 = 4.85, I 3.60+4.50+3.30+1.80 = 13.20, II 3.75+4.65+3.75+2.25 = 14.4, III 3.38+3.83+3.60+1.65 = 12.46, IV 4.20+4.95+4.65+1.95 = 15.75 (Pedipalp 2.25+2.10+ – +1.35= 5.70, I 3.60+4.35+2.70+1.65 = 12.30, II 3.60+4.20+2.85+1.65 = 12.30, III 3.45+3.90+3.30+1.58 = 12.23, IV 4.50+5.10+4.35+1.95 = 19.90).

VARIATION. ♂ (♀) (range, mean ± SD): TL 6.75–9.45, 8.35 ± 0.82; CL 3.75–4.95, 4.55 ± 0.39; CW 2.85– 4.05, 3.55 ± 0.46; n = 9 (TL 9.75–14.25, 11.26 ± 1.35; CL 4.05–6.45, 5.04 ± 0.77; CW 3.15– 5.03, 3.98 ± 0.64; n = 13). Tetralycosa oraria   is very variable in colouration. Some specimens are extremely light without a distinct colour pattern; others are dark olive-grey with light bands ( Fig. 1 View Fig E–F). It appears that the particular microhabitat (for example dark seaweed vs plain beach) may explain the colour patterns of individual specimens (see also McKay 1979b). There also appears to be some intraspecific morphological variation in leg length and eye position, as McKay (1979b) reported a different leg formula (IV>I>II>III) and relative length of the anterior row of eyes and posterior median eyes.

Male (based on WAM T53397 View Materials )

CARAPACE ( Fig. 5A View Fig ). Dorsal line straight in lateral view ( Fig. 6A View Fig ); brown with indistinct and irregular light colouration medially and broad, irregular light marginal bands; indistinct darker radial pattern; covered with mainly brown setae, but white setae in marginal bands; very few brown bristles in eye region mainly between PME; four long bristles below AE; one long bristle between AME.

EYES ( Fig. 6B View Fig ). Row of AE as wide as row of PME; row of AE slightly procurved ( Fig. 6B View Fig ).

CHELICERAE. Brown, darker apically; covered with long white setae and few brown bristles medially; three promarginal teeth with the median largest; three retromarginal teeth of similar size.

STERNUM ( Fig. 5B View Fig ). Yellow-brown, with dark pigmentation towards the margins; covered with few white setae and longer brown macrosetae that are longer towards margins.

LABIUM. Brown, basally dark brown; front end truncate and white.

PEDIPALPS ( Fig. 6 View Fig C–E). Tegular apophysis broad with a basally pointing tip ( Fig. 6C View Fig ); terminal apophysis forms sheath for the resting embolus; embolus long and thin with curved tip ( Fig. 6E View Fig ).

ABDOMEN. Dorsally dark olive-brown with light lanceolate heart mark in anterior half; few irregular light patches formed by fields of lighter setae; otherwise covered in brown setae ( Fig. 5A View Fig ). Ventrally yellowbrown with some mottled olive-grey discolouration and with white and fewer brown setae. Spinnerets yellow-brown ( Fig. 5B View Fig ).

LEGS. Leg formula IV>II>I>III. Femora yellow, distal segments darker; weak scopula on tarsus I. Spination of leg I: femur: three dorsal, one apicoprolateral; patella: one prolateral; tibia: three ventral pairs, two prolateral, two retrolateral; metatarsus: three ventral pairs, two prolateral, two retrolateral, one apicoventral, one apicoprolateral.

Female (based on WAM T53393 View Materials )

CARAPACE ( Fig. 5C View Fig ). Brown, indistinct narrow light median band and wide marginal bands; covered with white setae and few black setae anteriorly of fovea; brown bristles in and around eye region; four long bristles below AME, one long bristle between AME.

EYES. Row of AE as wide as row of PME; row of AE slightly procurved.

CHELICERAE. Colour, setae and dentition as male.

STERNUM ( Fig. 5D View Fig ). Yellow-brown and somewhat darker marginally; setae as male.

LABIUM. As male.

ABDOMEN. Dorsally yellow-brown with indistinct light lanceolate heart mark; setae as male but with grey setae on dark patches ( Fig. 5C View Fig ). Venter and spinnerets yellow-brown with little darker pigmentation ( Fig. 5D View Fig ).

