Lanceola sayana Bovallius, 1885

Zeidler, Wolfgang, 2009, A review of the hyperiidean amphipod superfamily Lanceoloidea Bowman & Gruner, 1973 (Crustacea: Amphipoda: Hyperiidea), Zootaxa 2000, pp. 1-117 : 17-23

publication ID

1175­5334

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/03C89422-FFC1-DD3E-34C7-FE1CFE97FDFA

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Lanceola sayana Bovallius
status

 

Lanceola sayana Bovallius

( Figs 2 & 3)

? Lanceola pelagica Say, 1818: 318–319 . Milne Edwards 1830: 387 (key – as Hyperia pelagica ); 1840: 77 (as Hyperia ). Bate 1862: 304. Bovallius 1887a: 6; 1887c: 29–30. Shoemaker 1945: 206, fig. 14.

Lanceola sayana Bovallius, 1885: 7 , fig. 1a, b. Bovallius 1887 a: 6; 1887c: 30–33, pl. 4, figs 1–19; pl. 5, fig. 1. Chevreux 1900: 134–135, pl. 14, fig. 10. Norman 1900: 135. Vosseler 1901: 127. Tattersall 1906: 16. Walker 1909: 50 (list), 53. Stephensen 1913: 94-95. Chevreux 1920: 1–2. Stephensen 1923: 3. Schellenberg 1927: 596–597, fig. 5. Pirlot 1929: 42–43. Barnard 1932: 254. Stephensen 1932: 376 (list). Chevreux 1935: 134–135. Barnard 1937: 178. Bulycheva 1955: 1048 (table). Vinogradov 1956: 194; 1957: 190, fig. 2a; 1960a: 200, fig. 1, 3a; 1964: 109–110, fig. 2; 1970: 384 (table). Yoo 1971: 41 (list), 44. Sanger 1974: 3. Thurston 1976: 402. Laval 1980: 14, 17 (table). Vinogradov et al. 1982: 52–56, figs 5, 6a. Barkhatov & Vinogradov 1988: 245 (table). Vinogradov 1990: 50; 1991: 261 (table); 1992: 325. Zeidler 1992: 91, fig. 4. De Broyer & Jazdzewski 1993: 109. Vinogradov 1993: 43 (table). Shih & Chen 1995: 28–29, fig. 13. Vinogradov 1999: 1146 (table), 1171, fig. 4.39. Gates, et al. 2003: 318-319. Gasca 2007: 118 (table). Browne et al. 2007: 819 (table), fig. 4.

Lanceola sayana var longipes Woltereck, 1909: 158–159 , pl. 6, figs 16, 18b. Woltereck 1927: 63–64.

Lanceola sayana typica Woltereck, 1909: 158–159 , pl. 6, figs 17, 18a, 19. Stephensen 1918: 8–14, figs 1–3. Woltereck 1927: 60–63, figs 1a, b; 2, 3, 4a, c.

Type material. Amongst the type collections of the ZMUC are eight lots of L. sayana , from the Atlantic Ocean, that were determined by Bovallius (“Bov. Det”on label) and most likely represent type material. They are as follows:

1. Male 31 mm; ZMUC CRU-8012, 46ºN 18ºW, Hygom 1856. A reasonably intact specimen, including antennae.

2. Male 26 mm with A1 missing, female 21 mm (immature); ZMUC CRU-9250, 47ºN 7º30’W, Kapt. Grønsund 1863 .

3. Two females, both immature, one about 23 mm the other with P6 and pleon missing; ZMUC CRU-9256, 46ºN 20ºW, Hygom 1860.

4. Male 38 mm in good condition; ZMUC CRU-9257, 49.5ºN 11.75ºW, S. Friis GoogleMaps .

5. Male 29 mm in good condition, female 26.5 mm immature with mouthparts missing from right; ZMUC CRU-9258, 41ºN 33ºW, Hygom 1856.

