Balacha nigroflava, Quintas & Takiya & Cavichioli & Mejdalani, 2020

Quintas, Victor, Takiya, Daniela M., Cavichioli, Rodney R. & Mejdalani, Gabriel, 2020, Two new species of Balacha (Insecta: Hemiptera: Cicadellidae: Cicadellinae) from Brazil with comments on their phylogenetic position and biogeography, Zootaxa 4878 (3), pp. 542-558: 548-552

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Balacha nigroflava

sp. nov.

Balacha nigroflava   sp. nov.

( Figs 18 View FIGURES 17–20 and 21–37 View FIGURES 21–26 View FIGURES 27–37 )

Length. Male holotype 5.8 mm, male paratypes damaged (n = 2), female paratypes 6.7 mm (n = 2).

Head ( Figs 18 View FIGURES 17–20 and 21 View FIGURES 21–26 ), in dorsal view, well produced anteriorly, median length of crown approximately fourfifths of interocular width and two-fifths of transocular width; anterior margin, in dorsal view, subangulate, without carina at transition from crown to face; ocelli located behind imaginary line between anterior angles of compound eyes, each ocellus closer to adjacent anterior eye angle than to median line of crown; coronal surface without sculpturing or setae; frontogenal suture extending onto crown to near ocellus. Antennal ledge, in dorsal view, not protuberant, not carinate dorsally; in lateral view, with anterior margin almost rectilinear and vertical. Frons convex; muscle impressions distinct; epistomal suture incomplete; clypeus not protuberant, in profile continuing contour of frons superiorly and more nearly horizontal inferiorly.

Thorax ( Figs 18 View FIGURES 17–20 and 21 View FIGURES 21–26 ) with pronotal width less than transocular width of head; lateral margins of pronotum parallel, posterior margin emarginated; dorsolateral carina incomplete; disc with transverse striae on posterior half. Mesonotum with scutellum slightly transversely striate. Forewing coriaceous, without distinct apical membranous area; veins not elevated, distinct only on area of apical cells. Hind leg with femoral setal formula 2:1:1; length of first tarsomere greater than combined length of two more distal tarsomeres; with two parallel rows of small setae on plantar surface.

Color ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 17–20 ). Dorsum dark brown to black. Antennal ledge with basal portion brown. Pronotum with broad, greenish-yellow transverse stripe. Forewing with three conspicuous greenish-yellow markings: (1) transverse transcommissural stripe on basal portion of clavus, originating at claval sulcus; (2) oblique stripe on basal half of corium, adjacent to claval sulcus and connected to claval stripe; and (3) transverse transcommissural stripe extending from costal margin to claval apex. Face, thorax including legs, and abdomen mostly dark brown to black.

Male terminalia. Pygofer ( Fig. 22 View FIGURES 21–26 ), in lateral view, well produced posteriorly; posterior margin truncate with subacute apex; disc with macrosetae distributed mostly on posterior half; without processes. Valve ( Fig. 23 View FIGURES 21–26 ), in ventral view, subrectangular. Subgenital plate ( Fig. 23 View FIGURES 21–26 ), in ventral view, elongate, distinctly narrowed at apical twothirds; apex rounded; with uniseriate macrosetae; plates separated from each other throughout their length; in lateral view, not extending posteriorly as far as pygofer apex. Style ( Fig. 24 View FIGURES 21–26 ), in dorsal view, short but extending posteriorly farther than apex of connective; with preapical lobe; apical portion digitiform and with few small setae on outer margin. Connective ( Fig. 24 View FIGURES 21–26 ), in dorsal view, T-shaped; stalk shorter than arms, with median keel. Paraphyses ( Fig. 24 View FIGURES 21–26 ) strongly reduced, bilobed apically. Aedeagus ( Figs 25 and 26 View FIGURES 21–26 ) symmetrical; shaft, in lateral view, cylindrical, slender, not curved at base through 180º; pair of slender apical processes articulated with shaft by membranous area.

Female terminalia. Sternite VII ( Fig. 27 View FIGURES 27–37 ), in ventral view, not strongly produced posteriorly; anterior margin approximately straight; posterior margin concave on each side of slight median lobe. Sternite VIII without welldefined sclerites. Pygofer ( Fig. 28 View FIGURES 27–37 ), in lateral view, moderately produced posteriorly, subtriangular; apex narrowly rounded; macrosetae distributed mostly on posterior half of disc and extending anteriorly along ventral margin. First valvifer ( Figs 29 and 30 View FIGURES 27–37 ), in lateral view, subtriangular with dorsal margin concave. First valvula ( Figs 29 and 30 View FIGURES 27–37 ), in lateral view, with apex acute; dorsal sculptured area extending from basal portion of blade to apex, formed by scale-like processes, mostly arranged in oblique lines; ventral sculptured area restricted to apical portion of blade, formed by scale-like processes; ventral interlocking device ( Figs 29 and 30 View FIGURES 27–37 ) longer than half blade length. Second valvula ( Figs 31–36 View FIGURES 27–37 ), in lateral view, slightly expanded on basal half and then tapering gradually towards obtuse apex; blade bearing approximately 16 teeth along dorsal margin, most teeth ( Figs 33 and 34 View FIGURES 27–37 ) subtriangular, armed with irregular denticles; teeth at basal portion ( Fig. 32 View FIGURES 27–37 ) small and irregular; ducts extending towards teeth and apex; preapical prominence ( Fig. 36 View FIGURES 27–37 ) inconspicuous. Gonoplac ( Fig. 37 View FIGURES 27–37 ), in lateral view, distinctly expanded on distal portion of basal half and then narrowing gradually towards rounded apex.

Material examined. Southern Brazil, Paraná and Rio Grande do Sul states. Male holotype: “Ponta Grossa, PR [Paraná], Brasil \ P. E. [Parque Estadual] Vila Velha \ 18.IX.2011 P. Grossi leg.” ( DZUP). Paratypes: one female ( DZUP) and one male ( MNRJ): same data as the holotype; one female: “ Brasil, RS [Rio Grande do Sul], Passo Fundo \ 28º13’40.23’’ S \ 52º24’19.97’’ W \ 18.ix.2013 Malaise \ S. Lampert leg.” ( MNRJ). The two MNRJ GoogleMaps   specimens were destroyed by the fire at the Quinta da Boa Vista Palace   .

Etymology. The new species name, nigroflava   , refers to the mostly black dorsum with large greenish-yellow markings on pronotum and forewings ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 17–20 ).

Remarks. The color pattern of B. nigroflava   sp. nov. ( Fig. 18 View FIGURES 17–20 ) is similar to that of B. decorata   . The new taxon can be distinguished from B. decorata   , as well as from the remaining species of the genus, by the basal greenish-yellow markings on corium and clavus of forewings (the latter are distinctly larger in B. decorata   ) and by the aedeagus not curved at base through 180º ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 21–26 ). In the phylogeny, B. nigroflava   was recovered as the sister species of B. decorata   based on the male pygofer with acute apex (character 28, state 1, Fig. 22 View FIGURES 21–26 ). The new species is supported by two character state changes ( Fig. 38 View FIGURE 38 ): (1) aedeagus not curved at base through 180º (c. 44, s. 0, Fig. 25 View FIGURES 21–26 ) and (2) apical aedeagal pair of processes articulated with shaft by membranous area (c. 54, s. 2).


Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure


Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro