Hoplopholcus forskali ( Thorell, 1871 ), Thorell, 1871

Huber, Bernhard A., 2020, Revision of the spider genus Hoplopholcus Kulczyński (Araneae, Pholcidae), Zootaxa 4726 (1), pp. 1-94: 44-54

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4726.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F0F95E18-9EFB-4169-B724-DAA71200413A

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/03CB87CD-FFEB-FF9D-E9C0-FD497701FF67

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Hoplopholcus forskali ( Thorell, 1871 )
status

 

Hoplopholcus forskali ( Thorell, 1871)  

Figs 194–197 View FIGURES 194–199 , 200–245 View FIGURES 200–205 View FIGURES 206–211 View FIGURES 212–221 View FIGURES 222–227 View FIGURES 228–233 View FIGURES 234–239 View FIGURES 240–245

Pholcus Forskålii Thorell, 1871: 151   (♂ ♀).

Pholcus   Forskalii— Chyzer & Kulczyński 1891: 149, pl. 6, figs 18a, b.

Holocnemus Forskalii—   Chyzer & Kulczyński 1896: 11. Chyzer & Kulczyński 1897: 310. Damin 1900: 21.

Hoplopholcus Forskålii   — Kulczyński 1908: 63.

Holocnemus forskali  — Drensky 1936: 55.

Pholcus (Hoplopholcus)   forskali— Drensky 1929: 28.

Haplopholcus [sic] Forskali — Dudich 1933: 126.

Haplopholcus forskalli [sic]— Fuhn & Niculescu-Burlacu 1970: 415, fig. 11.

Hoplopholcus Forskali   — Loksa 1969: 70, figs 46, 47 c–d.

Hoplopholcus forskoeli — Brignoli 1976: 561   , figs 34–36, 38, 40–41. Brignoli 1978: 490, fig. 58.

Hoplopholcus forskalii — Nicolić & Polenec 1981: 20   . Senglet 2001: 62, figs 6–7.

Hoplopholcus forskali — Stojićević 1929: 16   . Drensky 1939: 248, fig. 22, map 3 (but see Distribution below). Szinetár et al. 1999: 162. Ćurčić et al. 1999: 8 P. Deltshev et al. 2003: 12. Kenyeres & Szinetár 2003: 57. Ćurčić et al. 2004: 104. Kovács et al. 2006: 13. Kovács & Szinatár 2016: 171, figs 1–2. Moscaliuc 2012: 11. Eberle et al. 2018 (molecular data). Huber et al. 2018: fig. 6.

Probable misidentifications (see Distribution below)

Hoplopholcus forskali: Drensky 1939   : map 3 (at least records from Crete, Iraq, and Turkmenistan shown in map), Caporiacco 1949: 123.

Holocnemus Forschkali   : Kolosváry 1938: 65.

Pholcus Forskåli   : Kolosváry 1939: 133.

Diagnosis. Easily distinguished from known congeners by shape of procursus ( Figs 212–213 View FIGURES 212–221 ): very long distal part (i.e. part beyond attachment site of ventral spine), long and slender transparent process, small process between ventral spine and transparent process (similar in H. minotaurinus   ), and protruding spiny membrane distally on prolateral side. Females are difficult to distinguish externally from congeners; median pouch of uterus externus folded toward anteriorly producing distinctive duplicature of cuticle ( Figs 204 View FIGURES 200–205 , 207, 210 View FIGURES 206–211 , 220 View FIGURES 212–221 ) that is usually visible in uncleared specimens; pair of lateral pouches of uterus externus usually with sclerotized external margins clearly visible in uncleared specimens ( Figs 203 View FIGURES 200–205 , 206, 209 View FIGURES 206–211 ).

Type material. Unknown number of male and female syntypes, depository unknown (see Note below), from “ Hungary (the Banat)” (see Note below), date not given, leg. L. von Kempelen; not examined.

Notes. The type locality “Banat” was in the 1860ies part of the Habsburg Kingdom of Hungary but is currently divided among three countries: the eastern part lies in western Romania, the western part in northeastern Serbia, and only a small northern part lies within southeastern Hungary (B in Fig. 443 View FIGURE 443 ). The exact type locality is thus unknown. Since no other Hoplopholcus   species seems to occur in this region, the uncertainty about the type locality appears unproblematic.

The NHMW has a vial with 4♂ 4♀ 2 juvs that were collected by Kempelen in 1866 (examined). This might be topotypical material even though both labels in the vial give “ Wien ” as only locality information and both give a wrong identification (“ Holocnemus pluchei   ”). I have not seen any Hoplopholcus forskali   specimen that reliably originates from Austria and the locality information on the label may be erroneous. Since the identity of the species is beyond doubt, the uncertainty about the type specimens also appears unproblematic.

Other material examined. HUNGARY, Veszprém: 1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Ast 4), Balaton Lake, Tihany Peninsula (46.917°N, 17.883°E), Levendulas, under rocks at shore, 13.ix.2003 (J.J. Astrin) GoogleMaps   . Budapest: 1♂ 2♀, ZFMK (Ar 20936), Molnár János Cave [47.518°N, 19.036°E], 105 m a.s.l., 13.ix.2000 (F. Gasparo) GoogleMaps   . Csongrad: 1♂ 3♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Kov 1), Bordány (46.322°N, 19.922°E), in building, 15.i.2014 (G. Kovacs) GoogleMaps   . 1♂ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Kral 150), Vac (47.796°N, 19.140°E), 7.vi.2019 (J. Král) GoogleMaps   .

SLOVAKIA, Nitra: 1♂, ZFMK (Ar 20937), Nitra City, Marianska Street [48.312°N, 18.084°E], in house, 6.vi.2017 (M. Fedoriak) GoogleMaps   . 1 juv., ZFMK (Ar 20938), Nitra City, Levická Street [48.310°N, 18.122°E], in house, 13.vi.2017 (M. Fedoriak) GoogleMaps   .

SERBIA, South Banat: 2♂ 3♀, MHNG, Alibunar [45.080°N, 20.967°E], 26.v.1972 (A. Senglet) GoogleMaps   .

ROMANIA, Tulcea: 1♂ 1♀ 5 juvs (2 vials), MGAB, Letea (45.281°N, 29.525°E), 2013 (L.A. Moscaliuc) GoogleMaps   .

Prahova: 1♂ 4♀ 3 juvs (2 vials), MGAB, Urleta (45.084°N, 25.795°E), 1954/1955, collector not given GoogleMaps   .

BULGARIA, Dobrich: 1♂, ZMMU, Krushari Municipality, Dunav (= Danube ) River valley , Kapitan Dimitrovo (43.953°N, 27.692°E), 120 m a.s.l., buildings, 20.viii.2005 (A.V. Gromov) GoogleMaps   . Lovech: 2♂ 1♀ 1 juv., ZMB (48585), Drenski [42.879°N, 24.779°E], “durch Prof. Deckert”, no further data GoogleMaps   . Vidin: 2♂ 1♀ 1 juv., NMNHS, “Belogradchik” [should be Chuprene Municipality], Varbovo village [~ 43.544°N, 22.650°E], Leponishki Pech, cave, 3.ix.1973 (“ P.B. ”) GoogleMaps   . Pazardzhik: 1♂ 1♀, NMNHS, Panagyurïşte, Fetenci (42.560°N, 24.208°E), 20.iii.2010 (S. Lazarov) GoogleMaps   . Blagoevgrad: 1♀, ZMMU, Sim- itli Municipality, N foothills of Krupnishna Planina Mt. Range , ~ 0.2 km NNE Krupnik (41.851°N, 23.126°E), 375 m a.s.l., hill, “under stones and building”, 12.viii.2005 (A.V. Gromov) GoogleMaps   . 3♀, ZMMU, Simitli Municipality, N foothills of Krupnishna Planina Mt. Range , ~ 1.1 km SSE Charnichna [Cherniche] (41.848°N, 23.135°E), 290 m a.s.l., steppe and meadow, un- der stones and in grass, 13–14.viii.2005 (A.V. Gromov) GoogleMaps   . 1♀, ZMMU, Razlog Municipality, S env. of Banya (41.877°N, 23.527°E), 850 m a.s.l., hill, Pinus   forest, 8.viii.2005 GoogleMaps   (A.V. Gromov).

TURKEY, Konya: 1♂, MHNG, Lake Beyşehir, Haci Akif Island [37.62°N, 31.48°E], 24.iv.1973 (P. Brignoli) GoogleMaps   . 1♂ 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 20939), and   1♂ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Tur 41), Beyşehir District, at Lake Beyşehir (37.621°N, 31.452°E), 1125 m a.s.l., among rocks near road, 21.vii.2016 (H. Öztürk) GoogleMaps   . 1♂ 1♀, ZFMK (Ar 20940), and   1♀ in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Tur 40), Aksu District, Zindan Mağarası (37.812°N, 31.085°E), 1300 m a.s.l., among rocks outside of cave, 21.vii.2016 (H. Öztürk) GoogleMaps   . 3♂ 2♀, ZFMK (Ar 20941), and   2♀ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Tur 45), Seydişehir District, forest below Ferzene Mağarası (37.383°N, 31.837°E), 1230 m a.s.l., under rocks, 23.vii.2016 (H. Öztürk) GoogleMaps   . 3♂ 8♀, ZFMK (Ar 20942), and   1♂ 1♀ 1 juv. in pure ethanol, ZFMK (Tur 50), Taşkent District, Taşkent (36.922°N, 32.493°E), 1450 m a.s.l., under rocks in abandoned gardens, 25.vii.2016 (H. Öztürk) GoogleMaps   .

Isparta: 1♀, MHNG, 10 km N Isparta [~ 37.85°N, 30.53°E], no further data GoogleMaps   .

Bilecik: 1♂, NOHUAM, İnhisar, İnpazarcık Mağarası (40.04°N, 30.38°E, 240 m a.s.l.), 15.ix.2011 (A. Top- çu) GoogleMaps   .

Kütahya: 1♀, NOHUAM, İnli, İnli Mağarası (39.48°N, 30.21°E, 1085 m a.s.l.), 1 1.ix.2011 (A. Topçu) GoogleMaps   .

UNCLEAR/UNIDENTIFIED LOCALITIES: 1♂ 1♀, NHMW, “Palanka”, “Inv. No. 374”, no further data. 1♂, NHMW, Hungary, “A.D. 1884, A.N.I. 258”, “Inv. No. 375”, no further data. 1♂ 2♀, MNHN ( AR 10324), E. Simon collection number 2090, “Hungaria (Herm.)”, no further data.

Redescription. Male (Budapest, Molnár János Cave, ZFMK). MEASUREMENTS. Total length 5.3, carapace width 2.0. Distance PME-PME 120 µm; diameter PME 140 µm; distance PME-ALE 40 µm; diameter AME 85 µm; distance AME-AME 30 µm. Leg 1: 30.4 (8.3 + 0.8 + 8.4 + 10.9 + 2.0), tibia 2: 5.9, tibia 3: 4.4, tibia 4: 5.3; tibia 1 L/d: 42.

COLOR (in ethanol). Carapace mostly pale ochre-yellow, medially with light brown band including ocular area; clypeus light brown; sternum medially dark brown, lighter brown toward margins; legs ochre-yellow, with slightly darker brown rings subdistally on femora and tibiae and in patella area; abdomen gray, with regular pattern of oblique dark marks in posterior third above spinnerets, ventrally with diffuse dark pattern.

BODY. Habitus as in Figs 194–195 View FIGURES 194–199 . Ocular area slightly elevated. Deep thoracic pit and indistinct pair of furrows diverging from pit toward posterior margin. Clypeus unmodified. Sternum wider than long (1.0/0.9), unmodified. Abdomen oval, dorso-posteriorly rounded. Gonopore in scanned male with six epiandrous spigots ( Fig. 232 View FIGURES 228–233 ). ALS with only two spigots each ( Fig. 224 View FIGURES 222–227 ).

CHELICERAE. As in Figs 214–215 View FIGURES 212–221 , with pair of latero-distal apophyses provided with three modified coneshaped hairs each ( Figs 228–231 View FIGURES 228–233 ); with fine stridulatory ridges.

PALPS. As in Figs 200–202 View FIGURES 200–205 ; coxa with low retrolateral bulge, trochanter barely protruding ventrally, femur with retrolateral dark line and prolateral stridulatory pick; palpal tarsal organ exposed ( Fig. 226 View FIGURES 222–227 ); procursus ( Figs 212–213 View FIGURES 212–221 ) with small ventral ‘knee’, with distinctively long distal element, long transparent process and long and straight ventral spine ( Fig. 234 View FIGURES 234–239 ), with small pointed process between ventral spine and transparent process, with hair-like distal processes ( Fig. 235 View FIGURES 234–239 ), on prolateral side with protruding spiny membrane ( Figs 237–238 View FIGURES 234–239 ), possibly with glandular pores (arrows in Fig. 239 View FIGURES 234–239 ); genital bulb ( Figs 216–219 View FIGURES 212–221 ) with distally widened ventral sclerite, embolar sclerite with small cone-shaped processes ( Fig. 240 View FIGURES 240–245 ); with distinct dorsal membranous process ( Fig. 217 View FIGURES 212–221 ).

LEGS. Femur 1 with single row of ~28 ventral spines ( Figs 242–243 View FIGURES 240–245 ); without curved hairs (many hairs miss- ing), few vertical hairs; retrolateral trichobothrium of tibia 1 at 4%; prolateral trichobothrium present on all leg tibiae; tarsi without distinct pseudosegments but with many small platelets ( Fig. 244 View FIGURES 240–245 ).

Male (variation). Tibia 1 in 25 other males: 7.1–11.3 (mean 9.1). Most males with two or three modified hairs on each cheliceral apophysis, sometimes asymmetric; rarely with four modified hairs, in one male with 3+5 modified hairs. Dorsal abdominal marks often also present in anterior part. Some males with spines also on femur 2 (up to 20; thinner than on femur 1). Some males with very few curved hairs on metatarsus 1 only (weakly curved). Small pointed process between ventral spine and transparent process slightly larger in Turkish specimens.

Female. In general similar to male ( Figs 196–197 View FIGURES 194–199 ) but without spines on legs and with capsulate palpal tarsal organ ( Fig. 227 View FIGURES 222–227 ). ALS as in male ( Fig. 225 View FIGURES 222–227 ). Tibia 1 in 31 females: 6.8–10.7 (mean 8.1).

FEMALE GENITALIA. Epigynum as in Figs 203 View FIGURES 200–205 , 206, 209 View FIGURES 206–211 , posterior rim medially whitish, internal sclerotized arcs and pair of lateral pouches of uterus externus usually visible in uncleared specimens; with pair of light brown weakly bulging areas in front of epigynum and short but wide posterior plate. Internal genitalia with very large pore plates at slightly variable distances ( Figs 205 View FIGURES 200–205 , 208, 211 View FIGURES 206–211 , 221 View FIGURES 212–221 ), median pouch of uterus externus folded toward anteriorly producing duplicature of cuticle ( Figs 204 View FIGURES 200–205 , 207, 210 View FIGURES 206–211 , 220 View FIGURES 212–221 ); lateral pouches of uterus externus with sclerotized lateral margins, apparently forming curved ridges rather than pockets.

Distribution. Widespread, ranging from eastern Central Europe to Turkey ( Fig. 443 View FIGURE 443 ). Most old records whose specimens I could not study are credible. Almost certainly erroneous are the records from Crete, Turkmenistan, and Iraq shown in the map of Drensky (1939: 249). Drensky never specified the sources for these dots in the map, and all available data strongly suggest that the species does not occur in these places. Dubious are also the records from the Adriatic Coast ( Kolosváry 1938, 1939; Caporiacco 1949); large recent collections from the Adriatic Coast include the similar genus Stygopholcus   , but never Hoplopholcus   (B.A. Huber, unpublished data). Other records known to me, of specimens I have not seen, are listed in Table 1. All coordinates in this table are approximate, derived from Google Earth and other online sources.