6. Female 28 mm immature, slightly damaged; ZMUC CRU-9259, 50ºN 24º16’W, Andréa 1866.

7. Female 22 mm in poor condition; ZMUC CRU-9261, Davis Strait, Insp. Møller, 12 June 1843.

8. Female 21 mm immature with damaged antennae; ZMUC CRU-9262, 32º30’S 15ºW, Andréa 1862.

The female from lot 5 is the largest female in good condition and has the mouthparts missing from the right. This specimen is very likely the one illustrated by Bovallius (1885, 1887c) and is here selected as the lectotype of L. sayana ( Figs 2 & 3); the remaining specimens become paralectotypes.

Type material of synonyms. Type material of L. pelagica Say, 1818 is considered lost. This species is regarded a doubtful synonym of L. sayana (see earlier).

Type material of L. sayana var longipes could not be found in the ZMB or USNM and is considered lost. Woltereck (1909) based this new variety on a male specimen from the South-east Pacific , off Peru [05º57’30”S 81º50’W], Albatross Stn. 4665, distinguished from the typical form in that the body is dorsoventrally compressed, the head is narrower and higher and pereopod 6 is relatively longer. These differences are well within the normal variation of the species and the variety is considered invalid GoogleMaps .

Woltereck (1909) named the typical form of L. sayana , L. s. typica, based on a male specimen from the North-east Pacific, off Guatemala [12º30’N 92º32’W], Albatross Stn. 4604. This specimen could not be found in the ZMB or USNM and is considered lost. Woltereck suggested that the differences between this subspecies and the variety longipes could be attributed to the type of host on which they live, proposing that longipes is associated with small coelenterates and typica lives on larger medusae. As the variety longipes is considered invalid there is no need to distinguish the typical form by a new name. Thus, this subspecies also becomes invalid.

Material examined. Types. Lectotype and paralectotypes of L. sayana as detailed above.

Other material examined. North-East Atlantic: Juvenile ( BMNH – Norman Col. 11692–11694); N.W. of Ireland [56º08’N 13º34’W]; Porcupine Stn. 22, 1869. Female ( ZMB 21318 View Materials ); near Cape Verde Is., 12 Sept. 1901. Male ( BMNH 1936.11.2.2492); W. of Sierra Leone [04º33’N 16º52’W]; Discovery Stn. 294, 101–0 m, 25 Aug. 1927. Juvenile ( ZMUC); N. of Madeira [33º26’N 16º59’W]; Dana Stn. 1142 VI , 5000 mw, 15 Oct. 1921. Male ( ZMUC); S. of Azores [36º41’N 20º21’W]; Dana Stn. 1371 , 1000 mw, 13 Jun. 1922. Male ( ZMUC); near Azores [37º40’N 26º00’W]; Dana Stn. 1377 V, 200 mw, 15 Jun. 1922. Female ( ZMUC); S.W. of Bay of Biscay [43º10’N 09º50’W]; Dana Stn. 1385 I, 1000 mw, 24 Jun. 1922. Three juveniles ( ZMUC); near Madeira [32º03’N 24º44’E]; Dana Stn. 3539 III, 100 mw, 4 Aug. 1928. Three males, eight juveniles ( ZMUC); W. of Sierra Leone [08º26’N 15º11’W]; Dana St. 4003 III, IV & V, 4000, 3000 & 2000 mw, 9 Mar. 1930. Male, female, three juveniles ( ZMUC); W. of Senegal [13º31’N 18º03’W]; Dana Stns 4005 I, III & IX, 4000, 3000 & 300 mw, 12 Mar. 1930. Three females ( ZMUC); W. of Morocco [31º30’N 12º12’W]; Dana Stns 4018 IV & V, 100 & 50 mw, 29 Mar. 1930. Two males, four juveniles ( ZMUC); Bay of Biscay [46º28’N 08º01’W]; Dana Stns 4158 XIV & XVII, 4000 & 1500 mw, 17 Jun. 1930. Specimens examined by Stephensen (1918), col. by Thor (ZMUC) . North-West Atlantic: Two males, three juveniles ( ZMUC); S.W. of Cape Verde Is. [12º11’N 35º49’W]; Dana Stns 1165 IV, VIII & IX , 300, 3000 & 2000 mw, 9 Nov. 1921. Juvenile ( ZMUC); N. of Brazil [10º16’N 40º41’W]; Dana Stn. 1166 , 1000 mw, 11 Nov. 1921. Three females ( ZMUC); N. of Brazil [09º30’N 42º41’W]; Dana Stn. 1168 , 1000 mw, 12 Nov. 1921. Two females ( ZMUC); N. of Brazil [08º19’N 44º35’W]; Dana Stn. 1171 VII , 6000 mw, 13 Nov. 1921. Male ( ZMUC); N. of Brazil [06º18’N 48º58’W]; Dana 1173 I, 1000 mw, 15 Nov. 1921. Male ( ZMUC); Caribbean Sea [18º50’N 79º07’W]; Dana Stn. 1217 I, 4000 mw, 29 Jan. 1922. Juvenile ( ZMUC); N. of Cuba [23º13’N 82º21’W]; Dana Stn. 1230 III, 1000 mw, 5 Feb. 1922. Male ( ZMUC); Sargasso Sea [27º07’N 51º10’W]; Dana Stn. 1361 IV , 100 mw, 4 Jun. 1922. South-East Atlantic: Two juveniles ( BMNH); Gulf of Guinea [02º13’S 01º52’E]; Discovery Stn. 284, 71–0 m, 15 Aug. 1927. Three juveniles ( BMNH); Gulf of Guinea [02º43’S 00º56’W]; Discovery Stn. 285, 125–175 (-0) m, 16 Aug. 1927. Two males, two juveniles ( BMNH); Gulf of Guinea [03º06’S 03º53’W]; Discovery Stn. 286, 102–0 m, 17 Aug. 1927. Four immature specimens ( BMNH); S. of Liberia [00º56’S 14º08’W]; Discovery Stn. 288, 250 (-0) m, 21 Aug. 1927. Two females ( ZMB 21321 View Materials ); S.W. of Ascension I. [10º19’S 18º24’W]; vert. 1200 m, 11 Oct. 1901. Female ( ZMB 21319 View Materials ); W. of Tristan Da Chuna [35º10’S 18º24’W], vert. 3000 m, 12 Nov. 1901. Female ( SAM A42386 View Materials ); off Capetown, South Africa [34º42’S 16º54’E], 3200 m, 8 Dec. 1960. Female, two males ( ZMUC); off South Africa [30º15’S 13º15’E]; Dana Stn. 3978 VII, 4000 mw, 13 Feb. 1930. Male ( ZMUC); off South Africa [27º10’S 08º59’E]; Dana Stn. 3979 I, 1000 mw, 15 Feb. 1930. Male ( ZMUC); S. of St. Helena [15º41’S 05º50’W]; Dana Stn. 3996 VII, 600 mw, 25 Feb. 1930. Male, female ( ZMUC); N. of St. Helena [11º00’S 07º36’W]; Dana Stns. 3997 II & III, 600 & 300 mw, 27 Feb. 1930. Juvenile ( ZMUC); N. of St. Helena [07º34’S 08º48’W]; Dana Stn. 3998 VII, 5000 mw, 1 Mar. 1930. Four juveniles ( ZMUC); N.E. of Ascension [03º45’S 10º00’W]; Dana Stn. 3999 III, 300 mw, 2 Mar. 1930. Female, seven juveniles ( ZMUC); S. of Liberia [00º31’S 11º02’W]; Dana Stn 4000 VII, 5000 mw, 4 Mar. 1930. North-East Pacific: Female ( SAMA C6253); W. of British Columbia [49º57.04’N 145º04.37’W]; 1000 m, ex. M. Galbraith, summer 2002. Female ( SAMA C6254); California Transitional Zone [37º53.9’N 124º45.6’W]; 300– 199 m, ex. M. Galbraith, 20 Aug. 1988. Female ( ZMUC); off Mexico [17º00’N 102º42’W]; Galathea Stn. 712, 6500 mw, 28 Apr. 1952. Three males, 41 females 16 juveniles ( ZMUC); Gulf of Panama [06º48’N 80º33’W]; Dana Stns 1208 IV –VI, XIII–XVI, 1250–3100 mw, 16 Jun. 1922. Five females ( ZMUC); Gulf of Panama [07º15’N 78º54’W]; Dana Stn. 1209 I, 3500 mw, 17 Jan. 1922. Male ( ZMUC); Gulf of Panama [07º06’N 79º55’W]; Dana Stn. 3548 II, 3000 mw, 3 Sept. 1928. Male, female ( ZMUC); Gulf of Panama [07º16’N 78º30’W]; Dana Stn. 3549 I, 600 mw, 4 Sept. 1928. Juvenile ( ZMUC); S.W. of Gulf of Panama [02º52’N 87º38’W]; Dana Stn. 3556 V, 600 mw, 14 Sept. 1928. North-West Pacific: Juvenile ( ZMUC); E. of Taiwan [24º15’N 122º00’E]; Dana Stn. 3728 V, 50 mw, 12 Jun. 1929. Female, two juveniles ( ZMUC); S. of Taiwan [20º03.5’N 120º50’E]; Dana Stns 3729 II & V, 600 & 50 mw, 14 Jun. 1929. Juvenile ( ZMUC); South China Sea, W. off Luzon [14º37’N 119º52’E]; Dana Stn. 3731 II, 500 mw, 16 Jun. 1929. Two females ( ZMUC); N. of Irianjaya [03º40.5’N 137º53’E]; Dana Stns 3751 VI & VII, 4000 & 3000 mw, 12 Jul. 1929. South-East Pacific: Two males, two females ZMUC); W. of Chile [21º16’S 71º09’W]; J. Nielsen Stn. 48, 0–1000 m, 11 Nov. 1960. Male ( ZMUC); W. of Peru [07º59’S 74º55’W]; J. Nielsen Stn. 80, 2 Dec. 1960. Two males, female, eight juveniles ( ZMUC); tropical S.E. Pacific [04º20’S 116º46’W]; Dana Stns 3561 II–V & VII, 600, 1000–4000 mw, 24 Sept. 1928. South-West Pacific: Female ( AM P39757 View Materials ); Tasman Sea [33º29’S 152º25’E]; Stn. JP 77–19, 0–900 m, 13 Dec. 1977. Female ( SAMA C4206); Tasman Sea [33º53’S 152º02’E]; 0–800 m, 14 Dec. 1977. Two females ( ZMUC); Tasman Sea [45º47’S 164º39’E]; Galathea Stn. 599, sledge 4390 m, 13 Jan. 1952. Two females ( ZMUC); Tasman Sea [45º51’S 164º32’E]; Galathea Stn. 601, 7500 mw, 14 Jan. 1952. Female ( ZMUC); Tasman Sea [43º58’S 165º24’E]; Galathea Stn. 602, 6300 mw, 15 Jan. 1952. Male ( ZMUC); N.W. of New Zealand [35º20’S 178º55’W]; Galathea Stn. 656, 10,600 mw, 20 Feb. 1952. Male, female, two juveniles ( ZMUC); S. of Fiji [20º00’S 174º29’E]; Dana Stn. 3602 VII, 3000 mw, 22 Nov. 1928. Male ( ZMUC); W. of Karmadec Is. [28º17.6’S 177º01’E]; Dana Stn. 3624 V, 1000 mw, 10 Dec. 1928. Three females ( ZMUC); Tasman Sea [33º33’S 154º04’E]; Dana Stns 3663 IV & VI, 2000 & 1000 mw, 23 Feb. 1929. Male ( SAMA C6305); S. of Tasmania [44º12.05’S 147º24.43’E]; M. Lewis, CSIRO Stn. 81, 15 Nov. 1992. Central South Pacific: Six juveniles ( ZMUC); S. of Tahiti [18º49’S 153º10’W]; Dana Stns 3577 III, VII & VIII; 300, 4000 & 3000 mw, 19 Oct. 1928. Male, two females ( ZMUC); near Rarotonga [29º56’S 160º03’W]; Dana Stn. 3579 II, 600 mw, 23 Oct. 1928. Three juveniles ( ZMUC); N. of Cook Is [18º53’S 163º02.5’W]; Dana Stns 3580 VII & IX, 4000 & 2000 mw, 25 Oct. 1928. Two females, juvenile ( ZMUC); N.E. of Samoa [07º46’S 167º10’W]; Dana Stns 3585 IX & XI, 3000 & 1000 mw, 31 Oct. 1928. Male, four juveniles ( ZMUC); near Fiji [17º27’S 179º33’E]; Dana Stns 3593 III & IV, 2200 & 1700 mw, 10 Nov. 1928. Indo-Pacific: Female ( ZMUC); Ceram Sea [02º22’S 126º58.5’E]; Dana Stn. 3680 I, 5000 mw, 27 Mar. 1929. Female ( ZMUC); Mollucca Sea [00º29’N 125º54’E]; Dana Stn. 3681 I, 1000 mw, 28 Mar. 1928. Female ( ZMUC); S.E. Celebes Sea [04º10’N 127º03’E]; Dana Stn. 3784 VI, 1000 mw, 8 Aug. 1929. East Indian: Male ( ZMB 21322 View Materials ); Southern Ocean [64º35’S 85º25’E]; vert. 400 m, 9 Mar. 1903. Female ( ZMUC); S. of Bali [10º24’S 114º07’E]; Galathea Stn. 472, 3600 mw, 10 Sept. 1951. Two juveniles ( ZMUC); S.W. of Sumatra [03º36’S 97º37’E]; Dana Stn. 3815 VI, 300 mw, 10 Sept. 1929. Female ( ZMUC CRU-9912); S. W. of Sumatra [00º08’S 97º15’E]; Dana Stn. 3824 V, 600 mw, 15 Sept. 1929. Female ( ZMUC); W. of Sumatra [01º42’N 96º05’E]; Dana Stn. 3828 VIII, 2500 mw, 18 Sept. 1929. Female ( ZMUC); near Cocos Is. [12º02’S 96º43’E]; Dana Stn. 3847 II, 3000 m, 11 Oct. 1929. Two juveniles ( ZMUC); N.W. of Cocos Is. [08º11’S 92º41.5’E]; Dana Stn 3849 I, 600 mw, 13 Oct. 1929. Male, two juveniles ( ZMUC); S. W. of Sumatra [02º57’S 99º 36’E]; Dana Stn. 3860 XX, 600 mw, 19 Oct. 1929. Two juveniles ( ZMUC); S. of Nicobar Is. [05º18’N 90º55’E]; Dana Stn. 3904 II & V, 3000 & 1500 mw, 18 Nov. 1929. Four juveniles ( ZMUC); S.E. of Sri Lanka [04º26’N 85º27’E]; Dana Stn 3906 III & IV, 400 & 300 mw, 20 Nov. 1929. Two juveniles ( ZMUC); S. E. of Sri Lanka [03º59’N 82º57’E]; Dana Stn. 3907 III, 400 mw, 21 Nov. 1929. Four juveniles ( ZMUC); S. E. of Sri Lanka [04º28’N 82º13’E]; Dana Stn. 3908 II & III, 600 & 400 mw, 22 Nov. 1929. Juvenile ( ZMUC); S. of Sri Lanka [05º21’N 80º38’E]; Dana Stn. 3909 II, 4000 mw, 22 Nov. 1929. Six juveniles ( ZMUC); S. of Sri Lanka [05º28’N 80º00’E]; Dana Stn. 3910 II, 600 mw, 23 Nov. 1929. Six juveniles ( ZMUC); S.W. of Sri Lanka [04º52’N 77º08’E]; Dana Stn. 3914 III, 300 mw, 2 Dec. 1929. Three juveniles ( ZMUC); near Maldive Is. [03º14’N 75º21’E]; Dana Stns 3915 II & III, 600 & 300 mw, 3 Dec. 1929. Female, juvenile ( ZMUC); S.W. of Maldive Is [01º45’N 73º03’E]; Dana Stn. 3916 III, 300 mw, 4 Dec. 1929. Male, two females, juvenile ( ZMUC); S.W. of Maldive Is. [01º45’N 71º05’E]; Dana Stns 3917 I, VII & VIII; 4200, 600 & 300 mw, 5 Dec. 1929. West Indian: Four specimens ( BMNH 1938.1.3.233–6); Arabian Sea; Murray Stns 61, 94 & 96, 8–9 Nov., 17 & 19 Dec. 1933. Male ( ZMUC); btwn. Maldive Is & Madagascar [00º35’N 66º09’E]; Dana Stn. 3918 III, 300 mw, 7 Dec. 1929. Six juveniles ( ZMUC); btwn. Maldive Is & Madagascar [01º06’S 62º25’E]; Dana Stns 3920 II, IV & V; 3500, 2500 & 2000 mw, 9 Dec. 1929. Juvenile ( ZMUC); N.E. of Madagascar [03º36’S 58º19’E]; Dana Stn. 3921 III, 300 mw, 11 Dec. 1929. Female ( ZMUC); S.W. of Seychelles [08º27’S 50º54’E]; Dana Stn. 3926 I, 600 mw, 16 Dec. 1929. Male, juvenile ( ZMUC); N. of Madagascar [12º11’S 50º18’E]; Dana Stns 3929 II & III, 500 & 400 mw, 18 Dec. 1929. Female, nine juveniles ( ZMUC); N. of Madagascar [11º18’S 50º03’E]; Dana Stns 3933 I, IV & V; 4000, 2500 & 2000 mw, 20 Dec. 1929. Male, three juveniles ( ZMUC); N. of Madagascar [11º24’S 50º05’E]; Dana Stns 3934 III, VIII & XIII; 400 mw, 20 Dec. 1929. Five juveniles ( ZMUC); N. of Madagascar [10º50’S 48º30’E]; Dana Stns 3935 I & II; 500 & 400 mw, 21 Dec. 1929. Male, female, juvenile ( ZMUC); N. of Madagascar [09º26’S 46º05’E]; Dana Stn. 3937 I, 500 mw, 22 Dec. 1929. Juvenile ( ZMUC); near Zanzibar [07º24’S 41º51’E]; Dana Stn. 3941 I, 500 mw, 24 Dec. 1929. Juvenile ( ZMUC); near Zanzibar [05º30’S 40º40’E]; Dana Stn. 3943 I, 500 mw, 25 Dec. 1929. Juvenile ( ZMUC); off N.W. Mozambique [11º33’S 41º44’E]; Dana Stn. 3949 IV, 100 mw, 6 Jan. 1930. Juvenile ( ZMUC); Mozambique Channel [14º16’S 41º40’E]; Dana Stn. 3951 III, 300 mw, 7 Jan. 1930. Male ( ZMUC); Mozambique Channel [16º12’S 42º04’E]; Dana Stn. 3953 I, 500 mw, 8 Jan. 1930. Male, juvenile ( ZMUC); S. Mozambique Channel [23º11’S 42º54’E]; Dana Stns. 3958 I & II; 500 & 300 mw, 11 Jan. 1930.

