Capnogryllacris Karny, 1937,

Gorochov, Andrej V., Dawwrueng, Pattarawich & Artchawakom, Taksin, 2015, Study of Gryllacridinae (Orthoptera: Stenopelmatidae) from Thailand and adjacent countries: the genera Ultragryllacris gen. nov. and Capnogryllacris, Zootaxa 4021 (4), pp. 565-577: 567-568

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Capnogryllacris Karny, 1937


Genus Capnogryllacris Karny, 1937 

This genus is widely distributed in the Indo-Malayan Region and very diverse in the colouration. This diversity as well as a large body size of its representatives were possibly reasons for division of this rather morphologically monotonous genus into a few different genera ( Karny, 1937). Gorochov (2003), basing on big similarity of these representatives in the structure and action of their copulatory devices, united the former Karny’s genera Capnogryllacris  , Borneogryllacris Karny, 1937  and Dictyogryllacris Karny, 1937  in the same genus. However, he refrained from synonymization of these names, as he considered that some of these names may be used as subgeneric ones when these taxa will be better studied.

Later, Li et al. (2014) united Borneogryllacris  with Marthogryllacris Karny, 1937  in one genus but preserved these names as subgeneric ones; Capnogryllacris  was considered by these co-authors as a separate genus, because it ostensibly differs from Borneogryllacris  in “obvious distinction in median ocellus and prosseses [processes (!) = styles (?)] in subgenital plate”. We additionally compared the both type species (of Borneogryllacris  and of Capnogryllacris  ) with each other and with some other related species but did not find any generic differences in the structure of their median ocellus (for comparison see Figs 36 and 37), of their male genital (=subgenital) plate (see Figs 49 and 50View FIGURES 40 – 51), and of all the other body parts including hooks of the male 9 th abdominal tergite and female abdominal apex. Between these type species, there are some small morphological differences characteristic for different species (or species groups) only. Moreover, the additional study of several species from Sumatra, Java, Malacca, Borneo and some other Asiatic regions shows that Borneogryllacris  , Capnogryllacris  and Erythrogryllacris Karny, 1937  may be separated from each other by the characters of colouration only; such differences seems to us not suitable even for subgeneric separation.

Systematic position of the genus Marthogryllacris  was not very clear, as its type species was described without sufficient consideration of its abdominal apex ( Griffini, 1914), and its unique type was destroyed by fire in the Hungary Museum of National History (pers. comm. by H. Steinmann, a former curator of Orthoptera  in this museum). However, the designation of neotype for this species (see below) allows us to fix its position in approximate accordance to the opinion of Li et al. and to synonymize this generic name with the subgenus Capnogryllacris  also.

Thus, we select the name Capnogryllacris  and assign it the oldest name for all the other generic names proposed in the same book by Karny (1937); we do it in accordance to the article 24.2 (First Reviser Principle) of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature (The Code, 1999). The genus Capnogryllacris  is characterized by the structure of copulatory devices in male and female: 9 th abdominal tergite of male has a pair of large and partly movable inflations having heavily sclerotized spines (one spine on each inflation) directed more or less medially and crossed with each other (Figs 24, 25, 29, 30, 34, 35, 39, 45–50); these spines may be crossed more strongly when these inflations are close to one another, or less strongly when these inflations spread apart; during copulation, these spines are introduced in unpaired opening at the base of female genital plate ( Fig. 51View FIGURES 40 – 51), and form an anchor-like fixation inside a special sac of this plate as a result of the convergence of the above-mentioned inflations and stronger crossing their spines (see Gorochov, 2003: figs 53, 54).

This genus is divided into 2 subgenera as a minimum: Capnogryllacris  s. str. (= Borneogryllacris  syn. nov.; = Erythrogryllacris  syn. nov.; = Marthogryllacris  syn. nov.) and Dictyogryllacris  stat. nov. The latter subgenus differs from the nominotypical subgenus in the median ocellus much larger, spines of the 9 th abdominal tergite in male arcuately curved (more hooked than in Capnogryllacris  s. str.), and ovipositor weakly but distinctly curved upwards. Some smaller and insufficiently studied gryllacridines have similar copulatory devices and possibly form an additional subgenus (or additional subgenera) of this genus.