Natural history. In eastern Central Europe, this species is mostly found in and around buildings, but it seems to be less tolerant than Pholcus phalangioides   against the conditions in rooms constantly occupied by humans ( Kovács & Szinetár 2016). At the same time it seems to tolerate higher luminance and lower temperature ( Kovács & Szinetár 2016). The same authors also reported that males and females sometimes share webs; copulation takes place between April and August; egg-laying takes place from May to September; egg-sacs contain about 30– 36 eggs; the time between copulation and egg-laying is approximately 29 days; the dome-shaped web has a diameter of about 55 cm and is more stable than the web of P. phalangioides   .

In Turkey, all specimens were collected in natural habitats, among and under rocks near the ground. They built large webs with a diameter of up to 40 cm, part of which protruded from under the rock. Even at light disturbance, the spiders fled toward the back and were very difficult to catch unless the rock was small enough to be moved.

TABLE 1. Credible but unchecked records of Hoplopholcus forskali shown in Fig. 443. Locality Latitude Longitude Reference

Locality Latitude Longitude Reference
Hungary: Kecskemét 46.892 19.690 Chyzer & Kulczyński 1891
Hungary: Körmend 47.014 16.595 Szinetár 1992
Hungary: Szobathely 47.230 16.620 Szinetár 1992
Hungary: Györ 47.680 17.650 Szinetár 1992
Hungary: Balatongyörök 46.760 17.350 Szinetár et al. 1999
Hungary: Szentbékkálla 46.887 17.564 Szinetár et al. 1999
Hungary: Tapolca 46.883 17.438 Szinetár et al. 1999
Hungary: Badacsonylábdihegy 46.790 17.475 Szinetár et al. 1999
Hungary: Révfülöp 46.829 17.627 Szinetár et al. 1999
Hungary: Szigliget 46.793 17.438 Szinetár et al. 1999
Hungary: Bezedek 45.864 18.585 Kovács & Szinetár 2016
Hungary: Dorog 47.725 18.729 Kovács & Szinetár 2016
Hungary: Komló 46.194 18.252 Kovács & Szinetár 2016
Hungary: Pálköve 46.825 17.594 Kovács & Szinetár 2016
Hungary: Pécs 46.073 18.230 Kovács & Szinetár 2016
Hungary: Salföld 46.834 17.551 Kovács & Szinetár 2016
Hungary: Sikondá 46.181 18.215 Kovács & Szinetár 2016
Hungary: Paloznak 46.983 17.942 Kovács & Szinetár 2016
Hungary: Csorna 47.610 17.245 Kovács & Szinetár 2016
Hungary: Tarcal 48.131 21.343 Kovács & Szinetár 2016
Slovakia: Tekovské Lužany (“Nagysalló”) 48.100 18.540 Dudich 1933
Slovakia: Zombor 48.136 19.448 Herman 1879 in Kovács & Szinetár 2016
Serbia: Jasenak1 44.620 20.252 Chyzer & Kulczyński 1891, Damin 1900
Serbia: Zemun 45.840 20.400 Damin 1900
Serbia: Potporanj 45.020 21.245 Chyzer & Kulczyński 1891
Serbia: Vranić 44.600 20.325 Ćurčić et al. 2004
Serbia: Monastery Caves, near Minićevo 43.700 22.352 Deltshev et al. 1997, Ćurčić et al. 1999
Serbia: Bela Palanka 43.220 22.310 Stojićević 1929
Serbia: Belgrade 44.792 20.439 Stojićević 1929
Serbia: Leskovac 43.000 21.940 Stojićević 1929
Serbia: Niš 43.323 21.900 Stojićević 1929
Serbia: Šabac 44.749 19.693 Stojićević 1929
Serbia: Senjak 44.792 20.440 Stojićević 1929
Serbia: Valjevo (“Walewo”) 44.275 19.885 Stojićević 1929
Serbia: Vranje 42.550 21.900 Stojićević 1929
Serbia: Stara Pazova 44.990 20.160 Chyzer & Kulczyński 1891
Croatia: Osijek (“Eszék”) 45.555 18.695 Chyzer & Kulczyński 1896, Damin 1900
Macedonia: Štip 41.740 22.200 Stojićević 1929
Macedonia: Prilep 41.345 21.553 Drensky 1929, Stojićević 1929
Macedonia: Skopje 41.995 21.430 Drensky 1929
Macedonia: Bitola 41.030 21.330 Drensky 1929
Macedonia: Veles 41.714 21.771 Drensky 1929, Stojićević 1929
Macedonia: Babuna 41.680 21.802 Stojićević 1929
Romania: Rekaş 45.800 21.510 Chyzer & Kulczyński 1891
Romania: Oradea (“Nagyvárad”) 47.060 21.920 Chyzer & Kulczyński 1891
Romania: Reșița 45.300 21.880 Chyzer & Kulczyński 1891
Romania: Drenkova 44.650 21.950 Chyzer & Kulczyński 1891
Romania: Buzad 45.940 21.547 Chyzer & Kulczyński 1891
Romania: Orşova 44.726 22.392 Herman 1879 in Kovács & Szinetár 2016
Romania: Sviniţa-Orşova 44.600 22.250 Fuhn & Niculescu-Burlacu 1970
Bulgaria: Vratsa distr., Cherepish vill., Studenata cave 43.101 23.615 Brignoli 1976
NHMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