Diagnosis. Body length can exceed 40 mm with specimens sexually mature at about 20 mm. Distal corner of pereonite 7 (and sometimes pereonite 6) and pleonites produced into small, rounded denticle; becoming more prominent in larger specimens. Head with distinct acute triangular rostrum; rarely very short; usually long, straight or curved. Eyes conspicuous, composed of paired crystalline cones. Antennae 1 relatively shorter than other species of Lanceola ; usually shorter than head and first pereonite combined; terminal three articles fused, together triangular in shape. Antennae 2 length 2.5–3.5x A1, as long as head and first 2–3 pereonites combined. Pereopod 3 similar to, but slightly shorter than P4; basis length 1.3–1.5x merus; merus slightly longer than carpus; propodus and carpus subequal in length; dactylus very short, length less than 0.2x propodus. Pereopods 5–7 with retractile, fully hooded dactyls. Pereopod 5; length about 1.2x P4; basis length about 1.5x merus; carpus length 0.8x merus, subequal in length to propodus. Pereopod 6 distinctly longer than any other pereopod, about 1.4x length P5 and slightly longer than pereon; basis length about 1.3x merus; carpus slightly longer than merus; propodus is longest article about 1.3x length carpus. Pereopod 7 slightly shorter than half P6; basis length twice merus; carpus and merus subequal in length; propodus length about 1.4x carpus. Peduncles and inner rami of U2 & 3 relatively broad. Peduncle of U1 does not exceed limit of peduncle of U2. Uropod 3; peduncle width about 0.6x length. Telson rounded; slightly longer than peduncle of U3.