EPIGYNE. Ventral view ( Fig. 6F View Fig ): ovoid median septum with curved posterior border. Dorsal view ( Fig. 6G View Fig ): small spermathecal heads, convoluted spermathecal stalks attach posteriorly.

LEGS. Leg formula IV>I=II>III. Colour pattern as male. Spination of leg I: femur: two dorsal, one apicoprolateral; tibia: three ventral pairs, two prolateral (only one on left leg); metatarsus: three ventral pairs, two prolateral; one retrolateral (only on left leg), one apicoventral.

Remarks

An adult male syntype of Lycosa meracula   was only recently discovered in the MHNP resulting in reevaluation of the juvenile type material of this species that was examined by McKay (1979a) ( Framenau et al. 2006). The species illustrated as L. meracula   by McKay ( McKay 1979a) is not conspecific with the male syntype of L. meracula   from Albany. The material included two closely related coastal species in the genus Costacosa ( Framenau & Leung 2013)   . To fix the taxonomic concept of T. meracula   , the male from Albany (MHNP 24364) is here designated as lectotype.

Life history and habitat preferences

Tetralycosa oraria   is an exclusively coastal species inhabiting sandy beaches and the base of sand dunes on the foreshore. Adult spiders of T. oraria   can be found all year round and do not seem to have a clear seasonal pattern for reproduction, as females with egg sacs and spiderlings have been found from December to February, but also in July and October.

Distribution

Coastal mainland Australia south of approximately 25°S latitude, and Tasmania, although a few records are from further inland, if saline wetlands are found near the beach ( Fig. 9 View Fig ).

L

Nationaal Herbarium Nederland, Leiden University branch

MHNP

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle Perpignan

ZMB

Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)

ZMH

Zoologisches Museum Hamburg

WAM

Western Australian Museum

MV

University of Montana Museum

AM

Australian Museum

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

SAM

South African Museum

QM

Queensland Museum

TMAG

Tasmanian Museum and Art Gallery

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Lycosidae

Genus

Tetralycosa

Loc

Tetralycosa oraria ( L . Koch, 1876 )

Framenau, Volker W. & Hudson, Peter 2017
2017
Loc

Trochosa oraria

Platnick N. I. 1993: 510
Platnick N. I. 1989: 391
McKay R. J. 1979: 279
1979
Loc

Lycosa meracula

McKay R. J. 1979: 264
1979
Loc

Ocyale oraria

McKay R. J. 1973: 380
1973
Loc

Lycorma meracula

McKay R. J. 1973: 380
1973
Loc

Trochosa candicans

Platnick N. I. 1989: 390
McKay R. J. 1979: 293
McKay R. J. 1973: 381
1973
Loc

Trochosomma oraria

Roewer C. F. 1960: 847
1960
Loc

Crocodilosa oraria

Roewer C. F. 1955: 238
1955
Loc

Tetralycosa meracula

Rack G. 1961: 38
Roewer C. F. 1960: 949
Roewer C. F. 1955: 296
1955
Loc

Hogna sibyllina

Roewer C. F. 1955: 253
1955
Loc

Trochosula candicans

Roewer C. F. 1955: 304
1955
Loc

Lycosa candicans

Bonnet P. 1957: 2637
Hickman V. V. 1950: 5
Rainbow W. J. 1911: 266
1911
Loc

Lycosa sibyllina

Rainbow W. J. 1911: 272
1911
Loc

Lycosa meracula

Moritz M. 1992: 320
Platnick N. I. 1989: 372
McKay R. J. 1985: 80
Rainbow W. J. 1911: 270
1911
Loc

Lycosa sibyllina

Simon E. 1909: 189
1909
Loc

Lycosa meracula

Simon E. 1909: 191
1909
Loc

Lycosa oraria

Bonnet P. 1957: 2656
Rainbow W. J. 1911: 270
Simon E. 1909: 188
1909
Loc

Lycosa candicans

Koch L. 1877: 890
1877
Loc

Lycosa oraria

Koch L. 1876: 886
1876
Loc

Tetralycosa oraria

Framenau et al. 2006: 26