ZFMK

Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig

MHNG

Museum d'Histoire Naturelle

MGAB

Muzeul de Istorie Naturala "Grigore Antipa"

ZMMU

Zoological Museum, Moscow Lomonosov State University

ZMB

Museum für Naturkunde Berlin (Zoological Collections)

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

AR

Pomor State University

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Hoplopholcus

Loc

Hoplopholcus forskali ( Thorell, 1871 )

Huber, Bernhard A. 2020
2020
Loc

Hoplopholcus forskalii — Nicolić & Polenec 1981: 20

Senglet, A. 2001: 62
Nicolic, F. & Polenec, A. 1981: 20
1981
Loc

Hoplopholcus forskoeli —

Brignoli, P. M. 1978: 490
Brignoli, P. M. 1976: 561
1976
Loc

Hoplopholcus

Loksa, I. 1969: 70
1969
Loc

Hoplopholcus forskali: Drensky 1939

Caporiacco, L. di 1949: 123
1949
Loc

Pholcus Forskåli

Kolosvary, G. 1939: 133
1939
Loc

Holocnemus

Kolosvary, G. 1938: 65
1938
Loc

Holocnemus forskali

Drensky, P. 1936: 55
1936
Loc

Pholcus (Hoplopholcus)

Drensky, P. 1929: 28
1929
Loc

Hoplopholcus forskali — Stojićević 1929: 16

Moscaliuc, L. A. 2012: 11
Kovacs, G. & Szinetar, C. & Janos, E. 2006: 13
Curcic, B. P. M. & Deltshev, C. C. & Blagoev, G. A. & Tomic, V. T. & Curcic, S. B. & Mitic, B. M. & Djorovic, L. D. & Ilie, V. N. 2004: 104
Deltshev, C. & Lazarov, S. & Petrov, B. P. 2003: 12
Kenyeres, Z. & Szinetar, C. 2003: 57
Szinetar, C. & Kenyeres, Z. & Kovacs, H. 1999: 162
Curcic, B. P. M. & Deltshev, C. & Dimitrijevic, R. N. & Karamata, O. S. & Tomic, V. T. & Curcic, S. B. & Curcic, N. B. 1999: 8
Drensky, P. 1939: 248
Stojicevic, D. 1929: 16
1929
Loc

Hoplopholcus Forskålii

Kulczynski, M. V. 1908: 63
1908
Loc

Holocnemus Forskalii—

Damin, N. 1900: 21
Chyzer, C. & Kulczynski, W. 1897: 310
Chyzer, C. & Kulczynski, W. 1896: 11
1896
Loc

Pholcus

Chyzer, C. & Kulczynski, W. 1891: 149
1891
Loc

Pholcus Forskålii Thorell, 1871: 151

Thorell, T. 1871: 151
1871