Colour, according to water-colour painting by K. Stephensen (in ZMUC) of living female specimen from Dana Stn. 1171 ; mainly pale-pink or translucent; terminal articles of A2 and articles 2–4 of P3–7 carmine-red. According to Vinogradov et al. (1982) the colour of unfixed specimens varies from dark-red to orange or mostly colourless; sometimes the anterior half is coloured while the posterior part is translucent; sometimes the reverse is seen.

Remarks. This species is distinguished from all its congeners by a combination of characters; the fused terminal articles of the first antennae, the eyes with crystalline cones, the hooked rostrum of the head, the relatively long sixth pereopods and the relatively long telson. It resembles L. pacifica in the relative lengths of pereopods 5–7 but is easily distinguished by the rostrum, eye structure and the fused terminal articles of the first antennae. The latter character is unique to L. sayana .

The first antennae are generally shorter than in any other species, particularly in larger specimens. The length and shape of the rostrum is also variable (compare Figs 2 B & D) ranging from almost absent to almost as long as the first antennae. The rostrum seems to be more prominent in females than males of similar length.

Chevreux (1900) and Schellenberg (1927) record this species as an associate of the scyphozoan medusa Pelagia .

Distribution. This is one of the most common species of Lanceola found in all the world’s oceans including the Antarctic (60º–64ºS) but has not been found in the Arctic Basin. The Dana collections indicate that it may be relatively more common in the Indian Ocean that in other oceans. It seems to prefer waters near the surface but descends to depths exceeding 3000 m, but more often to depths of 1000–2000 m ( Vinogradov et al. 1982).

ZMB

Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)

ZMUC

Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen

SAM

South African Museum

SAMA

South Australia Museum

AM

Australian Museum

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Chlorophyta

Class

Chlorophyceae

Order

Sphaeropleales

Family

Characiaceae

Genus

Lanceola

Loc

Lanceola sayana Bovallius

Zeidler, Wolfgang 2009
2009
Loc

Lanceola sayana var longipes

Woltereck, R. 1927: 63
Woltereck, R. 1909: 159
1909
Loc

Lanceola sayana typica

Woltereck, R. 1927: 60
Stephensen, K. 1918: 8
Woltereck, R. 1909: 159
1909
Loc

Lanceola sayana

Gasca, R. 2007: 118
Browne, W. E. & Haddock, S. H. D. & Martindale, M. Q. 2007: 819
Vinogradov, G. M. 1999: 1146
Shih, C. - T. & Chen, Q. - C. 1995: 28
Vinogradov, G. M. 1993: 43
Zeidler, W. 1992: 91
Vinogradov, G. M. 1991: 261
Vinogradov, G. M. 1990: 50
Barkhatov, V. A. & Vinogradov, M. E. 1988: 245
Vinogradov, M. E. & Volkov, A. F. & Semenova, T. N. 1982: 52
Laval, P. 1980: 14
Thurston, M. H. 1976: 402
Sanger, G. A. 1974: 3
Yoo, K. I. 1971: 41
Vinogradov, M. E. 1957: 190
Vinogradov, M. E. 1956: 194
Bulycheva, A. I. 1955: 1048
Barnard, K. H. 1937: 178
Chevreux, E. 1935: 134
Barnard, K. H. 1932: 254
Stephensen, K. 1932: 376
Pirlot, J. M. 1929: 42
Schellenberg, A. 1927: 596
Stephensen, K. 1923: 3
Chevreux, E. 1920: 1
Stephensen, K. 1913: 94
Walker, A. O. 1909: 50
Tattersall, W. M. 1906: 16
Vosseler, J. 1901: 127
Chevreux, E. 1900: 134
Norman, C. 1900: 135
Bovallius, C. 1887: 6
Bovallius, C. 1887: 30
Bovallius, C. 1885: 7
1885
Loc

Lanceola pelagica

Shoemaker, C. R. 1945: 206
Bovallius, C. 1887: 6
Bovallius, C. 1887: 29
Bate, C. S. 1862: 304
Say, T. 1818: 319
1818